Table of contents for Environmental science : a study of interrelationships.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface xv
About the Authors xx
Guided Tour xxii
Critical Thinking xxv
Environmental Science in a Social Context 2
Can We Save Both Blue Crabs and Watermen? 3
Environmental Interrelationships 4
The Field of Environmental Science 5
The Interrelated Nature of Environmental Problems 5
Environmental Close-Up: Traditional Resource Use and Conflict Management in 
Keoladeo National Park, India? Science Versus Policy 6
An Ecosystem Approach 7
Regional Environmental Concerns 8
The Wilderness North 8
The Agricultural Middle 8
Environmental Close-Up: The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem 10
The Dry West 10
Global Perspective: Biodiversity, Human Welfare, and Economic Development 11
The Forested West 12
The Great Lakes and Industrial Northeast 12
The Diverse South 14
Global Perspective: Constraints and Risks of a Regional Approach--The Mekong 
River Delta Example 15
Issues/Analysis: The Fate of the Gray Wolf 17
Environmental Ethics 19
Views of Nature 20
Environmental Ethics 21
Environmental Attitudes 22
Environmental Close-Up: Naturalist Philosophers 23
Societal Environmental Ethics 24
Corporate Environmental Ethics 24
Environmental Close-Up: What?s in Your Backyard? 25
Global Perspective: Chico Mendes and Extractive Reserves 27
Environmental Justice 27
Individual Environmental Ethics 29
Do We Consume Too Much? 29
Global Perspective: International Trade in Endangered Species 30
Food 31
Nature 31
Oil 31
Water 31
The Unknown 31
Global Environmental Ethics 32
Global Perspective: The Gray Whales of Neah Bay 34
Issues/Analysis: Environmental Dissent--Is Ecoterrorism Justified? 36
Risk and Cost: Elements of Decision Making 38
Risk and Economics 39
Characterizing Risk 39
Risk Assessment 39
Risk Management 40
Environmental Close-Up: What?s in a Number? 41
True and Perceived Risks 42
Economics in an Environmental Context 43
Resources 43
Supply and Demand 43
Assigning Value to Natural Resources 45
Kinds of Environmental Costs 45
Cost-Benefit Analysis 47
Concerns About the Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis 48
Comparing Economic and Ecological Systems 48
Common Property Resource Problems--The Tragedy of the Commons 49
Using Economic Tools to Address Environmental Issues 50
Subsidies 50
Market-Based Instruments 51
Global Perspective: Pollution Prevention Pays! 52
Life Cycle Analysis and Extended Product Responsibility 53
Environmental Close-Up: Georgia Pacific Corporation: Recycled Urban Wood?A Case 
Study in Extended Product Responsibility 54
Economics and Sustainable Development 54
Economics, Environment, and Developing Nations 56
Issues/Analysis: The Economics and Risks of Mercury Contamination 58
Ecological Principles and Their Application 60
Imitating Mother Nature in a Florida Lake 61
Interrelated Scientific Principles: Matter, Energy, and Environment 62
Scientific Thinking 63
The Scientific Method 63
Observation 63
Questioning and Exploring 63
Constructing Hypotheses 64
Testing Hypotheses 64
The Development of Theories and Laws 65
Limitations of Science 65
Environmental Close-Up: Typical Household Chemicals 66
The Structure of Matter 67
Atomic Structure 67
The Molecular Nature of Matter 67
Acids, Bases, and pH 68
Inorganic and Organic Matter 68
Chemical Reactions 69
Chemical Reactions in Living Things 70
Energy Principles 70
Kinds of Energy 70
States of Matter 71
First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 71
Environmental Implications of Energy Flow 72
Issues/Analysis: Biofuels Technology 75
Interactions: Environments and Organisms 78
Ecological Concepts 79
Environment 79
Limiting Factors 80
Habitat and Niche 80
The Role of Natural Selection and Evolution 82
Genes, Populations, and Species 82
Environmental Close-Up: Habitat Conservation Plans: Tool or Token? 83
Natural Selection 83
Evolutionary Patterns 84
Kinds of Organism Interactions 86
Predation 86
Competition 86
Symbiotic Relationships 87
Some Relationships Are Difficult to Categorize 89
Human Interaction--A Different Look 89
Environmental Close-Up: Human Health and Exotic Species 90
Community and Ecosystem Interactions 90
Major Roles of Organisms in Ecosystems 91
Keystone Species 92
Energy Flow Through Ecosystems 92
Food Chains and Food Webs 93
Environmental Close-Up: Contaminants in the Food Chain of
Fish from the Great Lakes 95
Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems--Biogeochemical Cycles 95
Human Impact on Nutrient Cycles 99
Issues/Analysis: Phosphate Mining in Nauru 101
Kinds of Ecosystems and Communities 104
Succession 105
Primary Succession 105
Secondary Succession 108
Modern Concepts of Succession and Climax 108
Biomes: Major Types of Terrestrial Climax Communities 110
The Effect of Elevation on Climate and Vegetation 111
Desert 111
Grassland 112
Environmental Close-Up: Grassland Succession 114
Savanna 114
Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) 114
Tropical Dry Forest 116
Tropical Rainforest 116
Global Perspective: Tropical Rainforests--A Special Case? 117
Temperate Deciduous Forest 118
Environmental Close-Up: Protecting Old-Growth Temperate Rainforests of the 
Pacific Northwest 119
Taiga, Northern Coniferous Forest, or Boreal Forest 120
Tundra 120
Major Aquatic Ecosystems 121
Marine Ecosystems 121
Freshwater Ecosystems 126
Environmental Close-Up: Non-native Invasive Aquatic Plants 126
Issues/Analysis: Ecosystem Loss in North America 129
Population Principles 131
Population Characteristics 132
Natality and Mortality 132
Sex Ratio and Age Distribution 133
Population Density and Spatial Distribution 135
Summary of Factors That Influence Population Growth Rates 135
A Population Growth Curve 135
Carrying Capacity 136
Environmental Close-Up: Population Growth of Invading Species 138
Reproductive Strategies and Population Fluctuations 139
Human Population Growth 140
Available Raw Materials 141
Available Energy 142
Waste Disposal 142
Interaction with Other Organisms 142
Social Factors Influence Human Population 142
Ultimate Size Limitation 142
Global Perspective: Managing Elephant Populations? Harvest or Birth Control? 143
Issues/Analysis: The Lesser Snow Goose--A Problem Population 145
Human Population Issues 148
World Population Characteristics and Implications 149
Global Perspective: Thomas Malthus and His Essay on Population 150
Factors That Influence Population Growth 150
Biological Factors 151
Social Factors 152
Political Factors 153
Population Growth and Standard of Living 155
Population and Poverty--AVicious Cycle? 156
Hunger, Food Production, and Environmental Degradation 156
Global Perspective: The Grameen Bank and Microcredit 157
The Demographic Transition Concept 159
Global Perspective: The Urbanization of the World?s Population 160
The U.S. Population Picture 160
Likely Consequences of Continued Population Growth 162
Global Perspective: North America?Population Comparisons 163
Global Perspective: The Impact of AIDS on Populations 164
Issues/Analysis: Demography, Aging Populations, and Public Policy 165
Energy 168
Winds of Change 169
Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption 170
History of Energy Consumption 171
Biological Energy Sources 171
Increased Use of Wood 171
Fossil Fuels and the Industrial Revolution 172
The Role of the Automobile 173
Global Perspective: Reducing Automobile Use in Cities 174
Growth in the Use of Natural Gas 174
How Energy Is Used 174
Residential and Commercial Energy Use 175
Global Perspective: Biomass Fuels and the Developing World 176
Industrial Energy Use 176
Transportation Energy Use 176
Electrical Energy 177
The Economics and Politics of Energy Use 177
Fuel Economy and Government Policy 178
The Importance of OPEC 179
Energy Consumption Trends 181
Growth in Energy Use 181
Available Energy Sources 181
Political and Economic Factors 181
Environmental Close-Up: Alternative-Fuel Vehicles 183
Issues/Analysis: Are Hybrid Electric Vehicles the Answer? 184
Energy Sources 186
Energy Sources 187
Resources and Reserves 187
Global Perspective: Potential World Petroleum Resources 189
Fossil-Fuel Formation 189
Coal 189
Oil and Natural Gas 190
Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels 191
Coal Use 191
Oil Use 193
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and Oil 195
Natural Gas Use 196
Renewable Sources of Energy 197
Hydroelectric Power 197
Global Perspective: Energy Development in China 200
Tidal Power 201
Geothermal Power 203
Wind Power 204
Solar Energy 206
Biomass Conversion 208
Fuelwood 211
Solid Waste 212
Energy Conservation 213
The Hydrogen Economy 214
Global Perspective: The Three Gorges Dam 217
Issues/Analysis: Public Perceptions of Energy 218
Nuclear Energy: Benefits and Risks 220
The Nature of Nuclear Energy 221
The History of Nuclear Energy Development 222
Nuclear Fission Reactors 222
Plans for New Reactors Worldwide 224
Plant Life Extension 225
Investigating Nuclear Alternatives 226
Breeder Reactors 226
Nuclear Fusion 227
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle 227
Nuclear Material and Weapons Production 228
Nuclear Power Concerns 229
Reactor Safety: The Effects of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl 230
Global Perspective: The Nuclear Legacy of the Soviet Union 231
Exposure to Radiation 233
Thermal Pollution 233
Decommissioning Costs 234
Radioactive Waste Disposal 236
The Politics of Nuclear Power 238
Developments in Asia 239
Environmental Close-Up: The Hanford Facility: A Storehouse of Nuclear Remains 
Issues/Analysis: Predicting the Future of Nuclear Power 242
Resource Management 244
Natural Community Conservation Planning 245
Biodiversity Issues 246
Biodiversity Loss and Extinction 247
Causes of Extinction 247
Extinction as a Result of Human Activity 247
Describing Biodiversity 248
Genetic Diversity 248
Species Diversity 249
Ecosystem Diversity 249
The Value of Biodiversity 250
Biological and Ecosystem Services Values 250
Global Perspective: Biodiversity Hot Spots 251
Direct Economic Values 254
Ethical Values 255
Threats to Biodiversity 255
Habitat Loss 255
Overexploitation 261
Introduction of Exotic Species 264
Control of Pest Organisms 266
Environmental Close-Up: The Northern Spotted Owl 268
What Is Being Done to Preserve Biodiversity? 268
Global Perspective: The History of the Bison 269
Legal Protection 269
Sustainable Management of Wildlife Populations 272
Environmental Close-Up: The California Condor 275
Sustainable Management of Fish Populations 275
Issues/Analysis: The Problem of Image 277
Land-Use Planning 280
The Need for Planning 281
Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America 281
The Importance of Waterways 281
The Rural-to-Urban Shift 281
Global Perspective: Urbanization in the Developing World 283
Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs 283
Factors That Contribute to Sprawl 285
Lifestyle Factors 286
Economic Factors 286
Planning and Policy Factors 286
Problems Associated with Unplanned Urban Growth 287
Transportation Problems 287
Air Pollution 287
Low Energy Efficiency 287
Loss of Sense of Community 287
Death of the Central City 288
Higher Infrastructure Costs 288
Loss of Open Space 288
Loss of Farmland 288
Water Pollution Problems 288
Floodplain Problems 288
Wetlands Misuse 289
Other Land-Use Considerations 290
Land-Use Planning Principles 290
Environmental Close-Up: Wetlands Loss in Louisiana 291
Environmental Close-Up: Farmland Preservation in Pennsylvania 292
Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans 292
Establishing State or Regional Planning Agencies 293
Purchasing Land or Use Rights 294
Regulating Use 294
Special Urban Planning Issues 295
Urban Transportation Planning 295
Environmental Close-Up: Land-Use Planning and Aesthetic Pollution 296
Urban Recreation Planning 297
Redevelopment of Inner-City Areas 297
Smart Growth 299
Federal Government Land-Use Issues 299
Issue/Analysis: Smart Growth Winners 302
Soil and Its Uses 305
Geologic Processes 306
Soil and Land 308
Soil Formation 309
Soil Properties 310
Soil Profile 312
Soil Erosion 315
Soil Conservation Practices 316
Environmental Close-Up: Desertification and Global Security 318
Environmental Close-Up: The Conservation Security Program 319
Contour Farming 319
Strip Farming 319
Terracing 320
Waterways 320
Windbreaks 320
Conventional Versus Conservation Tillage 320
Protecting Soil on Nonfarm Land 323
Environmental Close-Up: Land Capability Classes 324
Global Perspective: Worldwide Soil Degradation 326
Issues/Analysis: Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa 327
Agricultural Methods and Pest Management 329
The Development of Agriculture 330
Shifting Agriculture 330
Labor-Intensive Agriculture 330
Mechanized Agriculture 331
Fossil Fuel Versus Muscle Power 332
The Impact of Fertilizer 332
Agricultural Chemical Use 333
Environmental Close-Up: DDT--A Historical Perspective 334
Insecticides 334
Herbicides 335
Fungicides and Rodenticides 336
Environmental Close-Up: A New Generation of Insecticides 337
Other Agricultural Chemicals 337
Problems with Pesticide Use 337
Persistence 337
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification 338
Pesticide Resistance 339
Global Perspective: Economic Development and Food Production in China 340
Global Perspective: Contaminated Soils in the Former Soviet Union 341
Effects on Nontarget Organisms 341
Human Health Concerns 342
Why Are Pesticides So Widely Used? 342
Environmental Close-Up: Industrial Production of Livestock 343
Alternatives to Conventional Agriculture 343
Environmental Close-Up: Food Additives 344
Techniques for Protecting Soil and Water Resources 344
Integrated Pest Management 345
Issues/Analysis: What Are Organic Foods? 349
Water Management 352
The Water Issue 353
The Hydrologic Cycle 354
Human Influences on the Hydrologic Cycle 355
Kinds of Water Use 356
Domestic Use of Water 357
Agricultural Use of Water 358
Industrial Use of Water 359
In-Stream Use of Water 360
Environmental Close-Up: The California Water Plan 361
Global Perspective: Comparing Water Use and Pollution in Industrialized and 
Developing Countries 363
Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution 364
Municipal Water Pollution 366
Global Perspective: The Clean-Up of the Holy Ganges 367
Agricultural Water Pollution 368
Industrial Water Pollution 368
Thermal Pollution 369
Marine Oil Pollution 369
Groundwater Pollution 369
Water-Use Planning Issues 371
Water Diversion 372
Wastewater Treatment 373
Environmental Close-Up: Restoring the Everglades 375
Salinization 376
Groundwater Mining 376
Preserving Scenic Water Areas and Wildlife Habitats 377
Global Perspective: Death of a Sea 379
Global Perspective: The Dead Zone of the Gulf of Mexico 381
Issues?Analysis: Is There Lead in Our Drinking Water? 383
Pollution and Policy 386
Lake Champlain: It Isn?t Easy Stayin Clean 387
Air Quality Issues 388
The Atmosphere 389
Pollution of the Atmosphere 390
Categories of Air Pollutants 390
Carbon Monoxide 391
Particulate Matter 392
Global Perspective: Air Pollution in Mexico City 392
Sulfur Dioxide 393
Nitrogen Dioxide 393
Lead 393
Volatile Organic Compounds 394
Ground-Level Ozone and Photochemical Smog 394
Hazardous Air Pollutants 397
Control of Air Pollution 397
Motor Vehicle Emissions 397
Particulate Matter Emissions 398
Power Plant Emissions 398
Environmental Close-Up: Noise Pollution 399
The Clean Air Act 400
Acid Deposition 400
Contents xiii
Ozone Depletion 403
Global Warming and Climate Change 403
Environmental Close-Up: Secondhand Smoke 404
Causes of Global Warming and Climate Change 405
Potential Consequences of Global Warming and Climate Change 407
Addressing Climate Change 410
Energy Efficiency 410
The Role of Biomass 410
Political and Economic Forces 410
Indoor Air Pollution 411
Global Perspective: The Kyoto Protocol on Greenhouse Gases 412
Environmental Close-Up: Radon 414
Issues/Analysis: Pollution, Policy, and Personal Choice 417
Solid Waste Management and Disposal 419
Kinds of Solid Waste 420
Municipal Solid Waste 420
Environmental Close-Up: Mountain Top Removal 422
Methods of Waste Disposal 422
Landfills 423
Incineration 424
Producing Mulch and Compost 426
Environmental Close-Up: Resins Used in Consumer Packaging 427
Source Reduction 428
Environmental Close-Up: What You Can Do to Reduce Waste and Save Money 429
Recycling 429
Environmental Close-Up: Recycling Is Big Business 431
Issues/Analysis: Paper or Plastic? 433
Regulating Hazardous Materials 435
Hazardous and Toxic Materials in Our Environment 436
Hazardous and Toxic Substances--Some Definitions 436
Defining Hazardous Waste 437
Issues Involved in Setting Regulations 438
Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Materials 438
Environmental Close-Up: Determining Toxicity 439
Setting Exposure Limits 439
Acute and Chronic Toxicity 439
Synergism 440
Persistent and Nonpersistent Pollutants 440
Environmental Problems Caused by Hazardous Wastes 440
Global Perspective: Lead and Mercury Poisoning 441
Health Risks Associated with Hazardous Wastes 442
Hazardous-Waste Dumps--A Legacy of Abuse 443
Environmental Close-Up: Computers-- A Hazardous Waste 444
Toxic Chemical Releases 444
Hazardous-Waste Management Choices 444
Reducing the Amount of Waste at the Source 446
Recycling Wastes 446
Treating Wastes 446
Disposal Methods 446
International Trade in Hazardous Wastes 447
Global Perspective: Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Materials in China 448
Hazardous-Waste Management Program Evolution 449
Issues/Analysis: Household Hazardous Waste 450
Environmental Policy and Decision Making 452
New Challenges for a New Century 453
Governance and Government 454
Learning from the Past 455
Thinking About the Future 455
Defining the Future 456
The Development of Environmental Policy in the United States 457
The Changing Nature of Environmental Policy 460
Environmental Policy and Regulation 460
The Greening of Geopolitics 463
Environmental Close-Up: Changing the Nature of Environmental Regulation--The 
Safe Drinking Water Act 464
Terrorism and the Environment 465
International Environmental Policy 468
Global Perspective: ISO Standards for Environmental Management Systems 469
Global Perspective: Overview of an International Organization--The International 
Whaling Commission 470
Earth Summit on Environment and Development 472
Environmental Policy and the European Union 472
New International Instruments 473
It All Comes Back to You 474
Issues/Analysis: Gasoline, Taxes, and the Environment 475
glossary G-1
credits C-1
index I-1

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Environmental sciences -- Textbooks.