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Preface xv About the Authors xx Guided Tour xxii Critical Thinking xxv PART I Environmental Science in a Social Context 2 Can We Save Both Blue Crabs and Watermen? 3 CHAPTER 1 Environmental Interrelationships 4 The Field of Environmental Science 5 The Interrelated Nature of Environmental Problems 5 Environmental Close-Up: Traditional Resource Use and Conflict Management in Keoladeo National Park, India? Science Versus Policy 6 An Ecosystem Approach 7 Regional Environmental Concerns 8 The Wilderness North 8 The Agricultural Middle 8 Environmental Close-Up: The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem 10 The Dry West 10 Global Perspective: Biodiversity, Human Welfare, and Economic Development 11 The Forested West 12 The Great Lakes and Industrial Northeast 12 The Diverse South 14 Global Perspective: Constraints and Risks of a Regional Approach--The Mekong River Delta Example 15 Issues/Analysis: The Fate of the Gray Wolf 17 CHAPTER 2 Environmental Ethics 19 Views of Nature 20 Environmental Ethics 21 Environmental Attitudes 22 Environmental Close-Up: Naturalist Philosophers 23 Societal Environmental Ethics 24 Corporate Environmental Ethics 24 Environmental Close-Up: What?s in Your Backyard? 25 Global Perspective: Chico Mendes and Extractive Reserves 27 Environmental Justice 27 Individual Environmental Ethics 29 Do We Consume Too Much? 29 Global Perspective: International Trade in Endangered Species 30 Food 31 Nature 31 Oil 31 Water 31 The Unknown 31 Global Environmental Ethics 32 Global Perspective: The Gray Whales of Neah Bay 34 Issues/Analysis: Environmental Dissent--Is Ecoterrorism Justified? 36 CHAPTER 3 Risk and Cost: Elements of Decision Making 38 Risk and Economics 39 Characterizing Risk 39 Risk Assessment 39 Risk Management 40 Environmental Close-Up: What?s in a Number? 41 True and Perceived Risks 42 Economics in an Environmental Context 43 Resources 43 Supply and Demand 43 Assigning Value to Natural Resources 45 Kinds of Environmental Costs 45 Cost-Benefit Analysis 47 Concerns About the Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis 48 Comparing Economic and Ecological Systems 48 Common Property Resource Problems--The Tragedy of the Commons 49 Using Economic Tools to Address Environmental Issues 50 Subsidies 50 Market-Based Instruments 51 Global Perspective: Pollution Prevention Pays! 52 Life Cycle Analysis and Extended Product Responsibility 53 Environmental Close-Up: Georgia Pacific Corporation: Recycled Urban Wood?A Case Study in Extended Product Responsibility 54 Economics and Sustainable Development 54 Economics, Environment, and Developing Nations 56 Issues/Analysis: The Economics and Risks of Mercury Contamination 58 PART II Ecological Principles and Their Application 60 Imitating Mother Nature in a Florida Lake 61 CHAPTER 4 Interrelated Scientific Principles: Matter, Energy, and Environment 62 Scientific Thinking 63 The Scientific Method 63 Observation 63 Questioning and Exploring 63 Constructing Hypotheses 64 Testing Hypotheses 64 The Development of Theories and Laws 65 Limitations of Science 65 Environmental Close-Up: Typical Household Chemicals 66 The Structure of Matter 67 Atomic Structure 67 The Molecular Nature of Matter 67 Acids, Bases, and pH 68 Inorganic and Organic Matter 68 Chemical Reactions 69 Chemical Reactions in Living Things 70 Energy Principles 70 Kinds of Energy 70 States of Matter 71 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 71 Environmental Implications of Energy Flow 72 Issues/Analysis: Biofuels Technology 75 CHAPTER 5 Interactions: Environments and Organisms 78 Ecological Concepts 79 Environment 79 Limiting Factors 80 Habitat and Niche 80 The Role of Natural Selection and Evolution 82 Genes, Populations, and Species 82 Environmental Close-Up: Habitat Conservation Plans: Tool or Token? 83 Natural Selection 83 Evolutionary Patterns 84 Kinds of Organism Interactions 86 Predation 86 Competition 86 Symbiotic Relationships 87 Some Relationships Are Difficult to Categorize 89 Human Interaction--A Different Look 89 Environmental Close-Up: Human Health and Exotic Species 90 Community and Ecosystem Interactions 90 Major Roles of Organisms in Ecosystems 91 Keystone Species 92 Energy Flow Through Ecosystems 92 Food Chains and Food Webs 93 Environmental Close-Up: Contaminants in the Food Chain of Fish from the Great Lakes 95 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems--Biogeochemical Cycles 95 Human Impact on Nutrient Cycles 99 Issues/Analysis: Phosphate Mining in Nauru 101 CHAPTER 6 Kinds of Ecosystems and Communities 104 Succession 105 Primary Succession 105 Secondary Succession 108 Modern Concepts of Succession and Climax 108 Biomes: Major Types of Terrestrial Climax Communities 110 The Effect of Elevation on Climate and Vegetation 111 Desert 111 Grassland 112 Environmental Close-Up: Grassland Succession 114 Savanna 114 Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) 114 Tropical Dry Forest 116 Tropical Rainforest 116 Global Perspective: Tropical Rainforests--A Special Case? 117 Temperate Deciduous Forest 118 Environmental Close-Up: Protecting Old-Growth Temperate Rainforests of the Pacific Northwest 119 Taiga, Northern Coniferous Forest, or Boreal Forest 120 Tundra 120 Major Aquatic Ecosystems 121 Marine Ecosystems 121 Freshwater Ecosystems 126 Environmental Close-Up: Non-native Invasive Aquatic Plants 126 Issues/Analysis: Ecosystem Loss in North America 129 CHAPTER 7 Population Principles 131 Population Characteristics 132 Natality and Mortality 132 Sex Ratio and Age Distribution 133 Population Density and Spatial Distribution 135 Summary of Factors That Influence Population Growth Rates 135 A Population Growth Curve 135 Carrying Capacity 136 Environmental Close-Up: Population Growth of Invading Species 138 Reproductive Strategies and Population Fluctuations 139 Human Population Growth 140 Available Raw Materials 141 Available Energy 142 Waste Disposal 142 Interaction with Other Organisms 142 Social Factors Influence Human Population 142 Ultimate Size Limitation 142 Global Perspective: Managing Elephant Populations? Harvest or Birth Control? 143 Issues/Analysis: The Lesser Snow Goose--A Problem Population 145 CHAPTER 8 Human Population Issues 148 World Population Characteristics and Implications 149 Global Perspective: Thomas Malthus and His Essay on Population 150 Factors That Influence Population Growth 150 Biological Factors 151 Social Factors 152 Political Factors 153 Population Growth and Standard of Living 155 Population and Poverty--AVicious Cycle? 156 Hunger, Food Production, and Environmental Degradation 156 Global Perspective: The Grameen Bank and Microcredit 157 The Demographic Transition Concept 159 Global Perspective: The Urbanization of the World?s Population 160 The U.S. Population Picture 160 Likely Consequences of Continued Population Growth 162 Global Perspective: North America?Population Comparisons 163 Global Perspective: The Impact of AIDS on Populations 164 Issues/Analysis: Demography, Aging Populations, and Public Policy 165 PART III Energy 168 Winds of Change 169 CHAPTER 9 Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption 170 History of Energy Consumption 171 Biological Energy Sources 171 Increased Use of Wood 171 Fossil Fuels and the Industrial Revolution 172 The Role of the Automobile 173 Global Perspective: Reducing Automobile Use in Cities 174 Growth in the Use of Natural Gas 174 How Energy Is Used 174 Residential and Commercial Energy Use 175 Global Perspective: Biomass Fuels and the Developing World 176 Industrial Energy Use 176 Transportation Energy Use 176 Electrical Energy 177 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use 177 Fuel Economy and Government Policy 178 The Importance of OPEC 179 Energy Consumption Trends 181 Growth in Energy Use 181 Available Energy Sources 181 Political and Economic Factors 181 Environmental Close-Up: Alternative-Fuel Vehicles 183 Issues/Analysis: Are Hybrid Electric Vehicles the Answer? 184 CHAPTER 10 Energy Sources 186 Energy Sources 187 Resources and Reserves 187 Global Perspective: Potential World Petroleum Resources 189 Fossil-Fuel Formation 189 Coal 189 Oil and Natural Gas 190 Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels 191 Coal Use 191 Oil Use 193 The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and Oil 195 Natural Gas Use 196 Renewable Sources of Energy 197 Hydroelectric Power 197 Global Perspective: Energy Development in China 200 Tidal Power 201 Geothermal Power 203 Wind Power 204 Solar Energy 206 Biomass Conversion 208 Fuelwood 211 Solid Waste 212 Energy Conservation 213 The Hydrogen Economy 214 Global Perspective: The Three Gorges Dam 217 Issues/Analysis: Public Perceptions of Energy 218 CHAPTER 11 Nuclear Energy: Benefits and Risks 220 The Nature of Nuclear Energy 221 The History of Nuclear Energy Development 222 Nuclear Fission Reactors 222 Plans for New Reactors Worldwide 224 Plant Life Extension 225 Investigating Nuclear Alternatives 226 Breeder Reactors 226 Nuclear Fusion 227 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle 227 Nuclear Material and Weapons Production 228 Nuclear Power Concerns 229 Reactor Safety: The Effects of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl 230 Global Perspective: The Nuclear Legacy of the Soviet Union 231 Exposure to Radiation 233 Thermal Pollution 233 Decommissioning Costs 234 Radioactive Waste Disposal 236 The Politics of Nuclear Power 238 Developments in Asia 239 Environmental Close-Up: The Hanford Facility: A Storehouse of Nuclear Remains 240 Issues/Analysis: Predicting the Future of Nuclear Power 242 PART IV Resource Management 244 Natural Community Conservation Planning 245 CHAPTER 12 Biodiversity Issues 246 Biodiversity Loss and Extinction 247 Causes of Extinction 247 Extinction as a Result of Human Activity 247 Describing Biodiversity 248 Genetic Diversity 248 Species Diversity 249 Ecosystem Diversity 249 The Value of Biodiversity 250 Biological and Ecosystem Services Values 250 Global Perspective: Biodiversity Hot Spots 251 Direct Economic Values 254 Ethical Values 255 Threats to Biodiversity 255 Habitat Loss 255 Overexploitation 261 Introduction of Exotic Species 264 Control of Pest Organisms 266 Environmental Close-Up: The Northern Spotted Owl 268 What Is Being Done to Preserve Biodiversity? 268 Global Perspective: The History of the Bison 269 Legal Protection 269 Sustainable Management of Wildlife Populations 272 Environmental Close-Up: The California Condor 275 Sustainable Management of Fish Populations 275 Issues/Analysis: The Problem of Image 277 CHAPTER 13 Land-Use Planning 280 The Need for Planning 281 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America 281 The Importance of Waterways 281 The Rural-to-Urban Shift 281 Global Perspective: Urbanization in the Developing World 283 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs 283 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl 285 Lifestyle Factors 286 Economic Factors 286 Planning and Policy Factors 286 Problems Associated with Unplanned Urban Growth 287 Transportation Problems 287 Air Pollution 287 Low Energy Efficiency 287 Loss of Sense of Community 287 Death of the Central City 288 Higher Infrastructure Costs 288 Loss of Open Space 288 Loss of Farmland 288 Water Pollution Problems 288 Floodplain Problems 288 Wetlands Misuse 289 Other Land-Use Considerations 290 Land-Use Planning Principles 290 Environmental Close-Up: Wetlands Loss in Louisiana 291 Environmental Close-Up: Farmland Preservation in Pennsylvania 292 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans 292 Establishing State or Regional Planning Agencies 293 Purchasing Land or Use Rights 294 Regulating Use 294 Special Urban Planning Issues 295 Urban Transportation Planning 295 Environmental Close-Up: Land-Use Planning and Aesthetic Pollution 296 Urban Recreation Planning 297 Redevelopment of Inner-City Areas 297 Smart Growth 299 Federal Government Land-Use Issues 299 Issue/Analysis: Smart Growth Winners 302 CHAPTER 14 Soil and Its Uses 305 Geologic Processes 306 Soil and Land 308 Soil Formation 309 Soil Properties 310 Soil Profile 312 Soil Erosion 315 Soil Conservation Practices 316 Environmental Close-Up: Desertification and Global Security 318 Environmental Close-Up: The Conservation Security Program 319 Contour Farming 319 Strip Farming 319 Terracing 320 Waterways 320 Windbreaks 320 Conventional Versus Conservation Tillage 320 Protecting Soil on Nonfarm Land 323 Environmental Close-Up: Land Capability Classes 324 Global Perspective: Worldwide Soil Degradation 326 Issues/Analysis: Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa 327 CHAPTER 15 Agricultural Methods and Pest Management 329 The Development of Agriculture 330 Shifting Agriculture 330 Labor-Intensive Agriculture 330 Mechanized Agriculture 331 Fossil Fuel Versus Muscle Power 332 The Impact of Fertilizer 332 Agricultural Chemical Use 333 Environmental Close-Up: DDT--A Historical Perspective 334 Insecticides 334 Herbicides 335 Fungicides and Rodenticides 336 Environmental Close-Up: A New Generation of Insecticides 337 Other Agricultural Chemicals 337 Problems with Pesticide Use 337 Persistence 337 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification 338 Pesticide Resistance 339 Global Perspective: Economic Development and Food Production in China 340 Global Perspective: Contaminated Soils in the Former Soviet Union 341 Effects on Nontarget Organisms 341 Human Health Concerns 342 Why Are Pesticides So Widely Used? 342 Environmental Close-Up: Industrial Production of Livestock 343 Alternatives to Conventional Agriculture 343 Environmental Close-Up: Food Additives 344 Techniques for Protecting Soil and Water Resources 344 Integrated Pest Management 345 Issues/Analysis: What Are Organic Foods? 349 CHAPTER 16 Water Management 352 The Water Issue 353 The Hydrologic Cycle 354 Human Influences on the Hydrologic Cycle 355 Kinds of Water Use 356 Domestic Use of Water 357 Agricultural Use of Water 358 Industrial Use of Water 359 In-Stream Use of Water 360 Environmental Close-Up: The California Water Plan 361 Global Perspective: Comparing Water Use and Pollution in Industrialized and Developing Countries 363 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution 364 Municipal Water Pollution 366 Global Perspective: The Clean-Up of the Holy Ganges 367 Agricultural Water Pollution 368 Industrial Water Pollution 368 Thermal Pollution 369 Marine Oil Pollution 369 Groundwater Pollution 369 Water-Use Planning Issues 371 Water Diversion 372 Wastewater Treatment 373 Environmental Close-Up: Restoring the Everglades 375 Salinization 376 Groundwater Mining 376 Preserving Scenic Water Areas and Wildlife Habitats 377 Global Perspective: Death of a Sea 379 Global Perspective: The Dead Zone of the Gulf of Mexico 381 Issues?Analysis: Is There Lead in Our Drinking Water? 383 PART V Pollution and Policy 386 Lake Champlain: It Isn?t Easy Stayin Clean 387 CHAPTER 17 Air Quality Issues 388 The Atmosphere 389 Pollution of the Atmosphere 390 Categories of Air Pollutants 390 Carbon Monoxide 391 Particulate Matter 392 Global Perspective: Air Pollution in Mexico City 392 Sulfur Dioxide 393 Nitrogen Dioxide 393 Lead 393 Volatile Organic Compounds 394 Ground-Level Ozone and Photochemical Smog 394 Hazardous Air Pollutants 397 Control of Air Pollution 397 Motor Vehicle Emissions 397 Particulate Matter Emissions 398 Power Plant Emissions 398 Environmental Close-Up: Noise Pollution 399 The Clean Air Act 400 Acid Deposition 400 Contents xiii Ozone Depletion 403 Global Warming and Climate Change 403 Environmental Close-Up: Secondhand Smoke 404 Causes of Global Warming and Climate Change 405 Potential Consequences of Global Warming and Climate Change 407 Addressing Climate Change 410 Energy Efficiency 410 The Role of Biomass 410 Political and Economic Forces 410 Indoor Air Pollution 411 Global Perspective: The Kyoto Protocol on Greenhouse Gases 412 Environmental Close-Up: Radon 414 Issues/Analysis: Pollution, Policy, and Personal Choice 417 CHAPTER 18 Solid Waste Management and Disposal 419 Kinds of Solid Waste 420 Municipal Solid Waste 420 Environmental Close-Up: Mountain Top Removal 422 Methods of Waste Disposal 422 Landfills 423 Incineration 424 Producing Mulch and Compost 426 Environmental Close-Up: Resins Used in Consumer Packaging 427 Source Reduction 428 Environmental Close-Up: What You Can Do to Reduce Waste and Save Money 429 Recycling 429 Environmental Close-Up: Recycling Is Big Business 431 Issues/Analysis: Paper or Plastic? 433 CHAPTER 19 Regulating Hazardous Materials 435 Hazardous and Toxic Materials in Our Environment 436 Hazardous and Toxic Substances--Some Definitions 436 Defining Hazardous Waste 437 Issues Involved in Setting Regulations 438 Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Materials 438 Environmental Close-Up: Determining Toxicity 439 Setting Exposure Limits 439 Acute and Chronic Toxicity 439 Synergism 440 Persistent and Nonpersistent Pollutants 440 Environmental Problems Caused by Hazardous Wastes 440 Global Perspective: Lead and Mercury Poisoning 441 Health Risks Associated with Hazardous Wastes 442 Hazardous-Waste Dumps--A Legacy of Abuse 443 Environmental Close-Up: Computers-- A Hazardous Waste 444 Toxic Chemical Releases 444 Hazardous-Waste Management Choices 444 Reducing the Amount of Waste at the Source 446 Recycling Wastes 446 Treating Wastes 446 Disposal Methods 446 International Trade in Hazardous Wastes 447 Global Perspective: Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Materials in China 448 Hazardous-Waste Management Program Evolution 449 Issues/Analysis: Household Hazardous Waste 450 CHAPTER 20 Environmental Policy and Decision Making 452 New Challenges for a New Century 453 Governance and Government 454 Learning from the Past 455 Thinking About the Future 455 Defining the Future 456 The Development of Environmental Policy in the United States 457 The Changing Nature of Environmental Policy 460 Environmental Policy and Regulation 460 The Greening of Geopolitics 463 Environmental Close-Up: Changing the Nature of Environmental Regulation--The Safe Drinking Water Act 464 Terrorism and the Environment 465 International Environmental Policy 468 Global Perspective: ISO Standards for Environmental Management Systems 469 Global Perspective: Overview of an International Organization--The International Whaling Commission 470 Earth Summit on Environment and Development 472 Environmental Policy and the European Union 472 New International Instruments 473 It All Comes Back to You 474 Issues/Analysis: Gasoline, Taxes, and the Environment 475 glossary G-1 credits C-1 index I-1
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Environmental sciences -- Textbooks.