Table of contents for Guarding the gates : immigration and national security / Michael C. LeMay.

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CONTENTS
List of Tables and Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction
1. AN OVERVIEW OF U.S. IMMIGRATION POLICY				 1 .
The Importance of Immigration Policymaking in National Security	 1.
The Waves of Immigration							 4.
The Five Cycles of Immigration Policymaking				 6.
	The Open-Door Era							 8.
	The Door-Ajar Era						 13.
	The Pet-Door Era							16.
	The Dutch-Door Era							21
	The Storm-Door Era							25
Conclusion-Current Issues and Trends						27
Notes											29
2. THE OPEN-DOOR CYCLE, 1820-1880					30
Introduction-National Security Need for Increased Population 30
Immigration and Naturalization Policy					37
The Old Immigration Wave							42
German Immigration						42
	Irish Immigration							47
	Scandinavians							54
	Other Immigrant Groups						58
	The Chinese								61
Nativist Political Reaction							67
The Civil and Post-Civil War Years					71
The Recessions of the 1870s and New Calls for Restrictionism		75
National Security Needs Trump Restrictionists				76
Notes										79
3. THE DOOR-AJAR CYCLE, 1880-1920						80
Introduction: National Security Concerns and Expanding		
	Industrialization							80
The Change in Immigrant Flows						84
The New Immigration Patterns						88
	Italian Immigrants							89
	Greek Immigrants							99
	Slavic Immigrants						 104
	Hungarian Immigrants					 106
	Polish Immigrants						 107
	Russian Immigrants						 110
	Eastern European Jews					 114
The First Restrictionist Laws						118
The Depression of the 1890s and Subsequent Laws		 124
	Japanese Immigrants					 128
Further Attempts at Restrictionism				 133
The Pre-World War I Years-The Frontier Closes			137
The Post-World War I Years-Beginnings of Isolationism		139
Notes									 144
4. THE PET-DOOR CYCLE, 1920-1960						145
Introduction: National Security and Isolationism			 145
The Immigration Act of 1917-Precursor 				146
The Quota Act of 1921						 148
The Immigration Act of 1924						159
The National Origins Act of 1929						171
The Great Depression Decade					 180
The World War II Years and the Displaced Persons Act of 1948	188
The Cold War and the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 194	The Refugee Relief Act of 1953 and the Post-Korean War Years 201
The Resettlement of Refugees Program of 1960			 203
National Security of a World Superpower					203
Notes									 204
5. THE DUTCH-DOOR CYCLE, 1960-1990					205
Introduction-National Security Via International Relations 205
Immigration Policy and the Maintenance of Superpower Coalitions 205
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965			 208
The 1976 Amendment to the Immigration and Nationality Act	 216
The 1980 Refugee Act						 224
The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy	 230
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986		 241
Conclusion								 244
Notes									 244
6. THE STORM-DOOR CYCLE, 1990-to ?
Introduction-The Making of Fortress America: Immigration Policymaking
In an Era of International Terrorism				 245
The Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)					 249
California's Proposition 187						 254
The Immigration Acts of 1996						 256
The Attacks of 9/11/01-Homeland Security as National Security	 262
The USA Patriot Act of 2001						 264
Creating the Department of Homeland Security and Dissolving the INS 269
Restructuring the INS							 274
Groupthink Aspects of the Decision to Create the DHS			 281
Problems and Consequences of Building a Behemoth Department	 286
The National Container Security Act					 294
Immigration Provisions of the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 299
Conclusion									 304
Notes										 311
7. CONCLUSION									312
Introduction-The Continued Interplay of the National Security Concerns 
And Immigration Policymaking						312
Current Trends and Issues								314
Sovereignty-Unilateral							315
Sovereignty-Collective							321
International Terrorism							325
Bioterrorism									334
Illegal Immigration								338
Vigilante Groups and State Declarations of Emergency			345
Civil Liberties and National Safety						348
Current Congressional Proposals						354
Closing Thoughts									359
GLOSSARY										362
APPENDICES									369
BIBLIOGRAPHY									388
INDEX										456
ABOUT THE AUTHOR								-----

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

United States -- Emigration and immigration -- History.
United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.
National security -- United States.