Table of contents for Thermodynamics : an engineering approach / Yunus A. Cengel.

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CONTENTS
Preface xvii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 
Application Areas of Thermodynamics 3
1-2	Importance of Dimensions and Units 3
Some SI and English Units 6
Dimensional Homogeneity 8
Unity Conversion Ratios 9
1?3	Systems and Control Volumes 10
1?4	Properties of a System 12
Continuum 12
1?5	Density and Specific Gravity 13
1?6	State and Equilibrium 14
The State Postulate 14
1-7	Processes and Cycles 15
The Steady-Flow Process 16
1-8	Temperature and the Zeroth Law 
of Thermodynamics 17
Temperature Scales 17
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 20
1-9	Pressure 21
Variation of Pressure with Depth 23
1-10	The Manometer 26
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 29
1-11	The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure 29
1-12	Problem-Solving Technique 33
Step 1: Problem Statement 33
Step 2: Schematic 33
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations 34
Step 4: Physical Laws 34
Step 5: Properties 34
Step 6: Calculations 34
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion 34
Engineering Software Packages 35
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 36
A Remark on Significant Digits 38
Summary 39
References and Suggested Readings 39
Problems 40
Chapter 2
ENERGY, ENERGY TRANSFER, AND GENERAL 
ENERGY ANALYSIS | 51
2?1	Introduction 52
2?2	Forms of Energy 53
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 55
More on Nuclear Energy 56
Mechanical Energy 58
2?3	Energy Transfer by Heat 60
Historical Background on Heat 61
2?4	Energy Transfer by Work 62
Electrical Work 65
2?5	Mechanical Forms of Work 66
Shaft Work 66
Spring Work 67
Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars 67
Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film 68
Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body 68
Nonmechanical Forms of Work 69
2?6	The First Law of Thermodynamics 70
Energy Balance 71
Energy Change of a System, Esystem 72
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 73
2?7	Energy Conversion Efficiencies 78
Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices 82
2?8	Energy and Environment 86
Ozone and Smog 87
Acid Rain 88
The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change 89
Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 92
Summary 96
References and Suggested Readings 97
Problems 98
Chapter 3
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES | 111
3?1	Pure Substance 112
3?2	Phases of a Pure Substance 112
3?3	Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances 113
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 114
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 114
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 115
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 117
3?4	Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes 118
1 The T-v Diagram 118
2 The P-v Diagram 120
Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 121
3 The P-T Diagram 124
The P-v-T Surface 125
3?5	Property Tables 126
Enthalpy A Combination Property 126
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 127
1b Saturated Liquid/Vapor Mixture 129
2 Superheated Vapor 132
3 Compressed Liquid 133
Reference State and Reference Values 135
3?6	The Ideal-Gas Equation of State 137
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 139
3?7	Compressibility Factor A Measure 
of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 139
3?8	Other Equations of State 144
Van der Waals Equation of State 144
Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State 145
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State 145
Virial Equation of State 145
Topic of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium 149
Summary 153
References and Suggested Readings 154
Problems 154
Chapter 4
ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS | 165
4?1	Moving Boundary Work 166
Polytropic Process 171
4?2	Energy Balance for Closed Systems 173
4?3	Specific Heats 178
4?4	Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 180
Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 182
4?5	Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids 189
Internal Energy Changes 189
Enthalpy Changes 189
Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems 193
Summary 200
References and Suggested Readings 201
Problems 201
Chapter 5
MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL VOLUMES | 219
5?1	Conservation of Mass 220
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 220
Conservation of Mass Principle 222
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes 223
Special Case: Incompressible Flow 224
5?2	Flow Work and the Energy 
of a Flowing Fluid 226
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 227
Energy Transport by Mass 228
5?3	Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems 230
5?4	Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 233
1 Nozzles and Diffusers 233
2 Turbines and Compressors 236
3 Throttling Valves 239
4a Mixing Chambers 240
4b Heat Exchangers 242
5 Pipe and Duct Flow 244
5?5	Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow 
Processes 246
Topic of Special Interest: General Energy Equation 252
Summary 255
References and Suggested Readings 256
Problems 256
Chapter 6
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS | 279
6?1	Introduction to the Second Law 280
6?2	Thermal Energy Reservoirs 281
6?3	Heat Engines 282
Thermal Efficiency 283
Can We Save Qout? 285
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin--Planck Statement 287
6?4	Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 287
Coefficient of Performance 288
Heat Pumps 289
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement 292
Equivalence of the Two Statements 292
6?5	Perpetual-Motion Machines 293
6?6	Reversible and Irreversible Processes 296
Irreversibilities 297
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 298
6?7	The Carnot Cycle 299
The Reversed Carnot Cycle 301
6?8	The Carnot Principles 301
6?9	The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 303
6?10	The Carnot Heat Engine 305
The Quality of Energy 307
Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 308
6?11	The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 309
Topic of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators 311
Summary 315
References and Suggested Readings 316
Problems 316
Chapter 7
ENTROPY | 331
7?1	Entropy 331
A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes 334
7?2	The Increase of Entropy Principle 335
Some Remarks about Entropy 337
7?3	Entropy Change of Pure Substances 339
7?4	Isentropic Processes 343
7?5	Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 344
7?6	What Is Entropy? 346
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 348
7?7	The T ds Relations 350
7?8	Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 351
7?9	The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 354
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 355
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 356
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 358
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 358
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 359
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 359
7?10	Reversible Steady-Flow Work 362
Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work 
when the Process Is Reversible 365
7?11	Minimizing the Compressor Work 366
Multistage Compression with Intercooling 367
7?12	Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices 370
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 371
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps 373
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 375
7?13	Entropy Balance 377
Entropy Change of a System, System 378
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 378
1 Heat Transfer 378
2 Mass Flow 379
Entropy Generation, Sgen 380
Closed Systems 381
Control Volumes 381
Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process 389
Topic of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air 391
Summary 400
References and Suggested Readings 401
Problems 402
Chapter 8
EXERGY: A MEASURE OF WORK POTENTIAL | 423
8?1	Exergy: Work Potential of Energy 424
Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and Potential Energy 425
8?2	Reversible Work and Irreversibility 427
8?3	Second-Law Efficiency, nII 432
8?4	Exergy Change of a System 434
Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy 435
Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy 437
8?5	Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass 440
Exergy by Heat Transfer, Q 440
Exergy Transfer by Work, W 442
Exergy Transfer by Mass, m 442
8?6	The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction 443
Exergy Destruction 444
8?7	Exergy Balance: Closed Systems 444
8?8	Exergy Balance: Control Volumes 457
Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 458
Reversible Work, W rev 459
Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices, nII 459
Topic of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of Daily Life 465
Summary 469
References and Suggested Readings 470
Problems 470
Chapter 9
GAS POWER CYCLES | 487
9?1	Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles 488
9?2	The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering 490
9?3	Air-Standard Assumptions 492
9?4	An Overview of Reciprocating Engines 493
9?5	Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines 494
9?6	Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines 500
9?7	Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 503
9?8	Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines 507
Development of Gas Turbines 510
Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones 513
9?9	The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration 515
9?10	The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration 517
9?11	Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles 521
Modifications to Turbojet Engines 525
9?12	Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles 527
Topic of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly 530
Summary 537
References and Suggested Readings 538
Problems 539
Chapter 10
VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES | 551
10?1	The Carnot Vapor Cycle 552
10?2	Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle 
for Vapor Power Cycles 553
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 554
10?3	Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles 
from Idealized Ones 557
10?4	How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle? 560
Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg) 560
Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh,avg) 561
Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,avg) 561
10?5	The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 564
10?6	The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle 568
Open Feedwater Heaters 568
Closed Feedwater Heaters 570
10?7	Second-Law Analysis 
of Vapor Power Cycles 576
10?8	Cogeneration 578
10?9	Combined Gas/Vapor Power Cycles 583
Topic of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles 586
Summary 589
References and Suggested Readings 589
Problems 590
Chapter 11
REFRIGERATION CYCLES | 607
11?1	Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 608
11?2	The Reversed Carnot Cycle 609
11?3	The Ideal Vapor-Compression 
Refrigeration Cycle 610
11?4	Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 614
11?5	Selecting the Right Refrigerant 616
11?6	Heat Pump Systems 618
11?7	Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 620
Cascade Refrigeration Systems 620
Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems 623
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor 625
Liquefaction of Gases 626
11?8	Gas Refrigeration Cycles 628
11?9	Absorption Refrigeration Systems 631
Topic of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration 
Systems 634
Summary 636
References and Suggested Readings 637
Problems 637
Chapter 12
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS | 651
12?1	A Little Math--Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations 652
Partial Differentials 653
Partial Differential Relations 655
12?2	The Maxwell Relations 656
12?3	The Clapeyron Equation 658
12?4	General Relations for du, dh, ds, cv, and cp 661
Internal Energy Changes 661
Enthalpy Changes 662
Entropy Changes 663
Specific Heats cv and cp 664
12?5	The Joule-Thomson Coefficient 668
12?6	The h, u, and s of Real Gases 669
Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases 670
Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases 671
Entropy Changes of Real Gases 671
Summary 674
References and Suggested Readings 675
Problems 675
Chapter 13
GAS MIXTURES | 681
13?1	Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions 682
13?2	P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 684
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 685
Real-Gas Mixtures 685
13?3	Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 689
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 690
Real-Gas Mixtures 693
Topic of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of 
Mixtures 697
Summary 708
References and Suggested Readings 709
Problems 709
Chapter 14
GAS?VAPOR MIXTURES 
AND AIR-CONDITIONING | 717
14?1	Dry and Atmospheric Air 718
14?2	Specific and Relative Humidity of Air 719
14?3	Dew-Point Temperature 721
14?4	Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 723
14?5	The Psychrometric Chart 726
14?6	Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning 727
14?7	Air-Conditioning Processes 729
Simple Heating and Cooling (w = constant) 730
Heating with Humidification 731
Cooling with Dehumidification 732
Evaporative Cooling 734
Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams 735
Wet Cooling Towers 737
Summary 739
References and Suggested Readings 741
Problems 741
Chapter 15
CHEMICAL REACTIONS | 751
15?1	Fuels and Combustion 752
15?2	Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes 756
15?3	Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion 762
15?4	First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 765
Steady-Flow Systems 765
Closed Systems 767
15?5	Adiabatic Flame Temperature 770
15?6	Entropy Change of Reacting Systems 773
15?7	Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 775
Topic of Special Interest: Fuel Cells 780
Summary 782
References and Suggested Readings 783
Problems 783
Chapter 16
CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM | 793
16?1	Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium 794
16?2	The Equilibrium Constant 
for Ideal-Gas Mixtures 796
16?3	Some Remarks about the KP 
of Ideal-Gas Mixtures 799
16?4	Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions 804
16?5	Variation of KP with Temperature 806
16?6	Phase Equilibrium 808
Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System 808
The Phase Rule 809
Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System 810
Summary 815
References and Suggested Readings 816
Problems 817
Chapter 17 
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW | 823
17?1	Stagnation Properties 824
17?2	Speed of Sound and Mach Number 827
17?3	One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 829
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 832
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases 834
17?4	Isentropic Flow through Nozzles 836
Converging Nozzles 836
Converging?Diverging Nozzles 841
17?5	Shock Waves and Expansion Waves 845
Normal Shocks 845
Oblique Shocks 852
Prandtl?Meyer Expansion Waves 856
17?6	Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow) 860
Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow 866
Choked Rayleigh Flow 867
17?7	Steam Nozzles 869
Summary 872
References and Suggested Readings 873
Problems 874
Appendix 1
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) | 883
Table A?1	Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties 884
Table A?2	Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases 885
Table A?3	Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods 888
Table A?4	Saturated water--Temperature table 890
Table A?5	Saturated water--Pressure table 892
Table A?6	Superheated water 894
Table A?7	Compressed liquid water 898
Table A?8	Saturated ice--water vapor 899
Figure A?9	T-s diagram for water 900
Figure A?10	Mollier diagram for water 901
Table A?11	Saturated refrigerant-134a?Temperature table 902
Table A?12	Saturated refrigerant-134a?Pressure table 904
Table A?13	Superheated refrigerant-134a 905
Figure A?14	P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a 907
Figure A?15	Nelson/Obert generalized compressibility chart 908
Table A?16	Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude 909
Table A?17	Ideal-gas properties of air 910
Table A?18	Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 912
Table A?19	Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 914
Table A?20	Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 916
Table A?21	Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO 918
Table A?22	Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 920
Table A?23	Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O 921
Table A?24	Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O 923
Table A?25	Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH 923
Table A?26	Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute 
entropy at 25?C, 1 atm 924
Table A?27	Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons 925
Table A?28	Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp 926
Figure A?29	Generalized enthalpy departure chart 927
Figure A?30	Generalized entropy departure chart 928
Figure A?31	Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure 929
Table A?32	One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal 
gas with k = 1.4 930
Table A?33	One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k =1.4 
931
Table A?34	Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4 932
Appendix 2
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) | 933
Table A?1E	Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties 934
Table A?2E	Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases 935
Table A?3E	Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods 938
Table A?4E	Saturated water/Temperature table 940
Table A?5E	Saturated water/Pressure table 942
Table A?6E	Superheated water 944
Table A?7E	Compressed liquid water 948
Table A?8E	Saturated ice/water vapor 949
Figure A?9E	T-s diagram for water 950
Figure A?10E	Mollier diagram for water 951
Table A?11E	Saturated refrigerant-134a?Temperature table 952
Table A?12E	Saturated refrigerant-134a?Pressure table 953
Table A?13E	Superheated refrigerant-134a 954
Figure A?14E	P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a 956
Table A?16E	Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude 957
Table A?17E	Ideal-gas properties of air 958
Table A?18E	Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 960
Table A?19E	Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 962
Table A?20E	Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 964
Table A?21E	Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO 966
Table A?22E	Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 968
Table A?23E	Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O 969
Table A?26E	Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute 
entropy at 77?F, 1 atm 971
Table A?27E	Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons 972
Figure A?31E Psycrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure 973
Index 975 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Thermodynamics.