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Contents Preface xxvii Acknowledgments xxix 1 Environmental Values and Policies: An Introduction 1 A. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROGRESS 3 B. AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALISM: SOURCES AND VALUES 8 Environmental Philosophy: A Pathfinder 14 Center for Prognosis Reform: Perspective on Environmental Justice 16 Notes and Questions 18 Environmental Justice: A Pathfinder 23 Problem Exercise: Mercury Contamination 24 C. ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 26 1. The Role of Prices and Markets 27 Goodstein, Economics and the Environment 27 Notes and Questions 28 2. Cost-Benefit Analysis 30 Notes and Questions 31 3. Valuing Ecosystem Services 34 Salzman, An Ecosystem Approach to Environmental Protection 35 Notes and Questions 37 D. ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES 38 Paehlke, Environmentalism and the Future of Progressive Politics 40 Botkin, Adjusting Law to Nature¿s Discordant Harmonies 43 Notes and Questions 47 E. COMMON POOL RESOURCES 49 Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons 49 Notes and Questions 51 xi Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:39:08 [pp-11] Problem Exercise: Should the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Be Opened to Oil Exploration and Development? 53 Risks Worth Taking for Oil 54 The Missing Energy Strategy 57 Rolf, Stick with the Science and Keep the Emotionalism Out of ANWR 58 2 Environmental Law: A Structural Overview 61 A. SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 62 1. Common Law Roots 63 a. Private Nuisance 64 Madison v. Ducktown Sulphur, Copper & Iron Co. 67 Notes and Questions 69 Harmonizing Conflicting Interests: To Balance or Not to Balance 72 b. Public Nuisance 75 Missouri v. Illinois 77 Notes and Questions 80 Georgia v. Tennessee Copper Co. 82 Notes and Questions 84 2. Regulatory Legislation 88 a. Environmental Statutes: A Historical Perspective 88 Six Stages in the History of U.S. Environmental Law 88 Chronology of Significant Federal Environmental Legislation 91 b. The Impact of Regulatory Legislation on Common Law Actions 98 International Paper Co. v. Ouellette 100 Notes and Questions 101 c. Environmental Federalism: Three Models of Federal-State Relations 103 New York v. United States 107 Notes and Questions 110 The Commerce Clause and Congressional Authority to Protect the Environment 112 Notes and Questions 115 B. APPROACHES TO REGULATION: ASSESSING THE OPTIONS 116 1. Regulation and Its Alternatives 116 Case Study: Liability, Regulation, and the Prevention and Remediation of Oil Spills 121 Provisions of the Oil Pollution Prevention, Response, Liability, and Compensation Act of 1990 124 Notes and Questions 124 xii Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:55 [pp-12] 2. The Regulatory Options 126 a. Regulatory Targets 127 b. Bases for Controls 130 c. Types of Regulation 132 3. Comparing Regulatory Strategies 135 Case Study: Oil Spill Liability and Section 311 of the Clean Water Act 137 Notes and Questions 138 Assessing Regulatory Strategies and their Effect on Technological Innovation 139 Notes and Questions 141 C. THE REGULATORY PROCESS 144 1. Law, Policy, and Agency Decision Making 144 2. Rulemaking Procedures 146 The Regulatory Process: A Pathfinder 147 3. Reforming Rulemaking 150 a. Negotiated Rulemaking 150 b. Generic Approaches to Rulemaking 151 c. Reinventing Regulation 152 4. Presidential Oversight of Rulemaking 153 Sierra Club v. Costle 154 Notes and Questions 156 5. Judicial Review and the Regulatory Process 157 Chevron U.S.A. v. Natural Resources Defense Council 160 Notes and Questions 162 3 Preventing Harm in the Face of Uncertainty 165 A. PRECURSORS OF MODERN REGULATORY APPROACHES 167 1. Identifying Activities Subject to Regulation 167 Reserve Mining Company v. EPA 169 Notes and Questions 174 Ethyl Corp. v. EPA 176 Notes and Questions 177 2. Quantifying Risks Subject to Regulation 182 Industrial Union Dept., AFL-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute 183 Notes and Questions 193 A Note on Regulation of Benzene by OSHA Following the Benzene Decision 195 3. What We Know about Toxics Exposures 196 a. Information about Chemical Risks 197 EPA, Chemical Hazard Data Availability Study 198 Notes and Questions 199 b. Information about Environmental Releases of Toxic Substances 200 Notes and Questions 201 Contents xiii Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:55 [pp-13] B. MODERN APPROACHES TO ASSESSING RISK 201 Hazard Identification Then and Now: Exploding Boilers versus Cancer-Causing Substances 202 Notes and Questions 208 Chlorine Chemistry Council v. EPA 211 Notes and Questions 213 Case Study: Mercury From Power Plants 216 C. HOW SAFE IS SAFE?¿MODERN APPROACHES TO MANAGING RISK 223 1. Introduction: Remedial Approaches in Reserve and Ethyl Corp. 224 2. Statutory Authorities for Regulating Risks 226 3. Risk-Benefit Balancing Approaches 230 a. Introduction 230 b. Example: The Toxic Substances Control Act 230 Principal Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act 231 EPA, Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce Prohibitions 231 Corrosion Proof Fittings v. EPA 235 Notes and Questions 242 4. (Technology-Based) Feasibility-Limited Regulation 247 a. First Example: The OSH Act 248 Notes and Questions 248 b. Second Example: The Safe Drinking Water Act 249 Principal Provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act 250 Case Study: Regulation of Arsenic in Drinking Water 253 Notes and Questions 262 5. Health-Based Regulation 264 a. De Minimis Risk and Comparative Risk Assessment 264 Notes and Questions 269 b. Acceptable Risk and Section 112 of the Clean Air Act 271 EPA, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions from Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants 273 Notes and Questions 276 Problem Exercise: Regulation of Toxic Substances 280 The ¿¿Sound Science¿¿ Debates 280 Reducing Risk Through Comparative Risk Assessment?: The Case of Radon 284 Regulation of Toxic Substances: A Pathfinder 287 D. REGULATION THROUGH REVELATION 288 1. California¿s Proposition 65: A Burden-Shifting Approach to the Information Problem 291 xiv Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:55 [pp-14] Rechtschaffen, How to Reduce Lead Exposures with One Simple Statute:The Experience of Proposition 65 296 Notes and Questions 299 2. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) 300 Principal Provisions of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act 300 Hamilton, Regulation Through Revelation 208-256 303 Notes and Questions 304 4 Waste Management and Pollution Prevention 309 A. WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLLUTION PROBLEMS 310 Notes and Questions 313 B. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES AFFECTING WASTE MANAGEMENT 314 Regulation of Waste Management: A¿Pathfinder 317 C. THE RCRA REGULATORY PROGRAM 319 1. RCRA: An Introduction 319 a. History of the RCRA Program 319 b. Stucture of the RCRA Program 324 Structure of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 324 2. What Substances Are ¿¿Solid Wastes¿¿? 329 American Mining Congress v. EPA 331 Notes and Questions 337 3. Identifying ¿¿Hazardous Waste¿¿ 341 Notes and Questions 345 Incinerator Ash and the Household Waste Exclusion 347 City of Chicago v. Environmental Defense Fund 349 Notes and Questions 355 4. Avoiding TSD Status 356 Stoll, Coping with the RCRA Hazardous Waste System: A Few Practical Points for Fun and Profit 356 Notes and Questions 361 5. Subtitle D and the Regulation of ¿¿Nonhazardous¿¿ Waste Disposal 363 Notes and Questions 365 D. CERCLA LIABILITY 366 1. CERCLA¿s Basic Principles 366 Principal Provisions of Cercla 368 Contents xv Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-15] 2. Liability Provisions of CERCLA 369 United States v. Olin Corp. 371 Notes and Questions 374 3. Responsible Parties 374 a. Owners 374 New York v. Shore Realty Corp. 375 Notes and Questions 379 A Note on Property Transfer Statutes 381 Notes and Questions 384 b. Operators 384 United States v. Bestfoods 385 Notes and Questions 389 c. Generators 391 United States v. Aceto Agricultural Chemicals Corp. 392 Notes and Questions 396 A Note on Shrinking the Net of CERCLA Liability 399 Problem Exercise: Cercla Liability 401 4. Strict, Joint, and Several Liability 401 O¿Neil v. Picillo 403 Notes and Questions 408 5. Liability: Amount and Allocation 411 a. Standards and Costs of Removal and Remediation 411 b. Allocation of Liability 416 Cooper Industries, Inc. v. Aviall Services, Inc. 417 Notes and Questions 421 United States v. Vertac Chemical Corp. 423 Notes and Questions 428 AKZO Nobel Coatings, Inc. v. Aigner Corp. 430 Problem Exercise: Cercla Cost Allocation, Settlements, and Contribution 433 6. Has Superfund Worked? 434 Notes and Questions 437 E. DUMPSITE REGULATION, THE DORMANT COMMERCE CLAUSE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE CONCERNS 438 1. Commerce Clause Limitation 439 Philadelphia v. New Jersey 439 Notes and Questions 445 C &A Carbone, Inc. v. Town of Clarkstown 449 Notes and Questions 453 2. Siting Controversies and the Environmental Justice Movement 455 In the Matter of Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. 456 Notes and Questions 461 3. Factors Affecting Siting Decisions: The Yucca Mountain Case Study 463 Problem Exercise: Should The Nation¿s High-Level Radioactive Waste Be Deposited In Yucca Mountain? 463 xvi Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-16] 5 Air Pollution Control 467 A. THE AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM 467 B. THE CLEAN AIR ACT: BACIS PRINCIPLES 470 Air Pollution Control: A Pathfinder 473 Major Provisions of the Clean Air Act 474 C. NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS 475 1. Establishing NAAQSs 476 Lead Industries Association v. EPA 478 Notes and Questions 479 Problem Exercise: A NAAQs for Co2? 481 2. Revising NAAQSs 482 Whitman v. American Trucking Ass¿ns 486 Notes and Questions 492 D. ATTAINING AND MAINTAINING THE NAAQSs 495 1. Implementation and Compliance¿The Basic Structure 495 Union Electric Company v. EPA 497 Notes and Questions 499 Virginia v. EPA 501 Notes and Questions 503 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation v. Environmental Protection Agency 504 2. The Evolution of the Programs to Achieve and Maintain the NAAQS 510 a. Nonattainment and Prevention of Significant Deterioration 510 b. New Source Review For PSD and NA 514 United States v. Duke Energy Corp. 518 Notes and Questions 523 New York v. EPA 526 Notes and Questions 531 c. Multi-State Air Quality Problems 534 Michigan v. EPA 536 Notes and Questions 542 Appalachian Power Co. v. EPA 543 Notes and Questions 548 d. Cap-and-Trade and Other Economic Incentive Programs 550 e. Acid Deposition 553 Notes and Questions 556 Alliance for Clean Coal v. Bayh 559 Notes and Questions 561 F. MOBILE SOURCE CONTROLS: A TECHNOLOGY-FORCING VENTURE 562 1. Emissions Standards 564 Notes and Questions 567 2. Fuel Content 568 3. Alternative Vehicles 569 Contents xvii Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-17] Notes and Questions 571 Engine Manufacturer Association v. South Coast Air Quality Management District 573 Notes and Questions 576 4. Transportation Control Plans and Other Measures Directly Affecting Drivers 577 Notes and Questions 579 6 Water Pollution Control 581 A. WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS 582 Browner and Glickman, Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and Protecting America¿s Waters 582 Notes and Questions 586 B. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES FOR PROTECTING WATER QUALITY 590 1. Water Pollution Control: A Historical Perspective 590 2. Statutory Authorities 592 Principal Federal Laws Addressing Water Pollution 593 3. The Structure of the Clean Water Act 594 Major Provisions of the Clean Water Act 594 Notes and Questions 597 4. The Scope of Federal Authority to Regulate Water Pollution 599 United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, Inc. 600 Notes and Questions 603 Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 604 Notes and Questions 613 C. REGULATION OF DISCHARGES FROM POINT SOURCES 616 1. Defining the ¿¿Addition of Any Pollutant¿¿ 617 National Mining Association v. Army Corps of Engineers 617 Notes and Questions 622 South Florida Water Management District v. Miccosukee Tribe of Indians 624 Notes and Questions 628 2. Defining ¿¿Point Sources¿¿ Subject to Permit Requirements 629 NRDC v. Costle 630 Notes and Questions 634 United States v. Plaza Health Laboratories, Inc. 636 Notes and Questions 642 3. Technology-Based Effluent Limitations 644 a. Application to Industrial Discharges 644 i. The Development of Effluent Limitations 644 ii. Effluent Standards for Toxic Water Pollutants 647 iii. Variances 649 Chemical Manufacturers Association v. NRDC 649 Notes and Questions 653 xviii Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-18] iv. Effluent Limitations: The State of the Art 654 Notes and Questions 655 b. POTWs and the Pretreatment Program 656 Notes and Questions 658 Water Pollution Control: A Pathfinder 659 D. WATER QUALITY-BASED CONTROLS: THE REGULATORY ¿¿SAFETY NET¿¿? 660 1. Water Quality Standards 661 a. Designated Uses and Antidegradation 661 b. Water Quality Criteria 662 Notes and Questions 663 Water Quality Criteria: Sources of Scientific Uncertainty 664 2. The Impact of Water Quality Standards on Permit Limits 665 a. Application of Water Quality Standards to Interstate Pollution 666 Arkansas v. Oklahoma 666 Notes and Questions 671 b. Individual Control Strategies for Toxic Pollutants 672 c. State Water Quality Certification Under Section 401 674 PUD No. 1 of Jefferson County v. Washington Department of Ecology 674 Notes and Questions 683 d. Total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDLs) 684 Pronsolino v. Nastri 686 Notes and Questions 693 Water Pollution Control: A Problem Exercise 694 E. WETLANDS PROTECTION AND THE SECTION 404 PERMIT PROGRAM 695 1. The Structure of the Section 404 Program 695 A Note on Wetlands Identification and Delineation 697 2. The Section 404 Permit Process 698 Notes and Questions 700 ¿¿No Net Loss,¿¿ Mitigation Banking, and the Future of Wetlands Protection 701 F. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: NONPOINT SOURCE CONTROLS, WATERSHED PROTECTION, AND EFFLUENT TRADING 703 1. Federal Efforts to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution 703 2. Toward a Watershed Approach to Pollution Control 705 Notes and Questions 706 7 Land Use Regulation and Regulatory Takings 709 A. LAND USE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 710 Turner and Rylander, Land Use: The Forgotten Agenda 710 Notes and Questions 712 Contents xix Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-19] B. FEDERAL REGULATION OF LAND USE 712 1. Federal Management of Public Lands 713 Public Land And Natural Resources Law: A Pathfinder 713 2. Federal Programs Affecting Private Land Use 716 Notes and Questions 719 Land Use Regulation: A Pathfinder 720 C. LAND USE REGULATION BY STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 721 1. Zoning and State Authority to Regulate Land Use 722 Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. 722 Notes and Questions 724 ¿¿Public Use¿¿ and the Kelo Decision 725 2. State Growth Management and Critical Area Protection Programs 726 Liberty, Planned Growth: The Oregon Model 728 Notes and Questions 730 D. LAND USE CONTROLS AND REGULATORY TAKINGS 731 1. The Evolution of Regulatory Takings Doctrine 732 Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York 733 Notes and Questions 736 2. The Modern Revival of Regulatory Takings Jurisprudence 737 Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 739 Notes and Questions 747 The Impact of Post-Regulation Acquisition of Property: The Palazzolo Case 752 Palazzolo v. Rhode Island 752 Notes and Questions 761 Are Development Moratoria Temporary Takings? The Tahoe-Sierra Decision 762 Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency 763 Notes and Questions 771 3. Regulatory Exactions 772 Dolan v. City of Tigard 773 Notes and Questions 782 Lingle v. Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. 784 Notes and Questions 786 Problem Exercise: Environmental Remediation and the Takings Clause 787 4. Regulatory Takings and Competing Conceptions of Property Rights 788 Titus, Rising Seas, Coastal Erosion, and The Takings Clause: How to Save Wetlands and Beaches Without Hurting Property Owners 790 Notes and Questions 793 xx Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-20] 8 Environmental Impact Assessment 795 A. THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT: AN OVERVIEW 796 Structure of the National Environmental Policy Act 796 Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee v. United States Atomic Energy Commission 798 Notes and Questions 801 Strycker¿s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen 802 Notes and Questions 804 B. UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES MUST AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT BE PREPARED? 805 1. ¿¿Proposals for Legislation and Other Major Federal Actions¿¿ 805 a. ¿¿Proposals for Legislation¿¿ 805 Implementing NEPA: A Pathfinder 807 b. ¿¿Major Federal Action¿¿ 808 c. Problems of Timing and Scope 810 Kleppe v. Sierra Club 810 Notes and Questions 814 Thomas v. Peterson 815 Notes and Questions 818 Sierra Club v. Peterson 818 Notes and Questions 822 2. ¿¿Significantly Affecting the Quality of the Human Environment¿¿ 823 Hanly v. Kleindienst 824 Notes and Questions 828 a. Procedure for Determining Whether or Not to Prepare an EIS 828 b. Determining the ¿¿Significance¿¿ of Action 829 Notes and Questions 830 c. What ¿¿Effects¿¿ Must Be Considered 831 Dept. of Transportation v. Public Citizen 832 Notes and Questions 836 Problem Exercise: Should the FCC Prepare an EIS Assessing the Cumulative Impact of Cellphone Tower Construction? 837 C. IS THE EIS ADEQUATE? 838 1. Alternatives 839 Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. NRDC 840 Notes and Questions 843 2. Analysis 844 a. Quality of the Analysis in an EIS 845 Sierra Club v. United States Army Corps of Engineers 845 Notes and Questions 848 Marsh v. Oregon Natural Resources Council 849 Notes and Questions 851 Contents xxi Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-21] b. Timing and Scope Revisited 852 Notes and Questions 853 c. Analysis in Uncertainty 854 Notes and Questions 855 Problem Exercise: Should EISs for Nuclear Facilities Consider the Risks of Terrorist Attacks? 855 D. EPILOGUE: HOW WELL DOES NEPA WORK? 857 Dreher, NEPA Under Seige (2005) 857 Notes and Questions 860 9 Preservation of Biodiversity 863 A. WHY SHOULD WE PRESERVE BIODIVERSITY? 864 E. O. Wilson, Biophilia 864 Notes and Questions 866 B. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: AN OVERVIEW 868 Major Provisions of the Endangered Species Act 868 TVA v. Hill 870 Notes and Questions 874 C. FEDERAL AUTHORITY TO PRESERVE BIODIVERSITY 876 National Ass¿n of Homebuilders v. Babbitt 877 Notes and Questions 886 Gibbs v. Babbitt 886 Notes and Questions 896 D. WHICH SPECIES ARE PROTECTED: SECTION 4 898 Species Listing Determinations: Resource Constraints 902 Protection of Biodiversity: A Pathfinder 903 E. REVIEW OF FEDERAL ACTIONS: SECTION 7 903 Thomas v. Peterson 904 Notes and Questions 906 Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission v. EPA 908 Notes and Questions 911 Carson-Truckee Water Conservancy District v. Clark 912 Notes and Questions 913 F. PROTECTION AGAINST PRIVATE ACTION: SECTION 9 915 Notes and Questions 916 Private Actions, Incidental Takings, and Habitat Conservation Plans 917 Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon 918 Notes and Questions 925 N.Y. Times, Ignoring Pleas of Environmentalists, Kansas Man Digs Up Virgin Prairie 929 Notes and Questions 930 Problem Exercise: The Endangered Species Act 931 xxii Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-22] G. NEW APPROACHES TO BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION 931 1. The Northwest Forest Plan; An Ecosystem Approach 931 2. Reauthorizing the Endangered Species Act 934 10 Environmental Enforcement 937 A. MONITORING AND DETECTING VIOLATIONS 938 EPA, Final Policy Statement on Incentives for Self-Policing of Violations 941 Notes and Questions 945 B. ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES AND POLICIES 947 1. Enforcement Authorities 948 Enforcement Provisions of the Clean Water Act 948 2. Penalty Policies 950 Sierra Club v. Cedar Point Oil Co. 950 Notes and Questions 952 3. The Federal-State Enforcement Relationship 953 Harmon Industries v. Browner 954 Notes and Questions 958 C. CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT 962 United States v. Weitzenhoff 964 Notes and Questions 973 D. STANDING AND CITIZEN ACCESS TO THE COURTS 977 Sierra Club v. Morion 977 Notes and Questions 981 Standing Doctrine in Environmental Cases After Sierra Club v. Morion 983 Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife 986 Notes and Questions 994 The Zone of Interests Test and Standing for Business Interests 997 E. CITIZEN SUITS 998 1. Citizen Suit Provisions in the APA and the Federal Environmental Laws 998 Norton v. Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance 999 Notes and Questions 1005 2. Citizen Enforcement Actions and the Gwaltney Problem 1005 Gwaltney of Smithfield Ltd. v. Chesapeake Bay Foundation 1007 Notes and Questions 1011 The Congressional Response to Gwaltney 1012 The Gwaltney Remand 1013 Citizen Suits in the Aftermath of Gwaltney 1013 3. Standing in Citizen Enforcement Actions 1014 Friends of the Earth v. Laidlaw Environmental Services 1017 Notes and Questions 1022 4. Government Preclusion of Citizen Suits 1024 5. Permit Shields 1026 Atlantic States Legal Foundation, Inc. v. Eastman Kodak Co. 1027 Contents xxiii Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-23] Notes and Questions 1030 Problem Exercise: Citizen Enforcement of the Clean Water Act 1031 6. The Eleventh Amendment and Citizen Suits Against States 1033 F. ENFORCEMENT AGAINST FEDERAL FACILITIES 1034 11 Protection of the Global Environment 1039 A. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 1040 International Environmental Law: A Pathfinder 1041 1. The UN Conferences 1043 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Declaration of Principles 1044 Notes and Questions 1045 The World Summit on Sustainable Development 1045 Notes and Questions 1046 2. International Adjudication of Environmental Disputes 1047 International Court of Justice, Case Concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project 1048 Notes and Questions 1049 B. PROTECTION OF THE GLOBAL ATMOSHPERE 1050 1. Oxone Depletion 1050 a. Scientific Warnings 1050 b. The Montreal Protocol 1052 c. Accelerating the Phaseout 1053 Notes and Questions 1055 2. Global Climate Change 1056 a. Science and the ¿¿Greenhouse Effect¿¿ 1056 National Research Council, Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions 1059 Climate Science: The Continuing Debate 1061 b. Legal and Policy Responses to Global Warming and Climate Change 1062 Kyoto Protocol to the Convention on Climate Change 1063 Notes and Questions 1066 Problem Exercise: Legal and Policy Strategies to Combat Climate Change 1071 C. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1072 1. Overview 1072 Fredriksson, Trade, Global Policy, and the Environment: New Evidence and Issues 1075 Notes and Questions 1077 2. The GATT and WTO 1078 GATT Council, United States¿Restrictions on Imports of Tuna: Report of the Panel 1991 1079 Notes and Questions 1082 The Tuna/Dolphin II Decision 1083 xxiv Contents Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-24] Notes and Questions 1085 The Shrimp/Turtle Decision 1087 Notes and Questions 1089 3. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Environment 1091 4. International Trade in Hazardous Substances 1094 a. Policy Issues 1094 b. Regulation of International Trade in Hazardous Substances 1096 Tort Litigation in the United States for Actions Abroad by U.S. Multinationals 1096 Notes and Questions 1099 Beanal v. Freeport-McMoran, Inc. 1101 Notes and Questions 1104 D. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1106 1. Multilateral Development Banks 1106 Seymour and Dubash, World Bank¿s Environmental Reform, Agenda 1107 Notes and Questions 1109 2. The Global Environment Facility 1112 Horta, In Focus: Global Environment Facility 1112 Problems with Current U.S. Policy . . . 1113 Notes and Questions 1114 E. COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT 1115 Weiss and Jacobson, Getting Countries to Comply with International Agreements 1115 Zaelke, Stilwell, and Young, What Reason Demands: Making Laws Work for Sustainable Development 1117 Notes and Questions 1119 Promoting Voluntary Corporate Actions to Improve the Environment 1120 Notes and Questions 1122 Problem Exercise: Structuring an International Agreement to Regulate 1123 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) 1123 The Equator Principles 1124 Notes and Questions 1125 12 Environmental Progress and Prospects 1127 A. ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS 1128 Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality, 25th Anniversary Report 1128 Notes and Questions 1130 Graham, The Morning After Earth Day 1130 Notes and Questions 1133 Contents xxv Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-25] B. ENVIRONMENTAL PROSPECTS 1134 A New Way of Living with Nature 1134 Notes and Questions 1135 Easterbrook, A Moment on the Earth: The Coming Age of Environmental Optimism 1136 Notes and Questions 1140 Environmental Defense Fund, A Moment of Truth: Correcting the Scientific Errors in Gregg Easterbrook¿s A Moment on the Earth 1141 Notes and Questions 1143 Easterbrook Round II? Bjorn Lomborg¿s ¿¿Skeptical Environmentalist¿¿ 1143 Notes and Questions 1145 President¿s Council on Sustainable Development, Towards a Sustainable America 1146 The Environmental Protection System, Past and Future Goals 1146 Information and Data 1147 Evolution of the Regulatory System 1147 Expanded Set of Policy Tools 1148 Federal-State Partnerships 1148 Federal Policy Integration 1149 Other Themes in Next Generation Reports 1149 Notes and Questions 1149 Esty and Chertow, A Vision for the Future 1150 Notes and Questions 1153 C. SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS 1153 APPENDIX A Glossary 1155 APPENDIX B List of Acronyms 1175 Table of Cases 1181 Index 0000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Environmental law -- United States.
Environmental law -- United States -- Cases.
Environmental policy -- United States.