Table of contents for Environmental regulation : law, science, and policy / Robert V. Percival ... [et al.].

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Contents 
Preface xxvii 
Acknowledgments xxix 
1 
Environmental Values and Policies: 
An Introduction 1 
A. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROGRESS 3 
B. AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALISM: SOURCES 
AND VALUES 8 
Environmental Philosophy: A Pathfinder 14 
Center for Prognosis Reform: Perspective 
on Environmental Justice 16 
Notes and Questions 18 
Environmental Justice: A Pathfinder 23 
Problem Exercise: Mercury Contamination 24 
C. ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 26 
1. The Role of Prices and Markets 27 
Goodstein, Economics and the Environment 27 
Notes and Questions 28 
2. Cost-Benefit Analysis 30 
Notes and Questions 31 
3. Valuing Ecosystem Services 34 
Salzman, An Ecosystem Approach to 
Environmental Protection 35 
Notes and Questions 37 
D. ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES 38 
Paehlke, Environmentalism and the Future 
of Progressive Politics 40 
Botkin, Adjusting Law to Nature¿s Discordant 
Harmonies 43 
Notes and Questions 47 
E. COMMON POOL RESOURCES 49 
Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons 49 
Notes and Questions 51 
xi 
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Problem Exercise: Should the Arctic National 
Wildlife Refuge Be Opened to Oil Exploration 
and Development? 53 
Risks Worth Taking for Oil 54 
The Missing Energy Strategy 57 
Rolf, Stick with the Science and Keep the 
Emotionalism Out of ANWR 58 
2 
Environmental Law: A Structural Overview 61 
A. SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 62 
1. Common Law Roots 63 
a. Private Nuisance 64 
Madison v. Ducktown Sulphur, Copper & 
Iron Co. 67 
Notes and Questions 69 
Harmonizing Conflicting Interests: 
To Balance or Not to Balance 72 
b. Public Nuisance 75 
Missouri v. Illinois 77 
Notes and Questions 80 
Georgia v. Tennessee Copper Co. 82 
Notes and Questions 84 
2. Regulatory Legislation 88 
a. Environmental Statutes: A Historical Perspective 88 
Six Stages in the History of U.S. 
Environmental Law 88 
Chronology of Significant Federal 
Environmental Legislation 91 
b. The Impact of Regulatory Legislation on Common 
Law Actions 98 
International Paper Co. v. Ouellette 100 
Notes and Questions 101 
c. Environmental Federalism: Three Models of 
Federal-State Relations 103 
New York v. United States 107 
Notes and Questions 110 
The Commerce Clause and Congressional 
Authority to Protect the Environment 112 
Notes and Questions 115 
B. APPROACHES TO REGULATION: ASSESSING THE OPTIONS 116 
1. Regulation and Its Alternatives 116 
Case Study: Liability, Regulation, and the 
Prevention and Remediation of Oil Spills 121 
Provisions of the Oil Pollution Prevention, 
Response, Liability, and Compensation 
Act of 1990 124 
Notes and Questions 124 
xii Contents 
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2. The Regulatory Options 126 
a. Regulatory Targets 127 
b. Bases for Controls 130 
c. Types of Regulation 132 
3. Comparing Regulatory Strategies 135 
Case Study: Oil Spill Liability and Section 311 
of the Clean Water Act 137 
Notes and Questions 138 
Assessing Regulatory Strategies and their 
Effect on Technological Innovation 139 
Notes and Questions 141 
C. THE REGULATORY PROCESS 144 
1. Law, Policy, and Agency Decision Making 144 
2. Rulemaking Procedures 146 
The Regulatory Process: A Pathfinder 147 
3. Reforming Rulemaking 150 
a. Negotiated Rulemaking 150 
b. Generic Approaches to Rulemaking 151 
c. Reinventing Regulation 152 
4. Presidential Oversight of Rulemaking 153 
Sierra Club v. Costle 154 
Notes and Questions 156 
5. Judicial Review and the Regulatory Process 157 
Chevron U.S.A. v. Natural Resources Defense 
Council 160 
Notes and Questions 162 
3 
Preventing Harm in the Face of Uncertainty 165 
A. PRECURSORS OF MODERN REGULATORY APPROACHES 167 
1. Identifying Activities Subject to Regulation 167 
Reserve Mining Company v. EPA 169 
Notes and Questions 174 
Ethyl Corp. v. EPA 176 
Notes and Questions 177 
2. Quantifying Risks Subject to Regulation 182 
Industrial Union Dept., AFL-CIO v. American 
Petroleum Institute 183 
Notes and Questions 193 
A Note on Regulation of Benzene by OSHA 
Following the Benzene Decision 195 
3. What We Know about Toxics Exposures 196 
a. Information about Chemical Risks 197 
EPA, Chemical Hazard Data Availability Study 198 
Notes and Questions 199 
b. Information about Environmental Releases of Toxic 
Substances 200 
Notes and Questions 201 
Contents xiii 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:55 [pp-13]
B. MODERN APPROACHES TO ASSESSING RISK 201 
Hazard Identification Then and Now: 
Exploding Boilers versus Cancer-Causing 
Substances 202 
Notes and Questions 208 
Chlorine Chemistry Council v. EPA 211 
Notes and Questions 213 
Case Study: Mercury From Power Plants 216 
C. HOW SAFE IS SAFE?¿MODERN APPROACHES TO 
MANAGING RISK 223 
1. Introduction: Remedial Approaches in Reserve and 
Ethyl Corp. 224 
2. Statutory Authorities for Regulating Risks 226 
3. Risk-Benefit Balancing Approaches 230 
a. Introduction 230 
b. Example: The Toxic Substances Control Act 230 
Principal Provisions of the Toxic 
Substances Control Act 231 
EPA, Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, 
Processing, and Distribution in 
Commerce Prohibitions 231 
Corrosion Proof Fittings v. EPA 235 
Notes and Questions 242 
4. (Technology-Based) Feasibility-Limited Regulation 247 
a. First Example: The OSH Act 248 
Notes and Questions 248 
b. Second Example: The Safe Drinking Water Act 249 
Principal Provisions of the Safe 
Drinking Water Act 250 
Case Study: Regulation of Arsenic in Drinking 
Water 253 
Notes and Questions 262 
5. Health-Based Regulation 264 
a. De Minimis Risk and Comparative Risk Assessment 264 
Notes and Questions 269 
b. Acceptable Risk and Section 112 of the Clean Air Act 271 
EPA, National Emission Standards for Hazardous 
Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions from Maleic 
Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, 
Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment 
Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants 273 
Notes and Questions 276 
Problem Exercise: Regulation of 
Toxic Substances 280 
The ¿¿Sound Science¿¿ Debates 280 
Reducing Risk Through Comparative Risk 
Assessment?: The Case of Radon 284 
Regulation of Toxic Substances: A Pathfinder 287 
D. REGULATION THROUGH REVELATION 288 
1. California¿s Proposition 65: A Burden-Shifting Approach 
to the Information Problem 291 
xiv Contents 
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Rechtschaffen, How to Reduce Lead Exposures 
with One Simple Statute:The Experience 
of Proposition 65 296 
Notes and Questions 299 
2. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know 
Act (EPCRA) 300 
Principal Provisions of the Emergency 
Planning and Community 
Right-to-know Act 300 
Hamilton, Regulation Through Revelation 
208-256 303 
Notes and Questions 304 
4 
Waste Management and Pollution Prevention 309 
A. WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLLUTION PROBLEMS 310 
Notes and Questions 313 
B. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES AFFECTING WASTE 
MANAGEMENT 314 
Regulation of Waste Management: 
A¿Pathfinder 317 
C. THE RCRA REGULATORY PROGRAM 319 
1. RCRA: An Introduction 319 
a. History of the RCRA Program 319 
b. Stucture of the RCRA Program 324 
Structure of the Resource Conservation and 
Recovery Act 324 
2. What Substances Are ¿¿Solid Wastes¿¿? 329 
American Mining Congress v. EPA 331 
Notes and Questions 337 
3. Identifying ¿¿Hazardous Waste¿¿ 341 
Notes and Questions 345 
Incinerator Ash and the Household Waste 
Exclusion 347 
City of Chicago v. Environmental Defense Fund 349 
Notes and Questions 355 
4. Avoiding TSD Status 356 
Stoll, Coping with the RCRA Hazardous 
Waste System: A Few Practical Points for 
Fun and Profit 356 
Notes and Questions 361 
5. Subtitle D and the Regulation of ¿¿Nonhazardous¿¿ Waste 
Disposal 363 
Notes and Questions 365 
D. CERCLA LIABILITY 366 
1. CERCLA¿s Basic Principles 366 
Principal Provisions of Cercla 368 
Contents xv 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-15]
2. Liability Provisions of CERCLA 369 
United States v. Olin Corp. 371 
Notes and Questions 374 
3. Responsible Parties 374 
a. Owners 374 
New York v. Shore Realty Corp. 375 
Notes and Questions 379 
A Note on Property Transfer Statutes 381 
Notes and Questions 384 
b. Operators 384 
United States v. Bestfoods 385 
Notes and Questions 389 
c. Generators 391 
United States v. Aceto Agricultural Chemicals Corp. 392 
Notes and Questions 396 
A Note on Shrinking the Net of CERCLA 
Liability 399 
Problem Exercise: Cercla Liability 401 
4. Strict, Joint, and Several Liability 401 
O¿Neil v. Picillo 403 
Notes and Questions 408 
5. Liability: Amount and Allocation 411 
a. Standards and Costs of Removal and Remediation 411 
b. Allocation of Liability 416 
Cooper Industries, Inc. v. Aviall Services, Inc. 417 
Notes and Questions 421 
United States v. Vertac Chemical Corp. 423 
Notes and Questions 428 
AKZO Nobel Coatings, Inc. v. Aigner Corp. 430 
Problem Exercise: Cercla Cost Allocation, 
Settlements, and Contribution 433 
6. Has Superfund Worked? 434 
Notes and Questions 437 
E. DUMPSITE REGULATION, THE DORMANT COMMERCE 
CLAUSE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE CONCERNS 438 
1. Commerce Clause Limitation 439 
Philadelphia v. New Jersey 439 
Notes and Questions 445 
C &A Carbone, Inc. v. Town of Clarkstown 449 
Notes and Questions 453 
2. Siting Controversies and the Environmental Justice 
Movement 455 
In the Matter of Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. 456 
Notes and Questions 461 
3. Factors Affecting Siting Decisions: The Yucca Mountain 
Case Study 463 
Problem Exercise: Should The Nation¿s 
High-Level Radioactive Waste Be Deposited 
In Yucca Mountain? 463 
xvi Contents 
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5 
Air Pollution Control 467 
A. THE AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM 467 
B. THE CLEAN AIR ACT: BACIS PRINCIPLES 470 
Air Pollution Control: A Pathfinder 473 
Major Provisions of the Clean Air Act 474 
C. NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS 475 
1. Establishing NAAQSs 476 
Lead Industries Association v. EPA 478 
Notes and Questions 479 
Problem Exercise: A NAAQs for Co2? 481 
2. Revising NAAQSs 482 
Whitman v. American Trucking Ass¿ns 486 
Notes and Questions 492 
D. ATTAINING AND MAINTAINING THE NAAQSs 495 
1. Implementation and Compliance¿The Basic Structure 495 
Union Electric Company v. EPA 497 
Notes and Questions 499 
Virginia v. EPA 501 
Notes and Questions 503 
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation v. 
Environmental Protection Agency 504 
2. The Evolution of the Programs to Achieve and Maintain 
the NAAQS 510 
a. Nonattainment and Prevention of Significant 
Deterioration 510 
b. New Source Review For PSD and NA 514 
United States v. Duke Energy Corp. 518 
Notes and Questions 523 
New York v. EPA 526 
Notes and Questions 531 
c. Multi-State Air Quality Problems 534 
Michigan v. EPA 536 
Notes and Questions 542 
Appalachian Power Co. v. EPA 543 
Notes and Questions 548 
d. Cap-and-Trade and Other Economic Incentive 
Programs 550 
e. Acid Deposition 553 
Notes and Questions 556 
Alliance for Clean Coal v. Bayh 559 
Notes and Questions 561 
F. MOBILE SOURCE CONTROLS: A TECHNOLOGY-FORCING 
VENTURE 562 
1. Emissions Standards 564 
Notes and Questions 567 
2. Fuel Content 568 
3. Alternative Vehicles 569 
Contents xvii 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-17]
Notes and Questions 571 
Engine Manufacturer Association v. South Coast 
Air Quality Management District 573 
Notes and Questions 576 
4. Transportation Control Plans and Other Measures 
Directly Affecting Drivers 577 
Notes and Questions 579 
6 
Water Pollution Control 581 
A. WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS 582 
Browner and Glickman, Clean Water Action Plan: 
Restoring and Protecting America¿s Waters 582 
Notes and Questions 586 
B. STATUTORY AUTHORITIES FOR PROTECTING WATER 
QUALITY 590 
1. Water Pollution Control: A Historical Perspective 590 
2. Statutory Authorities 592 
Principal Federal Laws Addressing Water Pollution 593 
3. The Structure of the Clean Water Act 594 
Major Provisions of the Clean Water Act 594 
Notes and Questions 597 
4. The Scope of Federal Authority to Regulate Water Pollution 599 
United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, Inc. 600 
Notes and Questions 603 
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 604 
Notes and Questions 613 
C. REGULATION OF DISCHARGES FROM POINT SOURCES 616 
1. Defining the ¿¿Addition of Any Pollutant¿¿ 617 
National Mining Association v. Army Corps of 
Engineers 617 
Notes and Questions 622 
South Florida Water Management District v. 
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians 624 
Notes and Questions 628 
2. Defining ¿¿Point Sources¿¿ Subject to Permit Requirements 629 
NRDC v. Costle 630 
Notes and Questions 634 
United States v. Plaza Health Laboratories, Inc. 636 
Notes and Questions 642 
3. Technology-Based Effluent Limitations 644 
a. Application to Industrial Discharges 644 
i. The Development of Effluent Limitations 644 
ii. Effluent Standards for Toxic Water Pollutants 647 
iii. Variances 649 
Chemical Manufacturers Association v. NRDC 649 
Notes and Questions 653 
xviii Contents 
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iv. Effluent Limitations: The State of the Art 654 
Notes and Questions 655 
b. POTWs and the Pretreatment Program 656 
Notes and Questions 658 
Water Pollution Control: A Pathfinder 659 
D. WATER QUALITY-BASED CONTROLS: THE REGULATORY 
¿¿SAFETY NET¿¿? 660 
1. Water Quality Standards 661 
a. Designated Uses and Antidegradation 661 
b. Water Quality Criteria 662 
Notes and Questions 663 
Water Quality Criteria: Sources of Scientific 
Uncertainty 664 
2. The Impact of Water Quality Standards on Permit Limits 665 
a. Application of Water Quality Standards to Interstate 
Pollution 666 
Arkansas v. Oklahoma 666 
Notes and Questions 671 
b. Individual Control Strategies for Toxic Pollutants 672 
c. State Water Quality Certification Under Section 401 674 
PUD No. 1 of Jefferson County v. Washington 
Department of Ecology 674 
Notes and Questions 683 
d. Total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDLs) 684 
Pronsolino v. Nastri 686 
Notes and Questions 693 
Water Pollution Control: A Problem Exercise 694 
E. WETLANDS PROTECTION AND THE SECTION 404 
PERMIT PROGRAM 695 
1. The Structure of the Section 404 Program 695 
A Note on Wetlands Identification and Delineation 697 
2. The Section 404 Permit Process 698 
Notes and Questions 700 
¿¿No Net Loss,¿¿ Mitigation Banking, and the 
Future of Wetlands Protection 701 
F. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN WATER POLLUTION 
CONTROL: NONPOINT SOURCE CONTROLS, 
WATERSHED PROTECTION, AND EFFLUENT TRADING 703 
1. Federal Efforts to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution 703 
2. Toward a Watershed Approach to Pollution Control 705 
Notes and Questions 706 
7 
Land Use Regulation and Regulatory Takings 709 
A. LAND USE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 710 
Turner and Rylander, Land Use: 
The Forgotten Agenda 710 
Notes and Questions 712 
Contents xix 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-19]
B. FEDERAL REGULATION OF LAND USE 712 
1. Federal Management of Public Lands 713 
Public Land And Natural Resources 
Law: A Pathfinder 713 
2. Federal Programs Affecting Private Land Use 716 
Notes and Questions 719 
Land Use Regulation: A Pathfinder 720 
C. LAND USE REGULATION BY STATE AND LOCAL 
GOVERNMENTS 721 
1. Zoning and State Authority to Regulate Land Use 722 
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. 722 
Notes and Questions 724 
¿¿Public Use¿¿ and the Kelo Decision 725 
2. State Growth Management and Critical Area 
Protection Programs 726 
Liberty, Planned Growth: The Oregon Model 728 
Notes and Questions 730 
D. LAND USE CONTROLS AND REGULATORY TAKINGS 731 
1. The Evolution of Regulatory Takings Doctrine 732 
Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of 
New York 733 
Notes and Questions 736 
2. The Modern Revival of Regulatory Takings 
Jurisprudence 737 
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 739 
Notes and Questions 747 
The Impact of Post-Regulation Acquisition 
of Property: The Palazzolo Case 752 
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island 752 
Notes and Questions 761 
Are Development Moratoria Temporary 
Takings? The Tahoe-Sierra Decision 762 
Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe 
Regional Planning Agency 763 
Notes and Questions 771 
3. Regulatory Exactions 772 
Dolan v. City of Tigard 773 
Notes and Questions 782 
Lingle v. Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. 784 
Notes and Questions 786 
Problem Exercise: Environmental Remediation 
and the Takings Clause 787 
4. Regulatory Takings and Competing Conceptions of 
Property Rights 788 
Titus, Rising Seas, Coastal Erosion, and 
The Takings Clause: How to Save 
Wetlands and Beaches Without Hurting 
Property Owners 790 
Notes and Questions 793 
xx Contents 
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8 
Environmental Impact Assessment 795 
A. THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT: 
AN OVERVIEW 796 
Structure of the National Environmental Policy Act 796 
Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee v. 
United States Atomic Energy Commission 798 
Notes and Questions 801 
Strycker¿s Bay Neighborhood Council, Inc. v. Karlen 802 
Notes and Questions 804 
B. UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES MUST AN 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 
BE PREPARED? 805 
1. ¿¿Proposals for Legislation and Other Major Federal Actions¿¿ 805 
a. ¿¿Proposals for Legislation¿¿ 805 
Implementing NEPA: A Pathfinder 807 
b. ¿¿Major Federal Action¿¿ 808 
c. Problems of Timing and Scope 810 
Kleppe v. Sierra Club 810 
Notes and Questions 814 
Thomas v. Peterson 815 
Notes and Questions 818 
Sierra Club v. Peterson 818 
Notes and Questions 822 
2. ¿¿Significantly Affecting the Quality of the Human 
Environment¿¿ 823 
Hanly v. Kleindienst 824 
Notes and Questions 828 
a. Procedure for Determining Whether or Not to 
Prepare an EIS 828 
b. Determining the ¿¿Significance¿¿ of Action 829 
Notes and Questions 830 
c. What ¿¿Effects¿¿ Must Be Considered 831 
Dept. of Transportation v. Public Citizen 832 
Notes and Questions 836 
Problem Exercise: Should the FCC Prepare 
an EIS Assessing the Cumulative Impact of 
Cellphone Tower Construction? 837 
C. IS THE EIS ADEQUATE? 838 
1. Alternatives 839 
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. NRDC 840 
Notes and Questions 843 
2. Analysis 844 
a. Quality of the Analysis in an EIS 845 
Sierra Club v. United States Army Corps of Engineers 845 
Notes and Questions 848 
Marsh v. Oregon Natural Resources Council 849 
Notes and Questions 851 
Contents xxi 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-21]
b. Timing and Scope Revisited 852 
Notes and Questions 853 
c. Analysis in Uncertainty 854 
Notes and Questions 855 
Problem Exercise: Should EISs for Nuclear Facilities 
Consider the Risks of Terrorist Attacks? 855 
D. EPILOGUE: HOW WELL DOES NEPA WORK? 857 
Dreher, NEPA Under Seige (2005) 857 
Notes and Questions 860 
9 
Preservation of Biodiversity 863 
A. WHY SHOULD WE PRESERVE BIODIVERSITY? 864 
E. O. Wilson, Biophilia 864 
Notes and Questions 866 
B. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: AN OVERVIEW 868 
Major Provisions of the Endangered Species Act 868 
TVA v. Hill 870 
Notes and Questions 874 
C. FEDERAL AUTHORITY TO PRESERVE BIODIVERSITY 876 
National Ass¿n of Homebuilders v. Babbitt 877 
Notes and Questions 886 
Gibbs v. Babbitt 886 
Notes and Questions 896 
D. WHICH SPECIES ARE PROTECTED: SECTION 4 898 
Species Listing Determinations: Resource 
Constraints 902 
Protection of Biodiversity: A Pathfinder 903 
E. REVIEW OF FEDERAL ACTIONS: SECTION 7 903 
Thomas v. Peterson 904 
Notes and Questions 906 
Roosevelt Campobello International Park 
Commission v. EPA 908 
Notes and Questions 911 
Carson-Truckee Water Conservancy District v. Clark 912 
Notes and Questions 913 
F. PROTECTION AGAINST PRIVATE ACTION: SECTION 9 915 
Notes and Questions 916 
Private Actions, Incidental Takings, and Habitat 
Conservation Plans 917 
Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for 
a Great Oregon 918 
Notes and Questions 925 
N.Y. Times, Ignoring Pleas of Environmentalists, 
Kansas Man Digs Up Virgin Prairie 929 
Notes and Questions 930 
Problem Exercise: The Endangered Species Act 931 
xxii Contents 
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G. NEW APPROACHES TO BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION 931 
1. The Northwest Forest Plan; An Ecosystem Approach 931 
2. Reauthorizing the Endangered Species Act 934 
10 
Environmental Enforcement 937 
A. MONITORING AND DETECTING VIOLATIONS 938 
EPA, Final Policy Statement on Incentives 
for Self-Policing of Violations 941 
Notes and Questions 945 
B. ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES AND POLICIES 947 
1. Enforcement Authorities 948 
Enforcement Provisions of the Clean Water Act 948 
2. Penalty Policies 950 
Sierra Club v. Cedar Point Oil Co. 950 
Notes and Questions 952 
3. The Federal-State Enforcement Relationship 953 
Harmon Industries v. Browner 954 
Notes and Questions 958 
C. CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT 962 
United States v. Weitzenhoff 964 
Notes and Questions 973 
D. STANDING AND CITIZEN ACCESS TO THE COURTS 977 
Sierra Club v. Morion 977 
Notes and Questions 981 
Standing Doctrine in Environmental Cases 
After Sierra Club v. Morion 983 
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife 986 
Notes and Questions 994 
The Zone of Interests Test and Standing 
for Business Interests 997 
E. CITIZEN SUITS 998 
1. Citizen Suit Provisions in the APA and the Federal 
Environmental Laws 998 
Norton v. Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance 999 
Notes and Questions 1005 
2. Citizen Enforcement Actions and the Gwaltney Problem 1005 
Gwaltney of Smithfield Ltd. v. Chesapeake Bay Foundation 1007 
Notes and Questions 1011 
The Congressional Response to Gwaltney 1012 
The Gwaltney Remand 1013 
Citizen Suits in the Aftermath of Gwaltney 1013 
3. Standing in Citizen Enforcement Actions 1014 
Friends of the Earth v. Laidlaw Environmental Services 1017 
Notes and Questions 1022 
4. Government Preclusion of Citizen Suits 1024 
5. Permit Shields 1026 
Atlantic States Legal Foundation, Inc. v. Eastman 
Kodak Co. 1027 
Contents xxiii 
Environmental Regulation: Law, Science, and Policy (Percival) 6-12-06 18:30:56 [pp-23]
Notes and Questions 1030 
Problem Exercise: Citizen Enforcement 
of the Clean Water Act 1031 
6. The Eleventh Amendment and Citizen Suits Against States 1033 
F. ENFORCEMENT AGAINST FEDERAL FACILITIES 1034 
11 
Protection of the Global Environment 1039 
A. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 1040 
International Environmental Law: A Pathfinder 1041 
1. The UN Conferences 1043 
United Nations Conference on Environment 
and Development, Declaration of Principles 1044 
Notes and Questions 1045 
The World Summit on Sustainable Development 1045 
Notes and Questions 1046 
2. International Adjudication of Environmental Disputes 1047 
International Court of Justice, Case Concerning 
the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project 1048 
Notes and Questions 1049 
B. PROTECTION OF THE GLOBAL ATMOSHPERE 1050 
1. Oxone Depletion 1050 
a. Scientific Warnings 1050 
b. The Montreal Protocol 1052 
c. Accelerating the Phaseout 1053 
Notes and Questions 1055 
2. Global Climate Change 1056 
a. Science and the ¿¿Greenhouse Effect¿¿ 1056 
National Research Council, Climate Change 
Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions 1059 
Climate Science: The Continuing Debate 1061 
b. Legal and Policy Responses to Global Warming and 
Climate Change 1062 
Kyoto Protocol to the Convention on Climate 
Change 1063 
Notes and Questions 1066 
Problem Exercise: Legal and Policy Strategies 
to Combat Climate Change 1071 
C. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1072 
1. Overview 1072 
Fredriksson, Trade, Global Policy, and the 
Environment: New Evidence and Issues 1075 
Notes and Questions 1077 
2. The GATT and WTO 1078 
GATT Council, United States¿Restrictions on 
Imports of Tuna: Report of the Panel 1991 1079 
Notes and Questions 1082 
The Tuna/Dolphin II Decision 1083 
xxiv Contents 
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Notes and Questions 1085 
The Shrimp/Turtle Decision 1087 
Notes and Questions 1089 
3. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 
and the Environment 1091 
4. International Trade in Hazardous Substances 1094 
a. Policy Issues 1094 
b. Regulation of International Trade in Hazardous 
Substances 1096 
Tort Litigation in the United States for 
Actions Abroad by U.S. Multinationals 1096 
Notes and Questions 1099 
Beanal v. Freeport-McMoran, Inc. 1101 
Notes and Questions 1104 
D. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND THE 
ENVIRONMENT 1106 
1. Multilateral Development Banks 1106 
Seymour and Dubash, World Bank¿s 
Environmental Reform, Agenda 1107 
Notes and Questions 1109 
2. The Global Environment Facility 1112 
Horta, In Focus: Global Environment Facility 1112 
Problems with Current U.S. Policy . . . 1113 
Notes and Questions 1114 
E. COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT 1115 
Weiss and Jacobson, Getting Countries to 
Comply with International Agreements 1115 
Zaelke, Stilwell, and Young, What Reason 
Demands: Making Laws Work for 
Sustainable Development 1117 
Notes and Questions 1119 
Promoting Voluntary Corporate Actions to 
Improve the Environment 1120 
Notes and Questions 1122 
Problem Exercise: Structuring an International 
Agreement to Regulate 1123 
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) 1123 
The Equator Principles 1124 
Notes and Questions 1125 
12 
Environmental Progress and Prospects 1127 
A. ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS 1128 
Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental 
Quality, 25th Anniversary Report 1128 
Notes and Questions 1130 
Graham, The Morning After Earth Day 1130 
Notes and Questions 1133 
Contents xxv 
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B. ENVIRONMENTAL PROSPECTS 1134 
A New Way of Living with Nature 1134 
Notes and Questions 1135 
Easterbrook, A Moment on the Earth: 
The Coming Age of Environmental Optimism 1136 
Notes and Questions 1140 
Environmental Defense Fund, A Moment 
of Truth: Correcting the Scientific Errors 
in Gregg Easterbrook¿s A Moment on the Earth 1141 
Notes and Questions 1143 
Easterbrook Round II? Bjorn Lomborg¿s 
¿¿Skeptical Environmentalist¿¿ 1143 
Notes and Questions 1145 
President¿s Council on Sustainable Development, 
Towards a Sustainable America 1146 
The Environmental Protection System, Past 
and Future Goals 1146 
Information and Data 1147 
Evolution of the Regulatory System 1147 
Expanded Set of Policy Tools 1148 
Federal-State Partnerships 1148 
Federal Policy Integration 1149 
Other Themes in Next Generation Reports 1149 
Notes and Questions 1149 
Esty and Chertow, A Vision for the Future 1150 
Notes and Questions 1153 
C. SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS 1153 
APPENDIX A 
Glossary 1155 
APPENDIX B 
List of Acronyms 1175 
Table of Cases 1181 
Index 0000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Environmental law -- United States.
Environmental law -- United States -- Cases.
Environmental policy -- United States.
Environmental protection.