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Understanding The Political World1 Politics and Knowledge3 On Politics3 Types of Political Knowledge4 Description7 Explanation8 Prescription8 Sources of Political Knowledge9 Authority9 Personal Thought12 Science13 Political Science14 Political “Science”?18 Criticisms of Political Science as a “Science”18 Political Science as a Means of Understanding the Political World20 Where Is This Book Going?21 Political Theory and Political Beliefs25 Normative Political Theory26 Thomas Hobbes26 Political Ideology27 Conservatism28 Classical Liberalism30 Socialism31 Some Further Points About “Isms”35 Individual Political Beliefs38 Types of Orientations39 Identifying Specific Beliefs40 Belief Systems41 Belief Systems Among Mass Publics42 Belief Systems Among Elites43 Political Culture44 National Character Studies44 Survey Research45 Looking Ahead48 Political Actions53 Individual Political Actions54 Modes of Political Activity54 Political Activists56 Political Participation Studies58 Group Political Actions62 Political Interest Groups63 Activities of Political Interest Groups63 Constraints on a Group’s Behavior66 Types of Interest Groups69 Political Parties71 Activities of Political Parties71 Doing Politics75 Influences on Beliefs and Actions83 The Environment84 Agents of Political Socialization87 The Family87 The Schools88 Peer Groups89 The Media and Culture92 Events96 Personal Characteristics96 Political “Personality”102 Personality102 Human Nature105 Concluding Observations105 States and Nations111 The State111 A Legal Definition112 A Structural-Functional Definition115 The Domain of State Action118 The Nation120 The Political System124 Systems in General124 The Political System Defined125 Conceptualization of the Political System129 System Persistence131 The Utility of the Political Systems Approach135 Three Major Concepts: A Reprise135 Political Institutions I: Structures141 The Legislature142 Roles of the Legislature142 Structural Arrangements145 The Decline of Legislatures146 Executives149 Roles of Executives150 Structural Arrangements151 The Age of the Executive?154 The Administration154 Bureaucracy as One Form of Administration155 Administrative Functions and Power157 The Judiciary158 Aspects of Adjudication158 Judicial Structures159 Concluding Observations161 Political Institutions II: Institutional Arrangements169 Broad Taxonomies170 Democracies and Nondemocracies170 Defining Democracy172 Defining Nondemocracies178 A Democracy¿Nondemocracy Continuum179 Constitutional and Nonconstitutional Regimes184 Constitutions184 Constitutional Regimes187 Nonconstitutional Regimes187 Areal Distribution of Power188 Unitary State188 Federation188 Confederation190 Forms of Executive-Legislative Relations191 Presidential Government191 Parliamentary (Cabinet) Government192 Hybrid Systems194 Council Systems196 Assembly Systems196 Which Form Is Optimal?197 Political Party Systems197 Two-Party Systems198 Multiparty Systems199 Dominant-Party Systems202 One-Party Systems202 No-Party Systems203 Classification and Clarity203 Political Economy209 Politics and Economics209 A political-economic framework210 Factors, Firms, and Households/Consumers210 Getting and Spending213 The State Joins In214 The World Joins In215 The Grand Total216 Two Ideal-Type Political Economies216 The Market Economy: Total Private Control219 The Command Economy: Total State Control222 Key Problems for Each Ideal-Type Political Economy223 Market Economy224 Command Economy224 The Mixed Economy225 Politics plus political economy: The other “Isms”226 The Three “Isms”226 The Real World228 Concluding Observations231 Public Policy, Power, and Decision237 Public Policy237 Taxonomies of Public Policies238 Analysis of the Stages of the Policy Process240 Policy Impact Analysis241 Explaining Public Policy Decision Making242 The Elite Approach243 Key Concepts243 Major Theorists244 The Public Policy Process244 The Prevalence of Elite-Based Political Systems245 The Class Approach247 The Public Policy Process249 The Group Approach250 The Policy Making Process251 The Three Approaches Compared254 Which Approach Is Correct?254 Essential Similarities and Differences255 Change and Political Development261 Change262 Development263 Characteristics of “More Developed” Human Systems263 The Process of Development264 The Dynamics of Economic Development269 Political Development276 Characteristics of Political Development276 The Process of Political Development277 Political Development as Democratization281 Political Institutionalization and Political Decay282 Achieving Political Development284 World of Changes285 Politics Across Borders291 The Goals of States292 Realist and Idealist Perspectives on the State’s “Motives”292 Major Goals293 Mechanisms of Cooperation Between States295 Diplomacy and Interstate Agreements295 International Law299 International Organizations300 Competition Among States307 Balance of Power307 Balance of Terror309 Domination and Dependence310 Globalization?314 Competition in the Globalized, Post¿Cold War World318 Political Violence325 Violence326 Political Society327 Types of Political Violence327 State Violence Against Individuals or Groups328 Individual Violence Against an Individual329 Group Violence Against an Individual330 Group Violence Against a Group333 Individual or Group Violence Against the State337 Use of Force Between States343 War344 What Causes War?348 Evaluating Political Violence: Means and Ends351 The Developed Countries359 An Introduction to the Next Three Chapters: Grouping the States in the Contemporary World359 The Developed Countries of the Global North360 The Developing Countries of the Global South361 The Transitional Developed Countries361 Images of the Developed Countries362 Political Culture364 Goal: Prosperity366 Mixed Economy366 Performance369 Challenges371 Goal: Stability376 Political Institutionalization376 Order Maintenance378 Challenges to Stability380 Goal: Security384 The Era of Colonialism385 The Cold War Period385 Challenges to Security in the Post¿Cold War Period386 The Developed Countries Overall387 The Developing Countries393 Images of the Developing World393 Developmental Classification393 Regional Classification394 Goal: Prosperity398 Obstacles to Prosperity400 The Quest for Prosperity: Strategic Choices404 Current Outcomes411 Prognosis416 Goal: Security416 Interstate Violence416 Economic Security420 Goal: Stability421 Challenges to Political System Effectiveness421 The Decline of Political Order422 Democratization425 Political Approaches427 Concluding Observations: It’s Getting Better all the Time(?)431 The Transitional Developed Countries437 The Postcommunist Developed Countries437 Political Culture439 Under Communism439 Postcommunism440 Goal: Prosperity440 Under Communism440 Postcommunism441 Goal: Stability448 Under Communism448 Postcommunism451 Goal: Security456 Under Communism456 Postcommunism457 The Newly Industrializing Countries457 Political Culture458 Goal: Prosperity459 Goal: Stability465 Goal: Security466 The Future of the Transitional Developed Countries467 The Postcommunist Developed Countries467 The NICs468 Next?468 The Last Chapter: Looking Backward, Looking Forward473 Political Outputs474 Political Structures475 Political Processes475 Political Change476 Direction476 Rate476 Controllability477 Into the Twenty-First Century: Understanding and Action477 Challenge 1: The Quest for Harmony with Our Technology477 Challenge 2: The Quest for Harmony with Planet Earth478 Challenge 3: The Quest for Harmony with One Another484 Choosing a Future484
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