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Table of Contents Foreword Chapter 1 -- Archaeological Theory and Archaeological Evidence I. Anglo-American Theoretical Archaeology from c. 1960 to the Present -- a brief overview II. Back to the Future -- or towards an interpretative and explanatory culture history III. The Devolution of Urban Society -- moving beyond neo-evolutionary accounts IV. Steppe Archaeology and the Identification -- and Proliferation -- of Archaeological Cultures V. Chronological Conundrums -- the application of calibrated C14 determinations for the archaeology of the Eurasian steppes VI. Inherent Limitations of the Present Study Chapter 2 -- The Chalcolithic Prelude: from social hierarchies and giant settlements to the emergence of mobile economies, c. 4500--3500 BC I. The Production and Exchange of Copper from the Balkans to the Volga in the 5th and 4th Millennia BC -- the Carpatho-Balkan Metallurgical Province (CBMP) II. The Form and Economy of the Gigantic Tripol'ye Settlements -- nucleation of population and the development of extensive agriculture and animal husbandry, particularly the herding of cattle III. An Overview to the Social Archaeology of the Chalcolithic from the Northern Balkans to the Volga and Beyond from the 5th to the 2nd Half of the 4th Millennium BC IV. The Collapse of the Southeastern European Copper Age -- single and multi-causal explanations from invading nomads, environmental crises to shifts in inter-regional relations Chapter 3 -- The Caucasus -- donor and recipient of materials, technologies, and peoples to and from the Ancient Near East I. The Caucasus -- physical and environmental features and a consideration of earlier Chalcolithic developments II. The Maikop Culture of the Northern Caucasus -- a review of its kurgans, settlements, and metals; accounting for its origins and wealth and a consideration of its subsistence economy III. The Kura-Araxes Cultural Community (Obshchnost') of Transcaucasia -- the history of its research and periodization of the culture and the distribution of its settlements documenting the initial dense occupation of different altitudinal zones in the southern Caucasus; the nature of their settlements and evidence for social differentiation; evidence for the spread of Kura-Araxes peoples into the Near East in the late 4th to middle 3rd millennium BC IV. The Caspian Coastal Plain of Southeastern Daghestan and Northeastern Azerbaijan -- the Velikent Early and Middle Bronze 'component' of the Kura- Araxes 'cultural historical community;' Culture; the sequence from Velikent and related Bronze Age sites, c. 3600--1900 BC V. The Early Kurgan Cultures of Transcaucasia -- the arrivals of new peoples, changes in subsistence economic practices, and the emergence of social complexity VI. Conclusion -- some later developments in Caucasian prehistory and shifts in the production and exchange of metals Chapter 4 -- Taming the Steppe -- The Development of Mobile Economies: from Cattle Herders with Wagons to Horseback Riders Tending Mixed Herds: the Continued Eastward Expansion of Large-Scale Metallurgical Production and Exchange I. Archaeology on the Western Eurasian Steppes -- a short sketch of the recognition of cultural diversity and its relative periodization II. New Perspectives on Pre-Pit Grave Interconnections on the Western Eurasian Steppes III. Horse Domestication and the Emergence of Eurasian Mounted Pastoral Nomadism IV. Bronze Age Life on the Steppes: Pit Graves to Timber Graves -- major patterns of development and changes in ways of life V. Bronze Age Herding vs. Eurasian Mounted Pastoral Nomadism VI. The Transformation and Eastward Expansion of Metallurgy During the Late Bronze Age; Accounting for Its Social Organization -- the contrastive highly centralized 'gulag' or flexible?opportunistic 'gold rush' models Chapter 5 -- Entering a Sown World of Irrigation Agriculture -- From the Steppes to Central Asia and Beyond: processes of movement, assimilation and transformation into the 'civilized' world east of Sumer I. Archaeological Explorations in Western Central Asia from the Excavations at Anau to the Discovery of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or 'Oxus Civilization'): the evolutionary heritage of Soviet and Western Archaeology in Central Asia II. Physical Features of the Land -- deserts, mountains, and sources of water; environmental changes and adaptations to arid environments: irrigation agriculture and extensive herding and seasonal transhumance III. The Two Worlds of Western Central Asia: 'Civilized' and 'Barbarian'; archaeological transformations -- mobile cattle herders become irrigation agriculturalists; the multiple origins, florescence, and collapse of the Bactrica- Margiana Archaeological Complex IV. Secondary States East of Sumer c. 2600--1900 BC -- cycles of integration and collapse; shifts in patterns of exchange and inter-regional relations from the Late Chalcolithic through the Middle Bronze Age V. Jiroft-Halil Rud: a newly discovered regional polity or secondary state east of Sumer in southeastern Iran VI. Archaeology, Language, and the Ethnic Identification of Material Culture Remains -- pitfalls and lessons Chapter 6 -- The Circulation of Peoples and Materials: Evolution, Devolution, and Recurrent Social Formations on the Eurasian Steppes and in West Asia: Patterns and Processes of Interconnection during Later Prehistory I. Modeling the 'World(s)' of Bronze Age Eurasia II. The Functional Use of Metals, Rising Militarism, and the Advent of Iron III. Evolution and Devolution in Bronze Age Eurasia -- culture history in archaeology as the search for macro-historical patterns and processes rather than the compilation of data; social evolution as 'world' history Appendix A -- Towards and Integration of the 'Absolute' Chronologies of the Eurasian Steppes, the Caucasus and Western Central Asia during the Bronze Age References Cited Biographical Sketches
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Bronze age -- Eurasia.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Eurasia.
Eurasia -- Antiquities.