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CONTENTS IN BRIEF Preface PART I STRESS AND WELLNESS Chapter 1 What is Stress? Chapter 2 The Emotional and Intellectual Basis of Stress Chapter 3 The Environmental and Occupational Basis of Stress Chapter 4 The Social and Spiritual Basis of Stress Chapter 5 The Physical Basis of Stress Chapter 6 The Effects of Stress on the Body and Mind PART II THE FIVE RS OF COPING WITH STRESS Chapter 7 Rethink: Changing the Way You View Things Chapter 8 Reduce: Finding Our Optimal Level of Stress Chapter 9 Relax: Using Relaxation Techniques to Offset the Effects of Stress Chapter 10 Release: Using Physical Activity to Dissipate the Effects of Stress Chapter 11 Reorganize: Becoming More Stress-Resistant by Improving Your Health PART III STRESS: A DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE Chapter 12 Childhood and Adolescent Stress Chapter 13 Young Adulthood: Relationships, College, and Other Challenges Chapter 14 Stress in Adulthood and Older Adulthood Epilogue: Coping with Stress in a Changing World Credits Glossary Index Detailed Table of Contents Preface PART I STRESS AND WELLNESS Chapter 1 What is Stress? Four Common Ways of Describing Stress Stress as Response Stress as Stimulus Stress as a Transaction Stress as a Holistic Health Phenomenon A New Definition of Stress Chapter 2 The Emotional and Intellectual Basis of Stress The Emotional Basis of Stress Emotions & Stress Lazarus' Stress Emotions Emotions in Japanese Psychotherapy Emotional Development and Personality Behaviorism Psychoanalytic Theory Piaget's Theory Kohlberg's Theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Stress and Personality Stress-Prone Personality Types Stress-Resistant Personality Types The Intellectual Basis of Stress Intelligence Life Experience Verbal and Written Communication Creativity Problem Solving Ability Emotional Intelligence Emotions, Moods, Temperament, and Disorders Five Criteria for emotional Intelligence The Convergence of Intellectual and Emotional Factors Primary Stress Appraisal Secondary Stress Appraisal Cognitive Reappraisal Chapter 3 The Environmental and Occupational Basis of Stress Our Personal Environment Environmental Stress and Strain Lighting Strain Climate Air Quality Noise Pollution Ergonomics Ergonomics in the Home Ergonomics in the Workplace Ergonomics in Action: Computer Workstations Work-Related Stress The Changing Workplace Measuring Occupational Stress The NIOSH Model of Job Stress Stressful Job Conditions Individual and Situational Factors A Transactional Model for Explaining Occupational and Environmental Stress Chapter 4 The Social and Spiritual Basis of Stress The Social Dimension: Social Support and Stress Measuring Social Support How Social Support Moderates Stress Health Effects of Social Support Life Experiences and Stress Daily Hassles and Uplifts Major Life Events and Stress Chronic Negative Social Problems Poverty Economic Uncertainty Discrimination, Prejudice and Stress Stereotypes and Stress Spirituality and Stress Religion, Faith, & Spirituality How Spirituality Moderates Stress The Health Effects of Faith, Religion, & Spirituality Spiritual Distress and Illness HOPE for Spiritual Distress Chapter 5 The Physical Basis of Stress Overview of the Major Body Systems Involved in the Stress Response Communication, Control, and Integration Transportation and Defense Support and Movement: The Muscular System Respiration, Nutrition, and Excretion Fight-or-Flight: An Alarm Reaction The Neural Axis The Peripheral Nervous System The Neuroendocrine Axis Resistance: A Chronic, Long-Term Stress Response The Physiology of Resistance The Physiology of Exhaustion A Critical Look at the General Adaptation Syndrome Chapter 6 The Effects of Stress on the Body and Mind From Stress to Disease The Medical Model Psychosomatic Model The Effects of Acute, High-Level Stress on Disease Acute Stress Effects on Physical Illness Acute Stress Effects on Psychological Illness The Effects of Chronic, Low-Level Stress on Disease Effects of Chronic Stress on Physical Illness Effects of Chronic Stress on Psychological Illness Stress and Suicide PART II THE FIVE RS OF COPING WITH STRESS Chapter 7 Rethink: Changing the Way You View Things Rethinking Your Perspective on the World Knowing What You Value Purposeful Living and Goal Setting Putting Things in their Proper Perspective Reducing Stress by Enjoying Life More Changing Perspective By Slowing the Pace of Your Life Rethinking The Way You View Stressors Becoming More Logical and Optimistic in Our Thinking Where East Meets West: Using Morita & Naikan Therapies to Rethink How we View Potential Stressors Changing Our Perspective by Rethinking Road Rage, Anger on the Highway Chapter 8 Reduce: Finding Our Optimal Level of Stress Stimulation, Demand and Stress Finding Your Optimal Level of Stimulation Categories of Stressors The Three A's of Coping Managing Your Limited Resources Managing Our Scale of Living Managing Limited Financial Resources Managing Your Limited Time Managing School, Work, and Home Space Resources Reducing Stress by Communicating More Effectively A Model for Effective Communication Building Communication Skills Reducing Stress by Learning to Say No Asserting Yourself Verbal Assertiveness: The DESC Model Chapter 9 Relax: Using Relaxation Techniques to Offset the Effects of Stress The Stressed State Compared to the Relaxed State The Stressed State: A Quick Review The Relaxed State Breathing and Relaxation Diaphragmatic Breathing to Reduce Stress Meditation Historical and Cultural Origins of Meditation Benefits of Meditation Focused and Open Meditation Visualization Creating Personal Visualization Autogenics Instructions for Performing Autogenics The Quieting Reflex and the Calming Response The Quieting Reflex The Calming Response Biofeedback How Biofeedback Works Types of Biofeedback Hobbies, Entertainment, Recreational Activities and Stress Relaxation vs. Entertainment Using Hobbies, Entertainment and Recreational Pursuits to Relax Chapter 10 Release: Using Physical Activity to Dissipate the Effects of Stress Fight-or-Flight Revisited The Health Benefits of Exercise and Physical Activity Physiological Benefits Psychological Benefits The Effects of Physical Activity on Stress Mild, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity The Effects of Mild Physical Activity on Stress The Effects of Moderate Physical Activity on Stress The Effects of Vigorous Physical Activity on Stress Chapter 11 Reorganize: Becoming More Stress-Resistant by Improving Your Health A Lifestyle-Based Approach to Coping Moving Toward Optimal Functioning High-Level Health and Stress Management A Two-Pronged Model for Reorganizing our Health Reorganizing the Environmental/Occupational Dimension of Health Reorganizing the Environmental Dimension of Health Reorganizing the Occupational Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Occupational Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Occupational Dimension Reorganizing the Social Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Social Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Social Dimension Reorganizing the Spiritual Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Spiritual Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Spiritual Dimension Reorganizing the Intellectual Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Emotional Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Emotional Dimension Reorganizing the Emotional Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Emotional Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Emotional Dimension Reorganizing the Physical Dimension of Health A Problem-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Physical Dimension An Emotion-Focused Approach to Strengthening the Physical Dimension Wellness and Coping PART III STRESS: A DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE Chapter 12 Childhood and Adolescent Stress Erikson's Stages of Development Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Early Childhood: 18 to 36 Months Late Childhood: 3 to 5 Years School Age: 6 to 12 Years Coping with Parenting Children Using the Five Rs Teaching Your Child to Rethink Teaching Your Child to Reduce Teaching Your Child to Relax Teaching Your Child to Release Teaching Your Child to Reorganize Erikson's Fifth Stage: Adolescence Puberty Puberty, Sex, and Stress Chronic Depression and Suicide School and Stress Social Pressures Planning for the Future Coping with Parenting Adolescents Using the Five Rs Teaching Your Adolescent to Rethink Teaching Your Adolescent to Reduce Teaching Your Adolescent to Relax Teaching Your Adolescent to Release Teaching Your Adolescent to Reorganize Chapter 13 Young Adulthood: Relationships, College, and Other Challenges The Challenges of Young Adulthood Friendship and Intimate Relationships Forming Friendships What is Intimacy? Forming Intimate Relationships Dating and Breaking Up Love College Sexual Standards Living Arrangements of College Students Intimacy, Sexuality, and Stress Sexual Victimization Sexual Harassment in College Sexually Transmitted Diseases College, Work, and Stress Academics and Stress Financial and Career-Related Stressors Paying for College ( B Head) Student Debt Working During College ( B head) Coping with the Stress of Young Adulthood by Using the Five Rs Rethink Strategies Reduce Strategies Relax Strategies Release Strategies Reorganize Strategies Chapter 14 Stress in Adulthood and Older Adulthood Erikson's Last Two Stages The Meaning of Work A Multidisciplinary Look at Work The Six Dimensions of Work Understanding Erikson's Major Developmental Task of Adulthood Using the Six Dimensions of Work Work As a Potential Stressor The Culture of Work Changing Work Status Changes in Financial Status Changes in Daily Activities ( B Head) Retirement The Meaning of Community and Living Environment Non-Age-Restricted Housing Age-Restricted Housing Other Types of Living Environments Relationships in Adulthood and Older Adulthood Single-hood Stress Associated With Being Single Cohabitation Stress Associated With Cohabitation Marriage and Long-Term Gay and Lesbian Relationships Stress Associated with Marriage and Long-Term Gay and Lesbian Relationships Divorce Stress Associated with Divorce( B head) Aging and Changing Health Status Healthy Aging and Premature Disability and Death Changing Health Status as a Source of Stress Thinking about Our Own Mortality ( B Head) Widowhood Loss, Grief, and Bereavement Stress Coping with Adulthood and Older Adulthood Stress Using the Five Rs ( A head) Rethink Strategies Reduce Strategies Relax Strategies Release Strategies Reorganize Strategies Epilogue: Coping with Stress in a Changing World Credits Glossary Index
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