Table of contents for Essentials of behavioral research : methods and data analysis / Robert Rosenthal, Ralph L. Rosnow.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Part I. Conceptual and Ethical Foundations
1. The Spirit of Behavioral Research
 Science and the Search for Knowledge
 What Do Behavioral Researchers Really Know?
 Social Constructionism
 Evolutionary Epistemology
 Peirce's Four Ways of Knowing
 Rhetoric, Perceptibility, and Aesthetics
 Limitations of the Four Supports of Conviction
 Behavioral Research Defined
 Three Broad Research Orientations
 The Descriptive Research Orientation
 The Relational Research Orientation
 The Experimental Research Orientation
 Empirical Principles as Probabilistic Assertions
 Orienting Habits of Good Scientific Practice
2. Contexts of Discovery and Justification
 Inspiration and Explanation
 Theories and Hypotheses
 Sources of Inspiration and Insight
 Serendipity in Behavioral Research
 Molding Ideas Into Working Hypotheses
 Positivism, Falsificationism, and Conventionalism
 Type I and Type II Decision Errors
 Statistical Significance and the Effect Size
 Two Families of Effect Sizes
 Interval Estimates Around Effect Sizes
 Summing Up
3. Ethical Considerations, Dilemmas, and Guidelines
 Puzzles and Problems
 A Delicate Balancing Act
 Historical Context of the APA Code
 The Belmont Report, Federal Regulations, and the IRB
 Principle I: Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy
 Principle II: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
 Principle III: Justice
 Principle IV: Trust
 Principle V: Fidelity and Scientific Integrity
 Costs, Utilities, and Institutional Review Boards
 Scientific and Societal Responsibilities
Part II. Operationalization and Measurement of Dependent Variables
4. Reliability and Validity of Measurements
 Random and Systematic Error
 Assessing Stability and Equivalence
 Internal-Consistency Reliability and Spearman-Brown
 KR20 and Cronbach's Alpha
 Effective Reliability of Judges
 Effective Cost of Judges
 Effective Cost of Items
 Interrater Agreement and Reliability
 Cohen's Kappa
 Replication in Research
 Validity Criteria in Assessment
 Convergent and Discriminant Validity
 Test Validity, Practical Utility, and the Taylor-Russell Tables
 Relationship of Validity to Reliability
5. Observations, Judgments, and Composite Variables
 Observing, Classifying, and Evaluating
 Observing While Participating
 Maximizing Credibility and Serendipity
 Organizing and Sense-Making in Ethnographic Research
 Interpreter and Observer Biases
 Unobtrusive Observations and Nonreactive Measurements
 Selecting the Most Appropriate Judges
 Choosing the Number of Response Alternatives
 Effects of Guessing and Omissions on Accuracy
 Intrinsic Factors and the Level of Accuracy
 Applications of Categorical Judgments
 Category Scales and Rating Scales
 Numerical, Graphic, and Magnitude Ratings
 Rating Biases and Their Control
 Bipolar Versus Unipolar Scales
 Forming Composite Variables
 Forming Multiple Composites
 Quantifying the Clarity of Composites
6. Questionnaires, Interviews, and Diaries
 Concerns About Self-Report Data
 Open-Ended Versus Structured Items
 Critical Incident Technique
 Stages in Developing Interview Protocols
 Research Interviews By Telephone
 Developing Research Questionnaires
 Defensiveness, Inconsistency, and Yea-Saying
 Cross-Cultural Questionnaire and Interview Research
 One-Dimensional and Multidimensional Attitude Scales
 Semantic Differentials for Attitudinal Meaning
 Q-Sorts for Subjectivity Ratings
 Likert Method of Item Analysis
 Thurstone Equal-Appearing Intervals Method
 Memory and the Use of Self-Recorded Diaries
Part III. The Logic of Research Designs
7. Randomized Controlled Experiments and Causal Inference
 Experimentation in Science
 Randomized Experimental Designs
 Characteristics of Randomization
 The Philosophical Puzzle of Causality
 Contiguity, Priority, and Constant Conjunction
 Four Types of Experimental Control
 Mill's Methods of Agreement and Difference
 Between-Group Designs and Mill's Joint Method
 Independent, Dependent, and Moderator Variables
 Solomon's Extended Control Group Design
 Threats to Internal Validity
 Threats to External Validity
 Statistical Conclusion and Construct Validity
 Subject and Experimenter Artifacts
 Demand Characteristics and Their Control
 Interactional Experimenter Effects
 Experimenter Expectancy Effects and Their Control
 Concluding Commentary
8. Nonrandomized Research and Functional Relationships
 Nonrandomized and Quasi-Experimental Studies
 Nonequivalent Groups and Historical Controls
 Interrupted Time-Series and ARIMA
 Single-Case Experimental Designs
 Cross-Lagged Correlational Designs
 Invisible Variables and the Mediation Problem
 Path Analysis and Causal Inference
 The Cohort in Longitudinal Research
 Different Forms of Cohort Studies
 Subclassification on Propensity Scores
 Multiple Confounding Covariates
9. Randomly and Nonrandomly Selected Sampling Units
 Sampling a Small Part of the Whole
 Bias and Instability in Surveys
 Simple Random Sampling Plans
 Improving Accuracy in Random Sampling
 Confidence Intervals for Population Estimates
 Speaking of Confidence Intervals
 Other Selection Procedures
 Nonresponse Bias and Its Control
 Studying the Volunteer Subject
 Characteristics of the Volunteer Subject
 Implications for the Interpretation of Research Findings
 Situational Correlates and the Reduction of Volunteer Bias
 The Problem of Missing Data
 Procedures for Dealing With Missing Data
Part IV. Fundamentals of Data Analysis
10. Describing, Displaying, and Exploring Data
 Descriptions of Sampling Units
 Frequency Diagrams and Stem-and-Leaf Displays
 Box Plots
 Comparing Distributions Back to Back
 Measures of Central Tendency
 Measures of Spread
 The Normal Distribution
 Standard Scores
 Data Not Distributed Normally
 Precision of Estimating Population Means
 Defining Outliers
 Coping With Outliers
 Exploring the Data
11. Correlation
 Pearson r
 Proportion of Variance Interpretation of Correlation
 Binomial Effect Size Display
 Confidence Intervals for Effect Size Correlations
 Small Correlations, But Important Effects
 Counternull Values of Effect Sizes
 Spearman Rank Correlation
 Ranks as a Transformation
 Observations of Disproportionate Influence
 Point-Biserial Correlation
 Exact Tests for Rho
 Phi Coefficient
 Curvilinear (Quadratic) Correlation
 Five Product-Moment Correlations
 Comparing Correlations
 Considering Third Variables
 Effects of Variability on Correlations
12. Statistical Power and Effect Size Revisited
 Why Assess Statistical Power?
 The Neglect of Statistical Power
 The requivalent Statistic
 Cohen's Multipurpose Power Tables
 The t Test For Comparing Two Means
 The Significance of a Product-Moment r
 Differences Between Correlation Coefficients
 The Test That a Proportion is .50
 The Difference Between Proportions
 The Focused Chi-Square Test
 F Tests for Focused Comparisons
 Additional Strategies for Improving Power
Part V. One-Way Designs
13. Comparing Means by Standard t Tests
 Gosset and the t Test
 Two Components of t Tests
 Maximizing t
 Effect Sizes and Adjustments for Unequal Sample Sizes
 Interpreting the Independent t
 Computing the Independent t
 Reporting the Results
 t Tests for Nonindependent Samples
 Effect Size and Study Size Components of Nonindependent t
 Assumptions Underlying t Tests
 Nonparametric Procedures
 The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and Permutation Tests
14. Analysis of Variance and the F Test
 The F Test and the t Test
 The Analysis of "Variances"
 Illustration of an Omnibus F
 Dividing Up the Total Variance
 ANOVA Summary Tables
 Distributions of F
 After the Omnibus F
 Protecting Against "Too Many t Tests"
 Bonferroni Procedures
 Bonferroni Tolerance Value
 Comparing Two Independent Variabilities
 Illustration Using Transformations
 Comparing Two Correlated Variabilities
 Comparing Three or More Independent Variabilities
 Comparing Three or More Correlated Variabilities
 Summary of Procedures for Comparing Variabilities
15. One-Way Contrast Analyses
 Focusing Our Questions and Statistical Tests
 Contrast F Tests on Original Data
 Contrast t Tests on Original Data
 Carving Contrasts Out of Published Data
 Orthogonal Contrasts
 Nonorthogonal Contrasts
 Effect Size Indices for Contrasts
 The BESD and the Binomial Effect-Size Correlation
 Overview of the Four Effect Size Indices
 Comparing Competing Contrasts
 Combining Competing Contrasts
 Optimal Design and the Allocation of Sample Sizes
Part VI. Factorial Designs
16. Factorial Analysis of Variance
 Confronting Persistent Misunderstandings
 An Economy of Design
 Effects and the Structure of ANOVA
 Individual Differences as Error
 The Table of Variance
 Testing the Grand Mean by t and F
 Unweighted Means Analysis for Equal or Unequal Sample Sizes
 Effects on F of Unequal Sample Sizes
 Unequal Sample Sizes and Contrasts
 Transcending Factorial Structure Using Contrasts
 Higher-Order Factorial Designs
 Blocking and the Increase of Power
 Blocking and the Analysis of Covariance
 Transforming Data to Remove Interactions
17. Interaction Effects in Analysis of Variance
 The Interpretation of Interaction
 Crossed and Uncrossed Combinations of Group Means
 Illustration of Mean Polishing
 Constructing Tables of Predicted Means
 Studying Interactions in Two-way Tables
 Three-way Factorial Designs
 Defining Three-way Interactions
 Further Notes on Interpretation
 Simplifying Complex Tables of Residuals
 Illustration of a Five-way Interaction
 A Note on Complexity
18. Repeated Measures in Analysis of Variance
 Use of Repeated Observations
 Basic Computations
 Fixed and Random Effects
 Error Terms in the Four Basic Combinations
 Latin Squares and Counterbalancing
 Analysis of Latin Squares
 Some Latin Squares May Be Better Than Others
 Other Counterbalancing Designs
 Three or More Factors
 Two Within-Subjects Factors
 Aggregating Error Terms
 Three Within-Subjects Factors
 Fixed or Random Factors
 Did Repeated Measures Help?
 The Intraclass r Revisited
 Composite Variables and Additional Assumptions
 Contrasts in Repeated Measures
 Hierarchically Nested Designs
 The Choice of Error Terms
Part VII. Additional Topics in Data Analysis
19. Significance Testing and Association in Tables of Counts
 Table Analysis and Chi-Square
 The 1-df Chi-Square Test
 Larger Tables of Counts
 Distributions of Chi-Square
 Procedures for Larger Contingency Tables
 Subdividing Tables to Test Specific Hypotheses
 Fisher Exact Probability Test
 Strengthening the Fisher Exact Test
 Adjustments for in 2 x 2 Tables
 Complete Partitioning of Larger Tables
 The Corner-Cells Test Subtable
 Contrasts in Proportions
 Alternative Analyses for Smaller Sample Studies
 Standardizing Row and Column Totals
 Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Risk Difference, and Phi
 One-Sample Tables of Counts
 Multiple-Choice-Type Data and the Proportion Index
20. Multivariate Data Analysis
 Redescribing Relationships Within Sets of Variables
 Cluster Analysis for Redescription
 Principal Components Analysis for Redescription
 Improving Interpretation By Rotation
 Psychometric Applications of Principal Components Analysis
 Alternatives for the Redescription of Variables
 Multidimensional Scaling Illustration
 Relationships Among Sets of Variables
21 Meta-Analysis: Comparing and Combining Research Results
 Statistical Analysis of Statistical Analyses
 Criticisms of Meta-Analysis
 Interpreting Two or More Studies
 Comparing Two Significance Levels
 Comparing Two Effect Size Correlations
 Combining Two Significance Levels
 Combining Two Effect Size Correlations
 Overall Comparisons of Three or More Studies
 Focused Comparisons of Three or More Studies
 Combining Three or More p Levels
 Combining Three or More Effect Size Correlations
 Results That Are Not Independent
 The File Drawer Problem
 An Eye to Variability
Part VIII. Appendices
A: List of Numbered Equations
B: Statistical Tables
Name Index
Subject Index (pages with the definitions of terms will be indicated in boldface)

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Psychology -- Research -- Methodology.