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I. PART 1. INTRODUCTION A. CHAPTER 1 I. VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES: BACKGROUND AND CONTENT 1. A Brief History 2. Youth Exposure II. THEORETICAL OVERVIEW AND THINGS TO COME B. CHAPTER 2 I. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO VIOLENT ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA 1. Definitions of Aggression a. Subtypes of Aggression i. Physical and violence ii. Verbal aggression iii. Relational aggression 2. Research and Review Methodologies a. Experimental, Cross-section Correlational, and Longitudinal Studies i. Three types of studies ii. Other considerations iii. Mixed designs b. Narrative and Meta-analytic Reviews 3. Science, Causality, and Alternative Explanations (9 principles) a. Scientific theories or models are causal b. Scientific causality is often probabilistic c. Establishing causality largely involves ruling out plausible alternative explanations d. Different methodologies allow triangulation on the most plausible causal mode e. Conceptual relations between variables generalize f. Laboratory paradigms are valid g. Aggression is best understood when viewed as existing along a severity continuum h. The effects of some risk factors accrue over time i. A general understanding of human aggression requires a general perspective 4. Prior Violent Television and Film Research a. Examples of Cross-Section Correlational Studies b. Examples of Experimental Studies c. Examples of Longitudinal Studies d. Summary of Prior Violent Television/Film Research 5. Prior Violent Video Game Research a. Examples of Cross-Section Correlational Studies b. Examples of Experimental Studies c. Longitudinal Studies d. Summary of Prior Violent Video Game Research i. Meta-analytic overview ii. Contextualized overview C. CHAPTER 3 I. THE GENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL 1. General Aggression Model: Overview a. A Knowledge Structures Approach b. Proximate Causes & Processes: The Social Episode c. Distal Causes & Processes: Development of Aggressive Personality 2. General Aggression Model Summary: Multiple Causes of Aggression II. A FOCUS ON DEVELOPMENT 1. Risk and Resilience 2. Developmental Tasks III. GAM, MEDIA VIOLENCE, AND AGGRESSION II. Part 2. NEW STUDIES A. CHAPTER 4 I. STUDY 1: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS 1. Methods a. Participants b. Experimental Materials and Measures i. Video games ii. Aggressive behavior c. Post-experimental Questionnaire i. Experimental game ratings ii. Violent behavior history iii. Adult involvement iv. General media use habits v. Media violence exposure d. Procedure 2. Results a. Ratings of the Assigned Video Game i. Entertainment ratings ii. Frustration ratings iii. Violence ratings iv. Summary b. Short Term Aggression in the Lab i. Game ratings ii. Main analyses c. Individual Difference Effects on Laboratory Aggression i. Media violence exposure ii. Bedroom media iii. Violence preferences iv. Adult involvement d. Media Violence Exposure and Violent Behavior i. Main regression results ii. Adult involvement as a moderator iii. Old versus new violent media iv. Summary of media violence and violent behavior results 3. Discussion B. CHAPTER 5 I. STUDY 2: CORRELATIONAL STUDY WITH HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 1. Methods a. Participants b. Materials i. Attitudes towards and beliefs about violence ii. Aggressive behavior, hostility, and anger iii. Trait forgivingness iv. Normative aggressive beliefs v. Violent behavior vi. Media exposure c. Procedure 2. Results a. Zero Order Correlations i. Video game violence effects ii. Predicting GPA iii. Attitudes towards violence iv. Positive orientation to violence b. Regression Analyses: Destructive Testing i. Video game violence and violent behavior ii. Video game violence and physical aggression iii. Video game violence and verbal aggression iv. Forgivingness and violent behavior, physical aggression & verbal aggression v. Total screen time and GPA c. Regression Analyses: Moderator Effects (sex, forgivingness, POV) d. Regression Analyses: Old versus New Violent Media 3. Discussion C. CHAPTER 6 I. STUDY 3: LONGITUDINAL STUDY WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 1. Method a. Participants b. Procedure c. Assessment of Social Adjustment i. Peer assessment of social adjustment ii. Teacher ratings of social adjustment iii. Self-report of fights d. Assessment of Media Habits i. Violent media exposure ii. Amount of television watching and video game play e. Assessment of Hostile Attribution Bias/Social Information Processing f. Composite Measures 2. Results: Correlational Analyses a. Single Point in Time Correlations b. Lagged Correlations: Looking Forward and Backward in Time 3. Results: Regression Analyses a. Destructive Testing i. Video game violence and hostile attribution bias ii. Video game violence and verbal aggression iii. Video game violence and physical aggression iv. Video game violence and prosocial behavior v. Total screen time and school performance b. Path Analyses c. Regression Analyses: Old versus New Violent Media 4. Discussion D. CHAPTER 7 I. RISK FACTOR ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Violence Risk Factors for Children (Study 1) 2. Violence Risk Factors for High School Students (Study 2) 3. More Violence Risk Factors for Children (Study 3) III. PART 3. GENERAL DISCUSSION (WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN?) A. CHAPTER 8 I. NEW FINDINGS 1. Experimental 2. Cross-section Correlational 3. Longitudinal 4. Old Versus New Violent Media II. VULNERABILITY, RISK, AND RESILIENCE III. TRIANGULATION, MEDIA VIOLENCE, AND THE GENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL IV. DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY IMPLICATIONS B. CHAPTER 9 I. EFFECT SIZE II. CATHARSIS 1. Flaw 1: Aggression is not a drive 2. Flaw 2: Even if catharsis could work, modern media do it incorrectly 3. Flaw 3: Dearth of supportive and glut of contradictory empirical evidence 4. Flaw 4: The brain is what the brain does 5. Summary III. PUBLIC POLICY 1. General Issues 2. Policy Debates and Industry Response 3. Policy Options a. Education b. Voluntary ratings by the industries c. Warning labels d. Licensing requirements e. Mandatory ratings by the industries f. Governmental ratings of an advisory nature g. Mandatory universal ratings provided or validated by an independent third party h. Legal access restrictions i. Governmental restrictions on production C. CHAPTER 10 I. REDUCING VIOLENT VIDEO GAME EFFECTS II. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS IV. REFERENCES V. FOOTNOTES VI. TABLES VII. FIGURE CAPTIONS AND FIGURES VIII. APPENDIX IX. BOXES
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Video games and children.
Video games and teenagers.
Violence in mass media.
Children and violence.
Youth and violence.
Aggressiveness in children.
Aggressiveness in adolescence.