Table of contents for Conceptual integrated science / Paul G. Hewitt ... [et al.].

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Contents in Detail
The Conceptual Integrated Science Photo Album
To the Student
To the Instructor
Acknowledgments
Reviewers
Chapter 1. About Science
1.1 A Brief History of Advances in Science
1.2 Mathematics and Conceptual Integrated Science
Math Connection: Equations as Guides to Thinking
1.3 The Scientific Method?a Classic Tool 
1.4 The Scientific Hypothesis
1.5 The Scientific Experiment
1.6 Facts, Laws, and Theories
1.7 Science Has Limitations
 Science and Society: Pseudoscience 
1.8 Science, Art, and Religion
1.9 Technology?The Practical Use of Science
1.10 The Natural Sciences: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science, and Astronomy
1.11 Integrated Science
Integrated Science?Chemistry and Biology: An Investigation of Sea Butterflies
Part 1: Physics 
Chapter 2. Describing Motion
2.1 Aristotle on Motion 
 History of Science: Aristotle
2.2 Galileo?s Concept of Inertia
 History of Science: Galileo
2.3 Mass?A Measure of Inertia
2.4 Forces
Science and Society: Paul Hewitt and the Origin of Conceptual Integrated Science
2.5 The Equilibrium Rule
 Math Connection: Applying the Equilibrium Rule
2.6 Support Force
2.7 Equilibrium of Moving Things
2.8 The Force of Friction
Integrated Science?Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science: Friction Is Universal
2.9 Speed and Velocity
2.10 Acceleration 
 Integrated Science?Biology: Hang Time
Chapter 3. Newton?s Laws of Motion
3.1 Newton?s First Law of Motion 
 History of Science: The Moving Earth
3.2 Newton?s Second Law of Motion
 Math Connection: Equations as Guides to Thinking: F = ma
 Math Connection: When Air Resistance Slows Acceleration
 Integrated Science?Biology: Gliding
3.3 Forces and Interactions
3.4 Newton?s Third Law of Motion
 Integrated Science?Biology: Animal Locomotion
3.5 Vectors
 Math Connection: Vector Components
3.6 Summary of Newton?s Laws
 History of Science: Isaac Newton
Chapter 4: Momentum and Energy 
4.1 Momentum
4.2 Impulse 
4.3 Impulse?Momentum Relationship
 Integrated Science?Biology: The Impulse?Momentum Relationship in Sports
4.4 Conservation of Momentum
 	Math Connection: Quantifying Collisions
4.5 Energy
Integrated Science?Biology and Chemistry: Glucose?Energy for Life Math Connection: Work Practice Problems
4.6 Power
 	Math Connection: Power Practice Problems
4.7 Potential Energy
 	 Math Connection: Calculating Potential Energy
4.8 Kinetic Energy
4.9 The Work?Energy Theorem
 	Math Connection: Applying the Work?Energy Theorem
4.10 Conservation of Energy 	
4.11 Machines
 	Math Connection: Efficiency Calculations
 	Technology: Sources of Energy 
Chapter 5: Gravity 
5.1	The Legend of the Falling Apple
5.2	The Fact of the Falling Moon
5.3 Newton?s Law of Universal Gravitation
		Integrated Science?Biology: Your Biological Gravity Detector
5.4 Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law
5.5	The Universal Gravitational Constant
5.6 Weight and Weightlessness
	Integrated Science?Biology: Center of Gravity of People
	Math Connection: Comparing Gravitational Attractions 
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5.7 Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Force
5.8 Projectile Motion
5.9 Projectile Altitude and Range
5.10 The Effect of Air Drag on Projectiles
5.11 Fast-Moving Projectiles?Satellites
		Technology: Communications Satellites 
5.12 Elliptical Orbits 
		Integrated Science?Astronomy: Escape Speed 
Chapter 6. Heat 
6.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 
6.2 Temperature
6.3 Absolute Zero
6.4 What Is Heat? 
6.5 The Laws of Thermodynamics
Integrated Science?Astronomy, Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry: Entropy?The Universal Tendency Toward Disorder
6.6 Specific Heat Capacity
Integrated Science?Earth Science: The Specific Heat Capacity of Water Affects Global Temperature
 Math Connection: The Heat Transfer Equation 
6.7 Thermal Expansion
 Technology: Engineering for Thermal Expansion
6.8 Heat Transfer: Conduction
6.9 Heat Transfer: Convection
6.10 Heat Transfer: Radiation
Chapter 7. Electricity and Magnetism
7.1 Electric Force and Charge
7.2 Coulomb?s Law
7.3 Electric Field
7.4 Electric Potential
7.5 Conductors and Insulators 
7.6 Voltage Sources
 History of Science: 110 Volts
7.7 Electric Current
7.8 Electrical Resistance
7.9 Ohm?s Law
Math Connection: Ohm?s Law 
Integrated Science?Biology: Electric Shock 
7.10 Electric Circuits
7.11 Electric Power 
Math Connection: Solving Power Problems 
7.12 The Magnetic Force
7.13 Magnetic Fields
Integrated Science?Biology and Earth Science: Earth?s Magnetic Field and the Ability of Organisms to Sense It
7.14 Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges
7.15 Electromagnetic Induction
History of Science: Generators and Power Production 
 Technology: Electromagnetic Induction in Everyday Technologies
 
Chapter 8. Waves?Sound and Light 
8.1 Vibrations and Waves 
 Technology: AM and FM Radio Signals 
8.2 Wave Motion
8.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
8.4 The Nature of Sound
 Integrated Science?Biology: Sensing Pitch
8.5 Resonance
8.6 The Nature of Light 
8.7 Reflection
8.8 Transparent and Opaque Materials
8.9 Color 
 Integrated Science, Biology: Mixing Colored Lights
8.10 Refraction 
 Math Connection: The Index of Refraction 
8.11 Diffraction 
8.12 Interference
 Technology: Anti-Noise Technology
8.13 The Doppler Effect 
Integrated Science?Astronomy	: The Doppler Shift and the Expanding Universe
8.14 The Wave-Particle Duality 
Chapter 9. The Atom
9.1	The Elements
9.2 Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty
Technology: The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
History of Science: The Atomic Hypothesis 
9.3 Protons and Neutrons
Math Connection: Calculating Atomic Mass 
9.4 Isotopes and Atomic Mass
Integrated Science: Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science: Physical and Conceptual Models
9.5	Atomic Spectra
9.6	The Quantum Hypothesis
9.7	Electron Waves
9.8	Probability Clouds and Atomic Orbitals
		Integrated Science?Chemistry: The Shell Model
Chapter 10. Nuclear Physics 
10.1 Radioactivity
Science and Society: Public Perception of Nuclear Technology 
10.2 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays 
10.3 Environmental Radiation 
Integrated Science?Biology: Doses of Radiation
10.4 	The Atomic Nucleus and the Strong Nuclear Force
10.5	Half-Life 	
10.6	Transmutation of Elements
 Integrated Science?Biology, Earth Science: Isotopic Dating
 Technology: Radioactive Tracers
10.7 Nuclear Fission
Technology: Nuclear Fission Reactors 
10.8 The Mass-Energy Relationship?E = mc2
 Math Connection: Mass-Energy Conversion
10.9 Nuclear Fusion 
Part 2: Chemistry
Chapter 11. Investigating Matter
11.1 Chemistry: Integral to Our Lives
Integrated Science?Astronomy: Origin of the Moon
	Science and Society: Chemistry and Public Policy
11.2 The Submicroscopic World
11.3 Phases of Matter
11.4 Change of Phase
Integrated Science?Physics and Biology: Evaporation Cools You Off, Condensation Warms You Up 
11.5 Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
11.5 Elements and the Periodic Table
 History of Science: Dimitri Mendeleev 
11.7 Organization of the Periodic Table
11.8 Elements to Compounds
11.9 Naming Compounds
 History of Science: Chemical Discovery
Chapter 12. The Nature of Chemical Bonds 
12.1 Electron Shells and Chemical Bonding
12.2 The Ionic Bond 
12.3 The Metallic Bond
12.4 The Covalent Bond 
12.5 Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules
12.6 Interparticle Attractions
 Integrated Science?Biology and Earth Science: Mixtures
 Integrated Science?Biology	: How Geckos Walk on Walls?The Adhesive Force 
12.7 Solutions 
	 Math Connection: Concentration Calculations 
12.8 Solubility
	Integrated Science?Biology	: Fish Depend on Dissolved Oxygen
Chapter 13. Chemical Reactions
13.1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations
13.2 Acid-Base Reactions
13.3 Salts
13.4 Solutions: Acidic, Basic, or Neutral
13.5 The pH Scale
 Math Connection: Logarithms and pH
 Integrated Science?Earth Science: Acid Rain
13.6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 
 Integrated Science?Physics: Fuel Cells
13.7 Corrosion and Combustion
13.8 Energy in Chemical Reactions
13.9 Endothermic Versus Exothermic Reactions 
Integrated Science?Physics, Biology, and Earth Science: The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
	Technology: The Catalytic Converter
13.10 Entropy Drives Chemical Reactions 
Chapter 14. Organic Chemistry
14.1 Hydrocarbons 
14.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 
14.3 Functional Groups
14.4 Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Amines
 Integrated Science?Biology: Drug Action and Discovery
14.5 Ketones, Aldehydes, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
14.6 Polymers
 Science and Society: Polymers Win in World War II
Part 3: Biology 
Chapter 15: The Basic Unit of Life?The Cell 
15.1 	Characteristics of Life
			Integrated Science?Chemistry: Macromolecules Needed for Life
15.2		Cell Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
 History of Science: Cell Theory
 Integrated Science?Physics: The Microscope
15.3		Tour of a Eukaryotic Cell
15.4 	Cell Membrane Structure and Function
15.5		Transport Mechanisms 
			Math Connection: Why Does Diffusion Limit the Size of Cells?
15.6	Cellular Communication
15.7 	How Cells Reproduce
 Science and Society: Stem Cells
15.8 	How Cells Use Energy
		Integrated Science?Chemistry: Chemical Reactions in Cells
15.9 	Photosynthesis
15.10	Cellular Respiration
15.11	Life Span of Cells
Chapter 16: Genetics 
16.1	What Is a Gene?
16.2		Chromosomes: Packages of Genetic Information
			Integrated Science?Chemistry: The Structure of DNA
			History of Science: Discovery of the Double Helix
16.3 	DNA Replication
16.4	Transcription and Translation
16.5	Meiosis: Genetic Diversity
16.6	Mendelian Genetics
16.7	Inheritance: Beyond Mendelian Genetics
		Science and Society: Genetic Counseling
16.8 	The Human Genome
		Technology: Big News in Biology Today?Biotech
		Science and Society: DNA Fingerprinting in Forensic Science
16.9	Genetic Mutations
Integrated Science?Physics: How Radioactivity Causes Genetic Mutations
16.10 	Cancer?Genes Gone Awry
Integrated Science?Earth Science: Environmental Causes of Cancer
Chapter 17: The Evolution of Life 
17.1 	The Origin of Life
	 Integrated Science?Astronomy: Did Life on Earth Originate on Mars?
17.2		Early Life on Earth
17.3		The First Eukaryotic Cells
17.4 	Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species
17.5		How Natural Selection Works
Integrated Science?Physics: Animal Adaptations to Heat and Cold
			Science and Society: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
17.6	How Species Form
17.7	Evidence of Evolution
Integrated Science?Earth Science: Earth?s Tangible Evidence of Evolution
17.8 	Does Evolution Occur Gradually or in Spurts?
17.9 	The Evolution of Humans
Chapter 18: Biological Diversity 
18.1 	Classifying Living Things
18.2		The Three Domains of Life
18.3		Bacteria 
			Technology: Bacteria Power
18.4	Archaea
18.5 	Protists
18.6 	Plants
	Science and Society: Ethnobotany
18.7		Fungi
18.8	Animals
		Integrated Science?Earth Science: Coral Bleaching
		History of Science: Classifying the Platypus
			Integrated Science?Physics: How Birds Fly
18.9		Viruses and Infectious Molecules
			Science and Society: Bird Flu
Chapter 19: Human Biology I?Control and Development
19.1 	Organization of the Human Body
19.2		Homeostasis
19.3		The Brain 
			Technology: Mapping the Brain in Action: Functional MRIs
19.4		The Nervous System 
19.5 	How Neurons Work
Integrated Science?Physics: How Fast Can Action Potentials Travel?
			Integrated Science?Chemistry: Endorphins
19.6 The Senses
		Technology: Visual Prostheses for the Blind
19.7	Hormones
19.8	Reproduction and Development
		Science and Society: The Birth Control Pill
19.9 	The Skeleton and Muscles 
Chapter 20: Human Biology II?Care and Maintenance
20.1 	Integration of Body Systems
20.2		The Circulatory System
			Integrated Science?Chemistry: Hemoglobin
	Technology: Transplanting Bone Marrow in the Fight Against Cancer
20.3 	Respiration
20.4		Digestion
20.5 Nutrition, Exercise, and Health
 Integrated Science?Physics and Chemistry: Low Carb versus Low Cal Diets
 Science and Society: What Are the Odds? Current Major Health Risks
 20.6 Excretion and Water Balance
20.7	Keeping the Body Safe: Defense Systems
		Science and Society: The Placebo Effect
		Science and Society: AIDS
			 
Chapter 21: Ecosystems and Environment
21.1 	Organisms and Their Environment
21.2 	Species Interactions
			Science and Society: Biodiversity, Nature?s Insurance Policy
			Science and Society: Invasive Species
21.3		Energy Flow in Ecosystems
			Integrated Science?Physics: Energy Leaks Where Trophic Levels Meet
21.4		Kinds of Ecosystems
		Integrated Science?Earth Science: Materials Cycling In Ecosystems
			Technology: The Case for Hybrid Cars
21.5	Change in an Ecosystem
21.6	Population Studies
21.7	Human Population Growth
Science and Society: Wangari Maathai and Ecologically Sustainable Development
			
Part 4: Earth Science
Chapter 22. Plate Tectonics
22.1 Earth Science before the Twentieth Century 
22.2 Using Seismology to Look Inside the Earth
22.3 More about Earth?s Layers
 Integrated Science?Physics: Isostasy 
22.4	Continental Drift?An Idea before Its Time 
22.5 A Mechanism for Continental Drift 
 Technology: Direct Measurement of Continental Drift 
22.6 Plate Tectonics
 Integrated Science?Physics: What Forces Drive the Plates? 
22.7 Divergent Plate Boundaries
 Math Connection: Calculate the Age of the Atlantic Ocean
22.8 Convergent Plate Boundaries
 Integrated Science?Biology: Life in the Trenches
22.9 Transform Plate Boundaries 
22.10 Earthquakes
 Math Connection: The Richter Scale
	Integrated Science?Physics: Anatomy of a Tsunami 
Chapter 23. Rocks and Minerals
23.1 Materials of the Earth
23.2 What Is a Mineral? 
23.3 Mineral Properties
 Science and Society: Mining
23.4 The Formation of Minerals 
 Technology: Synthetic Diamonds
23.5 Classifying Minerals 
	Integrated Science?Chemistry: The Silicate Tetrahedron
23.6 Rocks 
23.7 Igneous Rocks 
	 Integrated Science?Physics: The Texture of Igneous Rocks
23.8 Sedimentary Rocks 
	Integrated Science?Biology: Coal
23.9 Metamorphic Rocks
23.10 The Rock Cycle
 
Chapter 24. Earth?s Surface?Land and Water
24.1 A Survey of the Earth
 Technology: Remote Sensing 
24.2 Crustal Deformation?Folds and Faults 
24.3 Mountains 
 Math Connection: How Long Can a Mountain Exist?
24.4	Earth?s Waters 
24.5 The Ocean Floor 
 Integrated Science?Physics: Ocean Waves 
 Integrated Science?Chemistry: Ocean Water
 24.6 Fresh Water
 Integrated Science?Groundwater Contamination 
 Science and Society: Whose Water Is It? 
24.7 Surface Processes?Wearing Away Earth?s Surface Layer
 
Chapter 25. Weather
25.1 Weather and Climate
25.2 Solar Radiation
25.3 Atmospheric Pressure
 Technology: The Barometer
25.4 Structure and Composition of Earth?s Atmosphere
 Integrated Science?Chemistry: The ?Ozone Hole?
25.5	Wind 
 Integrated Science?Physics: The Coriolis Effect
25.6 Ocean Currents
25.7 Humidity 
25.8 Clouds and Precipitation
25.9 Changing Weather: Air Masses, Fronts, and Cyclones
25.10	Storms
25.11	Global Warming
 Integrated Science?Physics	: The Greenhouse Effect
 Science and Society: Human Activities That Impact Global Warming	 
Chapter 26. Earth?s History 
26.1 A Model of Earth?s History 
	History of Science: Uniformitarianism versus Catastrophism
26.2 The Rock Record
	Integrated Science?Physics: Radiometric Dating of Rock
26.3 Geologic Time 
26.4 Precambrian Time
26.5 The Paleozoic Era
	Integrated Science?Biology and Chemistry: The Great Transformation of Earth?s Atmosphere
	Integrated Science?Biology: The Permian Extinction
26.6 The Mesozoic Era
			Integrated Science?Biology and Astronomy: The Cretaceous Extinction
26.7 The Cenozoic Era 
	Science and Society: Mass Extinctions and the Modern World
Part 5: Astronomy
Chapter 27. The Solar System 
27.1 Overview of the Solar System
	Math Connection: The Scale of the Solar System 
27.2 The Nebular Theory
	Integrated Science?Physics: Heating, Spinning, and Flattening of the Solar Nebula
Integrated Science?Chemistry: The Chemical Composition of the Solar System 
27.3 The Sun
27.4 The Inner Planets 
	Integrated Science?Biology: What Makes a Planet Suitable For Life? 
27.5 The Outer Planets
27.6 Earth?s Moon 	
Integrated Science?Physics: Why One Side of the Moon Always Faces Us
Chapter 28. The Universe 
28.1 Observing the Night Sky
 Math Connection: The Light-Year 
 Science and Society: Astrology 
28.2 The Brightness and Colors of Stars
 Integrated Science?Physics: Radiation Curves of Stars 
28.3 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
28.4 The Life Cycles of Stars
28.5 Black Holes 
28.6 Galaxies
	Technology: Telescopes
28.7 The Big Bang
	 Integrated Science?Biology: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life 
28.8 Quasars
Appendix A	On Measurement and Unit Conversion
	United States Customary System
	Syst?me International
	Meter
Kilogram
Second
Newton
Joule
Ampere
Kelvin
Area
Volume
 Unit Conversion
 
Appendix B	Linear and Rotational Motion
	Advanced Concepts of Motion
Computing Velocity and Distance Traveled on an Incline Plane
Computing Distance When Acceleration Is Constant
	Circular Motion
	Torque
	Angular Momentum
	Conservation of Angular Momentum
Appendix C	Working With Vector Components
	Adding Vectors
	Finding Components of Vectors
	The Polarization of Light?An Application of Vector Components 
Appendix D	Exponential Growth and Doubling Time
Appendix E	Physics of Fluids
Appendix F	Chemical Equilibrium
Appendix G	Safety 
Suggested Websites
Glossary
Photo Credits
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Interdisciplinary approach to knowledge.
Science -- Philosophy.
Science -- History.