Table of contents for Space-time coding for broadband wireless communications / Georgios B. Giannakis ... [et al.].

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Contents
Acknowledgments v
Preface xv
Acronyms xix
1 Motivation and Context 1
1.1 Evolution of Wireless Communication Systems 2
1.2 Wireless Propagation Effects 3
1.3 Parameters and Classi_cation of Wireless Channels 5
1.3.1 Delay Spread and Coherence Bandwidth 6
1.3.2 Doppler Spread and Coherence Time 7
1.4 Providing, Enabling and Collecting Diversity 11
1.4.1 Diversity Provided by Frequency-Selective
Channels 11
1.4.2 Diversity Provided by Time-Selective Channels 13
1.4.3 Diversity Provided by Multi-Antenna Channels 15
1.5 Chapter-by-Chapter Organization 18
2 Fundamentals of ST Wireless Communications 25
2.1 Generic ST System Model 25
2.2 ST Coding viz Channel Coding 29
2.3 Capacity of ST Channels 31
2.3.1 Outage Capacity 32
2.3.2 Ergodic Capacity 36
2.4 Error Performance of ST Coding 42
2.5 Design Criteria for ST Codes 45
2.6 Diversity and Rate: Finite SNR viz Asymptotics 46
2.7 Classi_cation of ST Codes 50
2.8 Closing Comments 52
3 Coherent ST Codes for Flat Fading Channels 53
3.1 Delay Diversity ST Codes 53
3.2 ST Trellis Codes 55
3.2.1 Trellis Representation 55
3.2.2 TSC ST Trellis Codes 57
3.2.3 BBH ST Trellis Codes 58
3.2.4 GFK ST Trellis Codes 60
3.2.5 Viterbi Decoding of ST Trellis Codes 62
3.3 Orthogonal ST Block Codes 63
3.3.1 Encoding of OSTBCs 63
3.3.2 Linear ML Decoding of OSTBCs 65
3.3.3 BER Performance with OSTBCs 67
3.3.4 Channel Capacity with OSTBCs 68
3.4 Quasi-Orthogonal ST Block Codes 70
3.5 ST Linear Complex Field Codes 71
3.5.1 Antenna Switching and Linear Precoding 73
3.5.2 Designing Linear Precoding Matrices 74
3.5.3 Upper-Bound on Coding Gain 74
3.5.4 Construction based on Parameterization 75
3.5.5 Construction Based on Algebraic Tools 76
3.5.6 Decoding ST Linear Complex Field Codes 78
3.5.7 Modulus-Preserving STLCFC 81
3.6 Linking OSTBC, QO-STBC and STLCFC Designs 84
3.6.1 Embedding MP-STLCFC into the Alamouti
Code 84
3.6.2 Embedding 2 _ 2 MP-STLCFCs into OSTBC 85
3.6.3 Decoding QO-MP-STLCFC 86
3.7 Closing Comments 87
4 Layered ST Codes 89
4.1 BLAST Designs 90
4.1.1 D-BLAST 90
4.1.2 V-BLAST 93
4.1.3 Rate Performance with BLAST Codes 94
4.2 ST Codes Trading Diversity for Rate 95
4.2.1 Layered ST Codes with Antenna-Grouping 95
4.2.2 Layered High-Rate Codes 96
4.3 Full-Diversity Full-Rate ST Codes 96
4.3.1 The FDFR Transceiver 97
4.3.2 Algebraic FDFR Code Design 99
4.3.3 Mutual Information Analysis 100
4.3.4 Diversity-Rate-Performance Trade-offs 101
4.4 Numerical Examples 103
4.5 Closing Comments 104
5 Sphere Decoding and (Near-) Optimal MIMO Demodulation 107
5.1 Sphere Decoding Algorithm 108
5.1.1 Selecting a Finite Search Radius 110
5.1.2 Initializing with Unconstrained LS 111
5.1.3 Searching within the Fixed-Radius Sphere 112
5.2 Average Complexity of SDA in Practice 115
5.3 SDA Improvements 119
5.3.1 SDA with Detection Ordering and Nulling-
Cancelling 119
5.3.2 Schnorr-Euchner Variate of SDA 120
5.3.3 SDA with Increasing Radius Search 121
5.3.4 Simulated Comparisons 122
5.4 Reduced-Complexity IRS-SDA 125
5.5 Soft Decision Sphere Decoding 127
5.5.1 List Sphere Decoding (LSD) 128
5.5.2 Soft SDA using Hard SDAs 129
5.6 Closing Comments 131
6 Non-Coherent and Differential ST Codes for Flat Fading
Channels 135
6.1 Non-Coherent ST Codes 135
6.1.1 Search-Based Designs 137
6.1.2 Training-Based Designs 140
6.2 Differential ST Codes 142
6.2.1 Scalar Differential Codes 142
6.2.2 Differential Unitary ST Codes 143
6.2.3 Differential Alamouti Codes 146
6.2.4 Differential OSTBCs 149
6.2.5 Cayley Differential Unitary ST Codes 150
6.3 Closing Comments 151
7 ST Codes for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: Single-
Carrier Systems 153
7.1 System Model and Performance Limits 154
7.1.1 Flat-Fading Equivalence and Diversity 155
7.1.2 Rate Outage Probability 156
7.2 ST Trellis Codes 158
7.2.1 Generalized Delay Diversity 159
7.2.2 Search-Based STTC Construction 160
7.2.3 Numerical Examples 162
7.3 ST Block Codes 163
7.3.1 Block Coding with Two Transmit-Antennas 163
7.3.2 Receiver Processing 166
7.3.3 ML Decoding based on the Viterbi Algorithm 169
7.3.4 Turbo Equalization 170
7.3.5 Multi-Antenna Extensions 171
7.3.6 OSTBC Properties 174
7.3.7 Numerical Examples 176
7.4 Closing Comments 179
8 ST Codes for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: Multi-
Carrier Systems 181
8.1 The General MIMO OFDM Framework 182
8.1.1 OFDM Basics 182
8.1.2 MIMO OFDM 185
8.1.3 STF Framework 187
8.2 ST and SF Coded MIMO OFDM 190
8.3 STF Coded OFDM 191
8.3.1 Subcarrier Grouping 191
8.3.2 GSTF Block Codes 192
8.3.3 GSTF Trellis Codes 194
8.3.4 Numerical Examples 197
8.4 Digital Phase Sweeping and Block Circular Delay 200
8.5 Full-Diversity Full-Rate MIMO OFDM 204
8.5.1 Encoders and Decoders 204
8.5.2 Diversity and Rate Analysis 206
8.5.3 Numerical Examples 208
8.6 Closing Comments 209
9 ST Codes for Time-Varying Channels 213
9.1 Time-Varying Channels 214
9.1.1 Channel Models 215
9.1.2 Time-Frequency Duality 218
9.1.3 Doppler Diversity 219
9.2 Space-Time-Doppler Block Codes 220
9.2.1 Duality-Based STDO Codes 223
9.2.2 Phase Sweeping Design 226
9.3 Space-Time-Doppler FDFR Codes 231
9.4 Space-Time-Doppler Trellis Codes 232
9.4.1 Design Criterion 232
9.4.2 Smart-Greedy Codes 233
9.5 Numerical Examples 234
9.6 Space-Time-Doppler Differential Codes 236
9.6.1 Inner Codec 237
9.6.2 Outer Differential Codec 238
9.7 ST Codes for Doubly-Selective Channels 240
9.7.1 Numerical Examples 242
9.8 Closing Comments 244
10 Joint Galois-Field and Linear Complex-Field ST Codes 245
10.1 GF-LCF ST Codes 246
10.1.1 Separate versus Joint GF-LCF ST Coding 247
10.1.2 Performance Analysis 249
10.1.3 Turbo Decoding 252
10.2 GF-LCF ST Layered Codes 255
10.2.1 GF-LCF ST FDFR Codes: QPSK Signalling 255
10.2.2 GF-LCF ST FDFR Codes: QAM Signalling 257
10.2.3 Performance Analysis 260
10.2.4 GF-LCF FDFR versus GF-Coded V-BLAST 263
10.2.5 Numerical Examples 264
10.3 GF-LCF Coded MIMO OFDM 266
10.3.1 Joint GF-LCF Coding and Decoding 266
10.3.2 Numerical Examples 269
10.4 Closing Comments 271
11 MIMO Channel Estimation and Synchronization 273
11.1 Preamble-Based Channel Estimation 274
11.2 Optimal Training-Based Channel Estimation 275
11.2.1 ZP-Based Block Transmissions 278
11.2.2 CP-Based Block Transmissions 287
11.2.3 Special Cases 292
11.2.4 Numerical Examples 294
11.3 (Semi-)Blind Channel Estimation 297
11.4 Joint Symbol Detection and Channel Estimation 298
11.4.1 Decision-Directed Methods 298
11.4.2 Kalman Filtering Based Methods 299
11.5 Carrier Synchronization 303
11.5.1 Hopping Pilot Based CFO Estimation 304
11.5.2 Blind CFO Estimation 309
11.5.3 Numerical Examples 312
11.6 Closing Comments 315
12 ST Codes with Partial Channel Knowledge: Statistical CSI 317
12.1 Partial CSI Models 319
12.1.1 Statistical CSI 319
12.2 ST Spreading 323
12.2.1 Average Error Performance 325
12.2.2 Optimization based on Average SER Bound 327
12.2.3 Mean-Feedback 328
12.2.4 Covariance-Feedback 332
12.2.5 Beamforming Interpretation 334
12.3 Combining OSTBC with Beamforming 335
12.3.1 Two-Dimensional Coder-Beamformer 337
12.4 Numerical Examples 339
12.4.1 Performance with Mean-Feedback 340
12.4.2 Performance with Covariance-Feedback 341
12.5 Adaptive Modulation for Rate Improvement 347
12.5.1 Numerical Examples 350
12.6 Optimizing Average Capacity 353
12.7 Closing Comments 354
13 ST Codes With Partial Channel Knowledge: Finite-Rate CSI 357
13.1 General Problem Formulation 358
13.2 Finite-Rate Beamforming 360
13.2.1 Beamformer Selection 361
13.2.2 Beamformer Codebook Design 361
13.2.3 Quantifying the Power Loss 366
13.2.4 Numerical Examples 368
13.3 Finite-Rate Precoded Spatial Multiplexing 369
13.3.1 Precoder Selection Criteria 371
13.3.2 Codebook Construction: In_nite-Rate 373
13.3.3 Codebook Construction: Finite-Rate 376
13.3.4 Numerical Examples 378
13.4 Finite-Rate Precoded OSTBC 384
13.4.1 Precoder Selection Criterion 385
13.4.2 Codebook Construction: In_nite-Rate 385
13.4.3 Codebook Construction: Finite-Rate 386
13.4.4 Numerical Examples 386
13.5 Capacity Optimization with Finite-Rate Feedback 387
13.5.1 Selection Criterion 388
13.5.2 Codebook Design 388
13.6 Combining Adaptive Modulation with Beamforming 389
13.6.1 Mode Selection 390
13.6.2 Codebook Design 390
13.7 Finite-rate Feedback in MIMO OFDM 391
13.8 Closing Comments 392
14 ST Codes in the Presence of Interference 395
14.1 ST Spreading 396
14.1.1 Maximizing the Average SINR 397
14.1.2 Minimizing the Average Error Bound 398
14.2 Combining STS with OSTBC 400
14.2.1 Low-Complexity Receivers 403
14.3 Optimal Training with Interference 403
14.3.1 LS Channel Estimation 404
14.3.2 LMMSE Channel Estimation 405
14.4 Numerical Examples 405
14.5 Closing Comments 410
15 ST Codes for Orthogonal Multiple Access 413
15.1 System Model 414
15.1.1 Synchronous downlink 414
15.1.2 Quasi-synchronous uplink 415
15.2 Single-Carrier Systems: STBC-CIBS-CDMA 417
15.2.1 CIBS-CDMA for User Separation 417
15.2.2 STBC Encoding and Decoding 421
15.2.3 Attractive Features of STBC-CIBS-CDMA 422
15.2.4 Numerical Examples 425
15.3 Multi-Carrier Systems: STF-OFDMA 429
15.3.1 OFDMA for User Separation 429
15.3.2 STF Block Codes 430
15.3.3 Attractive Features of STF-OFDMA 430
15.3.4 Numerical Examples 433
15.4 Closing Comments 433
References 437

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Coding theory.
Wireless communication systems.
Mobile communication systems.