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Contents Tables, Charts, Maps, and Figures 000 Abbreviations 000 Equivalents 000 Explanatory Notes 000 Introduction 1 Currency and China 2/ The Rise and Differentiation of Statecraft Thought 14/ From High Qing to Late Qing: Global Erosion 23 Part I Global Links: Silver and the World 1 A Vulnerable Empire 29 The Copper Coin System 30/ Silver Use from the Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Centuries 39/ Silver Supply from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries 57/ Conclusion 68 2 Opium: The Culprit? 72 Time, Space, and the Quantity of Silver Outflow 74/ Silver and Opium in China's Balance of Payments 87/ Chinese Tea and Silk Exports, 1850-86 96/ The Global Decrease in Silver and China 107/ Conclusion 113 3 Disturbance of the Social Order 115 Interregional Dimension 117/ The Intraregional Rural-Urban Dimension 124/ The Crisis of the Qing state 133/ Conclusion 141 Part II Cultural Resources for Economic Debates 4 Monetary Debates and Policies 147 Wang Liu's Proposals 149/ General Responses to Wang Liu's Book 152/ Wang Liu's Dialogue with Bao Shichen and Chen Shou 154/ Criticism from Wei Yuan and Xu Mei 159/ Further Monetary Discourse 164/ New Approaches Close to Those of Wei Yuan 171/ Monetary Policies Taken 172/ Conclusion 178 5 Chinese Inspiration and Western Comparison 000 Negligible Foreign Intellectual Influence 181/ A Flexible Tradition of Economic Ideology 183/ Western Comparisons 189/ Conclusion 197 Part III The Competition Among Intellectual Models 6 The Social Theories of the Two Statecraft Groups 203 Perceptions of Human Nature 206/ Concepts of the State 209/ State Versus Heaven or the Sage 211/ State Power Versus Market Force 213/ Commerce, Trade, and Consumption 215/ Private Property 218/ Historical Change 221/ Conclusion 226 7 Writing Styles, Classical Studies, and Statecraft Thought 228 Statecraft Scholars' Practical Interests 229/ Intellectual Inclination 239/ Conclusion 257 8 The Temporary Victory of the Accommodationist Stance 000 Acceptance of Accommodationist Economic Proposals 262/ Interventionist Policies in the Self- Strengthening Period 265/ Changes in Intellectual Currents 270/ The Currency Crisis and the Accommodationist Inclination 272/ The Late Nineteenth-Century Crisis and the Interventionist Bent 278/ Conclusion 281 Conclusion 285 The Seriousness of the Silver Outflow 285/ The World Economy and China's Dynastic Decline 287/ Statecraft Thought and Social Realities 297/ "Aborted Capitalism?" 308 Reference Matter Bibliography 315 Index 347
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Silver -- China.
China -- Commerce -- History -- 19th century.
China -- Economic policy -- 1644-1912.
China -- Politics and government -- 1644-1912.
China -- Civilization -- 1644-1912.
China -- History -- Qing dynasty, 1644-1912.
China -- Social conditions.