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Contents I. Introduction Chapter 1. A Brief History of Fisheries Management O. Defeo, T. McClanahan and J.C. Castilla Fishery Science and Management The Theory: Assessing and Managing Fisheries Systems Single Stocks Multispecies Fishery Research Agenda: Edge Issues for the 21st Century Spatial Considerations: Closed Areas and Habitat Protection Ecosystem-based approaches Reference Points, Fishery Indicators, and the Precautionary Approach Adaptive and Experimental Management The Limits to Science: When Management Fails Western Technocratic Models: Abuse and Misuse The Forgotten Social Side of Management and Attitudes Institutional Structures, Societal Participatory Roles, and Co-management Summary References II. Small-scale and Artisanal Fisheries Chapter 2. Successes, Lessons, and Projections from Experience in Marine Benthic Invertebrate Artisanal Fisheries in Chile Juan C. Castilla, Stefan Gelcich, and O. Defeo Introduction Chilean Benthic Artisanal Fisheries Pre-policy Stage Policy Process Pre-development Phase Development Phase Maturation Phase Problems with MEABR policy Discussion Perspectives for the Future Ecosystem Management Marine Protected Area Network Conclusions References Chapter 3. From Crisis to Institutional Sustainability in the Chilean Sea Urchin Fishery Carlos Moreno, Alejandro Zuleta, Ana Parma, and Lobo Orensanz Introduction The System Chilean Fisheries: Political Jurisdiction and Management Institutions Access regimes Southern Chile: a Geographic Labyrinth The Chilean Sea Urchin The Sea Urchin Fishery of Regions X-XI Fleet and Fishing Operations Social Matrix Historical Trends and Stages in Development Management and Scientific Advice before 2001 The Dynamics of Depletion and Recovery A Quest for Alternative Models Social Turmoil, Political Complexities, and Prospects The ¿Contiguous Zones¿ Conflict Participatory Management Revamping the Monitoring and Knowledge Support New Challenges Summary References Chapter 4. Achievements and Setbacks in the Commercial Diving Fishery of San José Gulf, Argentine Patagonia Lobo Orensanz, Ana Parma, Néstor Ciocco and Ana Cinti Introduction Settings The Gulfs of Northern Argentine Patagonia A Sensitive Region for Marine Conservation The Tehuelche Scallop Achievements, Setbacks, and Prospects Round 1: Boom and Bust of the San Matías Gulf Scallop Fishery (1968-1972) Round 2: Dredging to Commercial Diving (the 1970s) Round 3: No Controls or Incentives (the 1980s and 1990s) Round 4: Recovery, Participatory Management, and Incentives (2000-2004) Round 5: New Challenges (2005-?) Summary References Chapter 5. Evolution and Lessons from Fisheries and Coastal Management in the Philippines Alan T. White, Edgardo Gomez, Angel C. Alcala, and Garry Russ Introduction Evolution of Coastal and Fisheries Management Legal and Policy Framework Supporting Decentralization Contribution of Community-Based Marine Protected Areas Case I: Supporting Fisheries at Apo and Sumilon Islands Affects on Fish Biomass Spillover of Fish Affects on Fisheries Yields The Role of the Local Community and Local Government Case 2: Supporting Fisher Livelihood through Tourism at Gilutongan Island, Cebu Case 3: Supporting Coral Reef Restoration, Hundred Islands National Park, Luzon Local Governments and Integrated Coastal and Fisheries Management A Benchmark System for Local Governments Boundary Delineation for Fisheries Local Government Law Enforcement Co-management of MPAs with Local Governments and NGOs Key Lessons References Chapter 6. Redressing Access Inequities and Implementing Formal Management Systems for Marine and Estuarine Subsistence Fisheries in South Africa Jean M. Harris, George M. Branch, Barry M. Clark, and Sandile C. Sibiya Introduction Testing the Waters Documenting a Nation-wide Phenomenon Defining Subsistence Fishers A Catalytic Local Case-study Providing Access National Recommendations for Management Provincial Implementation Creating Institutional Capacity Finding the Fishers and Fisheries Crafting Co-management Evaluating Progress and Success Implementing Systems for Fisheries Management Co-management as a Local Management Model Conclusions References Chapter 7. Collaborative Fisheries Management in Tanga, Northern Tanzania Sue Wells, Melita Samoilys, Jim Anderson, Hassan Kalombo, and Solomon Makoloweka Introduction Biophysical Characteristics Socio-economic Characteristics - the Artisanal Fishery The TCZCDP Strategy Process for Developing CMAPS Content of the CMAPs Closed Reefs Implementation Compliance and Enforcement Resource Monitoring Review and Re-negotiation of CMAPs Effect of CMAs Improving Compliance Effect on Fisheries Discussion Conclusions References Chapter 8. Management of Area and Gear in Kenyan Coral Reefs T.R. McClanahan Introduction The Biophysical and Economic Environment The Social-cultural and Legal Environment History of Fisheries and Gears History of Marine Protected Areas Closed Areas Perceptions Towards Closed Areas Direct Effects of Marine Protected Areas Fish Abundance and Diversity Ecological Effects Indirect Effects of Marine Protected Areas Spillover of Fish Economic Effects Gear Management Perceptions towards Gear Gear Selectivity and Competition Effect of Seine-net Removal on Fish Catches Comanagement and Control Summary References Chapter 9. Progress Towards the Cooperative Management of Marine Hunting in the Great Barrier Reef Helene Marsh Introduction Site Profile The Management Context Towards Cooperative Management GBRMPA Initiatives: 1983-1996 Cooperative Initiatives: 1997-1999 The Post-planning Period: 1999 ¿ 2001 Subsequent Developments Discussion and Conclusions References III. Meso-scale Fisheries Chapter 10. Partnerships towards Sustainable Use of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery C. M. Dichmont, N. R. Loneragan, D. T. Brewer, and I. R. Poiner Introduction Management The Partnership Approach A Complex Ecosystem Coastal Habitats and Prawn Production The Environment of the Fishery Sustainability of the Target Species Assessment Advice History of Effort Reductions Prawns are Not the Only Catch Bycatch Research and Management Cooperation, Participation, and Compliance Future Challenges Summary Management Performance Vision for the Future References Chapter 11. The Western Rock Lobster Fishery in Western Australia Bruce F. Phillips, Roy Melville Smith, and Nick Caputi Introduction Threats to Sustainability Research Database Reliable Catch, Effort, and Size-frequency Data Technology Change Size and Gear Restrictions Legal Size Compliance Mortality and Damage to Discarded Catch Controlling Fishing Effort Life-history Relationships Stock and Recruitment Relationships Environment and Catch Prediction Protecting Egg Production Communication with Fishers and Stakeholders Threats to Sustainability in the Future Regional Contributions to Egg Production The Effect of Increased Fishing efficiency Growth of Recreational Fishing Harvesting Pueruli for Aquaculture Enhancement of Stocks Reproductive Biology Issues Economics and Social Interactions Increasing Awareness Conclusions Summary References Chapter 12. Successes and Challenges in the Hoki Fishery of New Zealand Mary Livingston and Kevin Sullivan Introduction Life History and Productivity of Hoki Growth and Mortality History of the Hoki Fishery Research and Stock Assessment Trawl Survey Time Series Acoustic Survey Time Series Reliability of Abundance Estimates Sustainability of the Hoki Fishery Stock Assessment Lessons Learnt Future Challenges for the Hoki Fishery Summary References Chapter 13. Community-Based Fisheries in the Canadian Maritimes Anthony Charles, Arthur Bull, John Kearney, and Chris Milley Introduction Fisheries in the Canadian Maritimes The Resources Fishers and Fishing Communities Fishery Management Fishery Policy Examples of Community-Based Fishery Management Community Management in the Scotia-Fundy Groundfishery The Fundy Fixed Gear Council PEI Mi¿kmaq Fisheries Linkage and Support Mechanisms for Community Fisheries Marine Resource Centers Centre for Community-Based Resource Management Turning the Tide Conclusions Orienting Fisheries around Community Needs Supporting Marine Conservation Synthesis References IV. Conclusion Chapter 14. Healing Fisheries T.R. McClanahan and J.C. Castilla Introduction Ecosystems and Cultural Systems are Complex Need to Save all the Parts, Interactions, and Processes Diverse Opinions Assume a Humble and Precautionary Approach Complexity Requires Differential Diagnosis Artisanal Versus Industrial Fishing National Versus Community Organization Pristine Versus Mature Fisheries All Permanent Solutions are Holistic Solutions Resource Users Household Context Strong Interactions in Ecosystem Change is Part of the System Monitoring and Evaluation are Essential Holistic Monitoring of Nature, People, and their Compliance Need for Simplicity Need for Targets and Thresholds Measures Fishing and Fisheries Management is a Profession Incentives, Disincentives, and Certification of People and Fisheries Meetings Democratic Principles Rights and Compliance Conclusion References
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