Table of contents for The art and science of cardiac physical examination : with heart sounds and pulse wave forms on CD / by Narasimhan Ranganathan, Vahe Sivaciyan, Franklin B. Saksena.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Preface	vii
Acknowledgment	x
Companion CD	xvi
CHAPTER 1
APPROACH TO THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF THE CARDIAC PATIENT	1
Reasons for Which Cardiac Assessment Is Sought	3
Cardiac Symptoms and Their Appraisal	3
Generation of Working List of Possible Diagnoses	4
Focused Physical Examination: Clinical Exercise	6
Focused Physical Examination: Practical Points	13	
CHAPTER 2
ARTERIAL PULSE	15
Physiology of the Arterial Pulse	15
Assessment of the Arterial Pulse	34
Practical Points in the Clinical Assessment of the Arterial Pulse	44
References	46
CHAPTER 3
BLOOD PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT	49
Physiology of Blood Flow and Blood Pressure	49
Physiology of Blood Pressure Measurement	50
Points to Remember When Measurement Blood Pressure	52
Factors That Affect Blood Pressure Readings	53
Interpretation of Blood Pressure Measurements	54
Use of Blood Pressure Measurement in Special Clinical Situations	56
References	64
CHAPTER 4
JUGULAR VENOUS PULSE	67
Normal Right Atrial Pressure Pulse Contours	68
Jugular Venous Inflow Velocity Patterns and the Relationship 
to the Right Atrial Pressure Pulse	70
Jugular Venous Flow Events and Their Relationship to Jugular Venous Pulse Contours	74
Normal Jugular Venous Pulse Contour and Its Recognition at the Bedside	81
Individual Components of the Right Atrial Pressure Pulse, Their Determinants,
 and Their Recognition in the Jugulars	82
Abnormal Jugular Venous Pulse Contours as Related to 
Abnormal Jugular Venous Flow Velocity Patterns	92
Abnormal Jugular Contours	96
Assessment of Jugular Venous Pressure	105
Clinical Assessment of the Jugular Venous Pulse	107
References	110
CHAPTER 5
PRECORDIAL PULSATIONS	113
Mechanics and Physiology of the Normal Apical Impulse	113
Physical Principles Governing the Formation of the Apical Impulse	115
Normal Apical Impulse and Its Determinants	118
Assessment of the Apical Impulse	120
Left Parasternal and Sternal Movements	133
Right Parasternal Movement	134
Pulsations Over the Clavicular Heads	134
Pulsations Over the Second and/or Third Left Intercostal Spaces	135
Subxiphoid Impulse	135
Practical Points in the Clinical Assessment of the Precordial Pulsations	136
References	138
CHAPTER 6
HEART SOUNDS	141
Principles of Sound Formation in the Heart	141
First Heart Sound	142
Clinical Assessment of S1 and Components	156
Second Heart Sound	158
Normal S2	159
Abnormal S2	162
Clinical Assessment of S2	174
Opening Snap (OS)	179
Third Heart Sound (S3)	185
Clinical Assessment of S3	198
Fourth Heart Sound (S4)	200
Clinical Assessment of S4	204
References	206
CHAPTER 7
HEART MURMURS: PART I	211
Principles Governing Murmur Formation	211
Hemodynamic Factors and Cardiac Murmurs	214
Frequencies of Murmurs	214
Grading of the Murmurs	216
Systolic Murmurs	216
Ejection Murmurs	217
Regurgitant Systolic Murmurs	232
Mitral Regurgitation	233
Tricuspid Regurgitation	253
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)	258
Clinical Assessment of Systolic Murmurs	265
References	269
CHAPTER 8
HEART MURMURS: PART II	275
Diastolic Murmurs	275
Diastolic Murmurs of Mitral Origin	275
Diastolic Murmurs of Tricuspid Origin	282
Semilunar Valve Regurgitation	283
Aortic Regurgitation	283
Pulmonary Regurgitation	290
Clinical Assessment of Diastolic Murmurs	292
Continuous Murmurs	294
Persistent Ductus Arteriosus	296
Aorto-Pulmonary Window	298
Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm	298
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae	299
Venous Hum	300
Mammary Souffle	300
Clinical Assessment of Continuous Murmurs	300
Pericardial Friction Rub	302
Innocent Murmurs	303
References	304
CHAPTER 9
ELEMENTS OF AUSCULTATION	309
The Stethoscope	309
Auscultation Method	310
References	318
CHAPTER 10
PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS IN CARDIAC DISEASE	321
Mitral Regurgitation	321
Pathophysiology of Aortic Regurgitation	325
Pathophysiology of Mitral Stenosis	329
Pathophysiology of Aortic Stenosis	331
Pathophysiology of Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction	334
Pathophysiology of Hypertensive Heart Disease	336
Pathophysiology of Dilated Cardiomyopathy	338
Pathophysiology of Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy	340
Pathophysiology of Atrial Septal Defect	342
Pathophysiology of Diastolic Dysfunction	345
Pathophysiology of Constrictive Pericarditis	347
Pathophysiology of Cardiac Tamponade	348
Appendix	351
References	356
CHAPTER 11
LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC MANIFESTATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE	361
General Observations	361
Congenital Syndromes/Diseases	364
Vascular Diseases	369
Valvular Heart Disease	372
Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases	373
Inflammatory Diseases	377
Diseases of Connective Tissue and Joints	377
Pharmacological Drugs	381
Musculoskeletal Diseases	384
Tumors	386
Synopsis	386
Acklnowledgment	390
References	390
Index	397

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Heart -- Examination.
Heart -- Diseases -- Diagnosis.
Heart -- Sounds.
Heart Diseases -- diagnosis.
Heart Function Tests -- methods.
Heart Sounds -- physiology.
Physical Examination -- methods.