Table of contents for The cognitive artifacts of designing / Willemien Visser.

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Contents
PART I.	Introduction	13
1	Focus of this book	15
1.1.	Elements For A Cognitive Descriptive Process Model Of Design	16
1.2.	Empirical Basis	16
1.3.	Artifacts Under Focus	17
1.4.	Focus On The Early Stages Of Design	17
1.5.	Individual And Collective Design	17
1.6.	Cognition And Emotion	19
2	Public addressed	22
3	Some historical pointers	24
3.1.	Software "Design" Studies	26
4	Preliminary terminological issues	27
4.1.	Definitions In The Domain Of Problem Solving	28
Designing and problem solving	29
A "problem" is not a "difficulty" or a "deficiency"	29
A "problem" in cognitive psychology: one's representation of a task	30
The double status of "problem" and "solution"	31
Problem "difficulty": a question of "cognitive cost"	33
Processes, operations, and activities. Stages, phases, and steps	33
"Problem solving": a global process versus a particular stage	35
Newell and Simon's symbolic information processing (SIP) approach to problem solving	36
4.2.	Definitions In The Domain Of Data Collection	37
Data collection in the psychological laboratory versus in designers' normal work situation	37
Explorational studies	39
Observational studies	40
Verbalization versus Introspection	41
Task versus Activity	45
Interviews	46
5	Models of design	47
5.1.	Prescriptive And Descriptive Models	49
Prescriptive models	49
Descriptive models	50
5.2.	Stage Models And Process Models	51
Stage models	53
Process models	55
5.3.	Confronting These Different Models	57
Observance of the ASE paradigm	58
Observance of the waterfall model	59
6	Our empirical design studies at a glance	60
PART II.	The classical view on design. The symbolic information processing approach (SIP)
7	Herbert A. Simon	
8	Simon's framework for design: The Sciences of the Artificial	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
8.1.	Simon's Elaboration Of A SIP Design Theory	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Simon's analytical approach to design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Reception of Simon's design framework	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
8.2.	Simon's Definition Of Design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
8.3.	Design As A Type Of Cognitive Activity Rather Than A Professional Status	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
8.4.	Design As Satisficing	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
8.5.	Design As A Regular Problem-Solving Activity: Simon's "Nothing Special" Position	Erreur ! 
Signet non defini.
8.6.	Design Problems: "Ill-Structured" Problems?	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
8.7.	Solving Ill-Structured Problems In Two Consecutive Stages: First Structuring, Then Solving
Erreur ! Signet non defini.
9	Discussion of the classical symbolic information processing approach to design	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
9.1.	Misrepresentations Of Design By The Classical Symbolic Information Processing Approach
Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Underestimating the specificity of ill-defined problems and their solving	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Underestimating the role of problem-representation construction	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Underestimating the role of "nondeterministic leaps" - Overestimating the role of recognition	Erreur ! 
Signet non defini.
Overestimating the role of systematic problem decomposition	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Overestimating the role of search	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Overestimating the role of means-ends analysis	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
9.2.	Simon's More Nuanced Positions In Later Work	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Scientific discovery and "inventive" design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
9.3.	A Possible Explanation Of Simon's Approach To Design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
9.4.	Conclusion Concerning The SIP Approach	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
PART III.	Modern views on design. The situativity approach (SIT)	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
10	Situativity and other alternatives to the SIP approach	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
10.1.	Alternative Approaches To Design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
10.2.	Rittel's Argumentative Model	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
10.3.	Situativity And Cognitive Ergonomics	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
10.4.	Situativity, Designing And Planning	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
11	Early SIT-inspired research	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
11.1.	Schon	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
11.2.	Bucciarelli	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
12	Current SIT-inspired research	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
13	Discussion of the situativity approach approach to design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
PART IV.	Confronting classical and modern views on design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
14	Symbolic Information Processing versus Situativity debates in the literature	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
14.1.	What Is At Issue?	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
14.2.	What Is A "Symbol"?	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
14.3.	What Is "Situativity"?	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Vera and Simon's view	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Greeno and Moore's view	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
14.4.	Two Critical Distinctions: Denotation Versus Interpretation, And Recognition Versus Direct 
Perception	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
15	Confrontation of the SIP and SIT approaches	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
PART V.	Design as construction of representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
16	Definition of design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
16.1.	Our Definition Of Design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
16.2.	Creativity	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17	Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.1.	Forms Of Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.2.	Functions Of Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.3.	Symbolic Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.4.	The Operative And Goal-Oriented Character Of Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.5.	Viewpoints, Personal Representations, And Perspectives	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.6.	Ambiguity In Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.7.	Percepts, Mental Images, Mental Models, And Other Internal Representations	Erreur ! Signet 
non defini.
17.8.	Inter-Designer Compatible Representations In Collaborative Design ("Shared" Representations)
Erreur ! Signet non defini.
17.9.	External Representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Forms of external representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Functions of external representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Oral textual representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Graphico-gestural representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Sketches	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
18	Representations at the source of a design project: requirements and "design problems"	Erreur ! Signet 
non defini.
18.1.	Design Problems In Problem Typologies	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
The classical cognitive-psychology distinction: transformation, structure-induction, and arrangement 
problems	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Routine versus nonroutine problems	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Semantically rich versus semantically impoverished problems	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Interpretation versus generation problems	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Analysis versus synthesis problems	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
18.2.	Ill-Definedness	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Related notions	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Wicked	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Vague	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Design characteristics associated with its ill-definedness	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
18.3.	Complexity	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
18.4.	Constraints On The Artifact	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Temporal and spatial constraints	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
19	Intermediate representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
19.1.	The Evolving Nature Of Representations: Levels Of Abstraction	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
19.2.	The Evolving Nature Of Representations: Degrees Of Precision	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
20	Representations at the end of a design project: specifications and "design solutions"	Erreur ! Signet 
non defini.
20.1.	Several Satisfactory Solutions Instead Of One Correct Solution	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
20.2.	Impossibility To Test The Artifact Specified By The Solution	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
20.3.	Quality Of Design Solutions	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
21	Designing as an activity: construction of representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
21.1.	Designing As Satisficing, Both In Generation And In Evaluation Of Solutions	Erreur ! Signet 
non defini.
21.2.	The Intermingled Character Of Requirements Development And Design, And Of Design And 
Implementation	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
21.3.	Designing As A Cognitive Activity Rather Than A Professional Status	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
21.4.	The Opportunistic Organization Of Design: Decomposition And Planning	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
A systematic decomposition approach to design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Top-down and bottom-up strategies	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Breadth-first and depth-first strategies	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Top-down, breadth-first refinement	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Planning: plan elaboration and plan execution	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Decomposition, planning, and organization	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
The opportunistic organization of design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Our analysis of the opportunistic organization of design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Discussion of our opportunistic-organization position	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
21.5.	Design Strategies	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Reuse versus design "from scratch"	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Simulation	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Selection of a kernel idea and Premature commitment to the idea	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
User considerations guiding development and evaluation	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
21.6.	Design Representation Construction Activities	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Problem representation, solution generation, and solution evaluation: three "stages" in design as problem 
solving	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Using knowledge in design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Generation and transformation of representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Evaluation of representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Collaborative design through interaction	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Construction of inter-designer compatible representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
22	Discussion	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
22.1.	"Generic" Design, But Also Different "Forms" Of Design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Maturity of a domain	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Use of internal versus external representations	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Use of graphical representations versus other types of external representations	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
Dependencies between function and form	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
"Designing in space versus time" (Thomas & Carroll, 1979/1984)	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Design of structures versus design of processes	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Distance between design concept and final product	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Possible forms of evaluation	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Delay of implementation	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Impact of an artifact on human activity and the possibility to anticipate it	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
The transformative nature of the artifact	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
The role of the user in the design process	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Artifacts' behavior over time	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Other dimensions	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
Software and HCI design versus other forms of design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
22.2.	Linking Representational Structures And Activities	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
PART VI.	Conclusion	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
23	SIP and SIT, individual and collective design	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
24	Design involves more than problem solving	Erreur ! Signet non defini.
25	Construction of representations: conclusion and framework for further research	Erreur ! Signet non 
defini.
PART VII.	References	Erreur ! Signet non defini.

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human engineering.
Industrial design.
Design -- Human factors.
Cognitive science.