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Contents Preface to the Third Edition 7 Preface to the Second Edition 12 Original Preface to the First Edition 17 1. MORAL THEORY AND ANIMALS Introduction 23 Moral Intuitions and Moral Theory 25 Finding a Fulcrum-The Need for an Ideal 27 Constructing an Ideal for Animals 30 Having a Soul 36 Relevant Differences 37 Human Dominion 39 Duties toward Animals as Duties toward Humans 41 Reason, Language, and Moral Concern 42 Social Contract Theories 44 Kant's Theory of Reason 51 Kant's Ethic 53 Humans as "Ends in Themselves" 55 Animals as Means 56 Language and Reason 57 The Ordinary Notion of Rationality 61 Do Animals Behave Rationally? 62 Do Animals use Concepts? 64 Animals and Human Language 68 Moral Concern and Nonrational Humans 69 Our Concern for Nonrational Human Interests 71 The Moral Relevance of Pleasure and Pain 73 Scientific Ideology and the Denial of Animal Pain and Consciousness 75 A Critique of Scientific Ideology 85 Variability of Pain Experience in Humans and Animals 93 Interest in Survival and Freedom 96 Moral Concern and Creatures with Interests 98 Interests, Language and Natural Signs 99 Life and Awareness as the source of Interests: The Telos of Living Things 102 Interests and Awareness 106 Moral Theory and Our World View 110 Do animals Have Moral Rights? 114 The Right to Moral Concern 115 The Right to Life 116 The Violation of Rights 121 Specific Rights and Animals Nature 125 Telos and Ethology 129 Telos and Genetic Engineering 134 Where You Draw the Line? 140 How to Deal with Competing Interests? 141 Must we Police Creation? 147 Don't Animals Kill Each Other? 148 The Nonliving Environment 148 Don't We Have Enough Problems with Human Morality? 155 Isn't All this Utopian 155 2. ANIMAL RIGHTS AND LEGAL RIGHTS How Are Law and Morality Connected? 158 Natural Law Theory 159 Natural Rights 160 The Rejection of Natural Law and Natural Rights: Legal Positivism 162 The Revival of Natural Rights 163 Rights are Protection for the Individual Against the General Welfare 166 How Rights are Established 168 How Does this Relate to Animals? 170 Don't Animals have Legal Rights Now? 171 Legalizing the Rights of Animals 180 What can We Expect to Achieve? 184 Is Our Position Absurd? 187 Animals Legal Rights Today 189 3. THE USE AND ABUSE OF ANIMALS IN RESEARCH Introduction 194 The Six Senses of Research 196 Moral Principles for Research: The Utilitarian Rights and Principles 199 Introduction to the Testing of Consumables 205 The LD50 Test 205 The Draize Test 212 Carcinogen, Mutigan and Tertrogen Testing 216 The Concept of Alternatives to Animal Experimentation 219 The Use of Animals in Teaching 220 Research Abuse and the Training of Scientists 225 The Debasement of Language in Science 231 Creating A Revolution in Science Education-Some Personal Notes 233 Introduction to the Use of Animals in Basic Research 244 Freedom of Thoughts Vs. the Moral Status of Animals 245 The Use of ¿Alternatives¿ in Basic Research 249 Theory-Based Science Vs. Empirical Dabbling 250 Improving the Lot of Research Animals 256 The Emergence of Viable Legislation 262 Positive Features of the New Laws 267 Distress 274 Limitations and Inadequacies in the New Laws 281 Animal Happiness 286 Threats to the Current Regulatory System 288 The Role of Humans in Science 306 Introduction to the Use of Animals in Applied Medical Research 308 The Focus of Medical Research and Practice: Some Philosophical Reflections 311 Introduction to the Use of Animals in Drug Research 317 Introduction to the Use of Animals for Product Extraction 322 Conclusion 325 4. MORALITY AND PET ANIMALS Morality, Empathy, and Individuality 327 The Triggering of Empathy 328 Pet Animals and the Social Contract 331 The Changing Role of Companion Animals in Society 335 Human Breach of Contract 341 Violating the Right to Life 342 The Human Tragedy 344 Violation of Telos 346 Canine Racisim 352 Social Institutions as A Mirror of Individual Responsibility 354 Viable Legislation and the Pet Problem 358 The Need for an Educational Blitzkrieg 368 Role of Animal Advocacy 369 The Role of Veterinarians 374 5. ANIMAL AGRICULTURE Introduction 380 Husbandry Agriculture 380 The Rise of Industrialized Agriculture 383 Welfare and Productivity 387 Problems of Industrialized Agriculture 388 Sow Confinement 391 Other Problems in Confinement Swine Production 401 Piglet Welfare 404 Grower-Finishers 406 Handling and Transport 408 Conclusion 409 Egg Production 410 Broiler Production 411 Dairy 411 Veal 412 Husbandry Versus Industry-Beef 414 Welfare Problems in the Beef Industry 416 Feedlots 419 What is to Be Done? 420 Afterward (To the Second Edition) 425 Afterward (To the Third Edition) 427 Bibliography 429
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