Table of contents for Mediation : the roles of advocate and neutral / Dwight Golann, Jay Folberg.

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Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
A. The Nature of Disputing in America 4
B. How Disputes Arise 5
Reading the Landscape of Disputes: What We Know and Don't Know (and Think We Know) About Our Allegedly Contentious and Litigious Society-Marc S. Galanter 6
Questions 10
C. The Spectrum of Dispute Resolution Options 11
D. Conclusion 12
A. Negotiation Styles and Approaches 15
1. Competitive Approach 17
A Primer on Competitive Bargaining-Gary Goodpaster 17
Questions 20
2. Cooperative Approach 20
Note: Interests in Bargaining 21
Problem 22
Questions 23
Microsoft, Stac End Battle with Pact, a Win-Win
Cross-Licensing Agreement-Jim Carlton 24
Questions 25
3. Problem-Solving Approach 25
Toward Another View of Legal Negotiation: The Structure of
Problem Solving-Carrie Menkel-Meadow 25
Questions 28
4. Adversarial Approach 28
Secrets of Power Negotiating-Roger Dawson 28
Question 30
B. A Combined Approach-Creating and Claiming Value 30
The Manager as Negotiator: Bargaining for Cooperation
and Competitive Gain-David A. Lax and James K. Sebenius 30
Note: The Importance of Differences in Creating Joint
Gains 33
Questions 35
C. Choosing an Effective Approach 35
1. Cooperation versus Competitiveness-Who Decides? 35
2. Negotiating Within Your Comfort Zone 36
Questions 40
A. Preparing to Negotiate
1. Identifying Alternatives 41
Getting to Yes-Roger Fisher, William Ury, and
Bruce Patton 41
Questions 43
2. Setting Goals 44
Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable
People-G. Richard Shell 44
Notes and Questions 46
3. A Preparation Checklist 47
B. Initial Interaction 49
Essentials of Negotiation-Roy Lewicki et al. 49
Note: The Importance of Small Talk in Bargaining 50
Question 51
C. Exchanging Information 51
Understanding Negotiation-Melissa L. Nelken 52
Questions 54
D. Bargaining 55
1. Competitive Approach 55
Planning and Executing an Effective Concession Strategy-
Theron O'Connor 55
A Civil Action-Jonathan Harr 58
Questions 60
2. Cooperative Approach
Beyond Winning: Negotiating to Create Value in Deals and
Disputes-Robert H. Mnookin, Scott R. Peppet, and
Andrew S. Tulumello 60
Question 62
E. Moving Toward Closure 62
1. Seeking Inventive Solutions
Getting to Yes-Roger Fisher, William Ury, and Bruce Patton 62
2. Splitting the Difference and Dealing with Impasse 64
Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable
People-G. Richard Shell 64
Questions 67
F. Finalizing an Agreement
Effective Legal Negotiation and Settlement-Charles B.
Craver 67
Note: Ratification and Approval 70
A. Strategic and Principal-Agent Barriers 71
Why Negotiations Fail: An Exploration of Barriers to the
Resolution of Conflict-Robert H. Mnookin 71
B. The Role of Perceptions 77
The War of the Roses-Warren Adler 77
The Conflict Helix-R. J. Rummel 78
C. Psychological Traps 81
Cognitive Barriers to Effective Negotiation-Dwight Golann 81
Settlement Psychology: When Decision-Making Processes
Fail-Richard Birke 84
Questions 89
D. The Role of Emotions 90
Interpersonal Dynamics: Helping Lawyers Learn the Skills, and
the Importance of Human Relationships in the Practice of Law-
Joshua D. Rosenberg 90
Questions 94
A. Introduction 97
1. The Process of Mediation 97
a. What Is Mediation? 97
b. What Do Mediators Do? 98
c. What Is the Structure of Mediation? 98
2. The Value of Mediation 100
a. Viewpoints of Lawyers 100
b. Business Perspectives 103
Toro's Early Intervention Program,
After Six Years, Has Saved $50 M-Miguel A. Olivella Jr. 103
Patterns of ADR Use in Corporate Disputes-David B. Lipsky
and Ronald L. Seeber 104
c. Is It Right for Every Dispute? 106
3. Examples of Mediation in Action 106
a. Death of a Student 106
Questions 109
b. United States et al. v. Microsoft Corporation 109
Unfinished Business: Another Look at the Microsoft Mediation:
Lessons for the Civil Litigator-James Laflin and Robert
Werth 109
How We Mediated the Microsoft Case-Eric Green and
Jonathan Marks 111
4. The Evolution of Legal Mediation 112
B. Goals and Mediator Styles 114
1. Goals for the Process 114
a. Resolve a Legal Claim on the Best Possible Monetary Terms 114
b. Develop a Broad, Interest-Based Resolution 115
c. Repair the Parties' Relationship 115
d. Change the Parties' Perspectives 116
e. Choices among Goals 116
Questions 118
2. Mediator Styles 118
a. Classifying Styles 118
Retiring and Replacing the Grid of Mediator Orientations
-Leonard L. Riskin 118
b. Do Mediators Have a Single Style? 122
Questions 122
3. Mediative Approaches and Techniques 123
a. Commercial Mediation 123
A Basic Mediative Strategy-Dwight Golann 123
Do's and Don'ts of Mediation Practice-Marjorie C. Aaron 130
b. Pure Money Mediation 134
Mediating in the Dance for Dollars-J. Michael Keating 134
c. No-Caucus Approaches 136
The Heart of Mediation: Resolving Conflict Through Understanding-
Gary J. Friedman and Jack Himmelstein 136
Questions 139
d. Transformative Mediation
REDRESS¿ at the USPS: A Breakthrough Mediation Program-Lisa
B. Bingham 140
Transformative Mediation Principles and Practices in Divorce
Mediation-Robert A. Baruch Bush and Sally Ganong Pope 141
4. Is There More to Mediation than Technique? 143
Bringing Peace into the Room: The Personal Qualities of the
Mediator and Their Impact on the Mediation-Daniel
Bowling and David Hoffman 144
Questions 145
A. Commercial Mediation 147
1. Premediation 147
a. Performing Administrative Tasks 147
b. Ensuring That the Right People Are at the Table 148
c. Building a Working Relationship 148
d. Starting to Mediate 148
2. The Opening Session 149
a. Goals 149
b. Techniques 150
c. Opening Comments 151
d. Common Mistakes 155
3. Private Caucuses 155
a. Early Caucuses 156
b. Middle Caucuses 159
c. Later Caucuses 161
d. Common Mistakes 163
4. Joint Discussions 165
a. Goals and Techniques 166
b. Common Mistakes 167
B. No-Caucus Processes 168
The Heart of Mediation: Resolving Conflict Through
Understanding-Gary J. Friedman and Jack Himmelstein 168
Questions 173
Note: Choosing the Right Process 173
A. Premediation Contacts 175
At First Glance: Maximizing the Mediator's Initial Contact-
Marjorie C. Aaron 175
Problem 7.1 177
B. During the Process 177
1. Listening 177
Undaunted Courage-Stephen E. Ambrose 178
Questions 179
The Benefits of Empathic Listening-Richard Salem 179
Reconciliation and the Role of Empathy-Dana L. Curtis 181
Problem 7.2 184
2. Reframing 185
Reframing-Ken Bryant and Dana L. Curtis 185
3. Identifying Interests and Developing Options 188
a. Methods to Identify Interests 188
b. Methods to Develop Settlement Options 191
4. Managing Positional Bargaining 192
A. Emotional Issues 197
1. Strong Feelings 197
a. Identify the Issue 198
b. Allow Venting: Listen, Acknowledge, Empathize 199
c. Retrace the Issue from the Disputant's Perspective 200
d. Arrange a Response 200
e. Treat Continuing Problems 201
f. Distinguish Feelings Carried over from the Past 201
g. Extend the Process or Adjourn for a Limited Time 201
h. Circumvent Dysfunctional Participants 202
Questions 202
Note: Apology in Mediation 202
Questions 204
2. Personal Issues in Dealing with Emotion 205
Why Is It Hard for Lawyers to Deal with Emotional Issues?-
Helaine Golann and Dwight Golann 205
Question 208
B. Cognitive Effects 208
1. Forces Affecting Assessment of the Merits 208
a. Selective Perception 208
b. Optimistic Overconfidence 209
c. Endowment Effect 209
2. Influences on Bargaining Decisions 210
a. Reactive Devaluation 210
b. Loss Aversion 211
c. Attraction to Certainty and Familiar Risks 212
Questions 213
3. General Responses to Cognitive Issues 213
a. Treat Obstacles as Psychological, Not Simply Legal, Issues 213
b. Retrace the Disputant's Analysis 213
c. Distance Current Circumstances from Prior Ones 214
d. Reframe the Decision 214
e. Ask the Person to Play out an Adversary's Role 215
f. Use Humor to Shake a Disputant out of a Rigid Stance 215
C. The Special Problem of Loss Reactions 215
The Death of a Claim: Loss Reactions in Bargaining-Dwight
Golann 215
A. Responses to Lack of Information 222
B. Intermediate Techniques 224
Decision Analysis as a Method of Evaluating the Trial
Alternative-Marjorie Corman Aaron and David P. Hoffer 228
C. Evaluation of the Likely Outcome in Adjudication 233
1. Should Mediators Evaluate? 233
The Top Ten Reasons Why Mediators Should Not Evaluate-
Lela P. Love 233
2. What Is Evaluation? 234
Advice by Any Other Name-Tom Fisher 235
Questions 236
3. If a Mediator Does Evaluate, How Should It Be Done? 236
To Evaluate or Not-That Is Not the Question!-L. Randolph
Lowry 237
Questions 239
To Evaluate or Facilitate? Parties' Perceptions of Mediation
Affected by Mediator Style-Roselle P. Wissler 239
Questions 240
Problems 240
A. Introduction 245
1. Identifying Goals 246
Questions 247
Problem 247
2. An Overview of Strategy 247
a. Problem-Solving Approaches 247
Mediation Representation: Advocating in a Problem-Solving
Process -Harold Abramson 247
b. Commercial Mediation Processes 249
Twenty Common Errors in Mediation Advocacy -Tom Arnold 249
Questions 253
B. Entering the Process 254
1. Whether to Mediate 254
Mediation Advocacy-John Cooley 254
2. When to Mediate 255
3. How to Initiate the Process 256
C. Structuring the Mediation 257
1. Selecting a Mediator 257
Strategic Considerations in Choosing a Mediator: A Mediator's
Perspective-David S. Ross 258
Questions 259
2. Ensuring the Presence of Necessary Participants 260
A Mediator's Tip: Talk to Me!-Jerry Spolter 260
Questions 262
3. Drafting an Agreement to Mediate 262
4. Influencing the Format 262
5. Planning for Court-Connected Mediation 263
D. Preparing to Mediate 265
1. Developing a Negotiating Plan 265
a. A Mediator's Perspective 265
How Advocacy Fits in Effective Mediation-Jeffrey
G. Kichaven 265
Question 266
b. A Litigator's Viewpoint 266
Advocacy in Mediation: A Dozen Suggestions-Robert M. Smith 266
c. A Problem-Solving Approach xxx
Mediation Representation: Advocating in a Problem-Solving
Process-Harold Abramson xxx
Questions xxx
2. Exchanging Information xxx
a. Exchanging Data with the Other Party xxx
Questions xxx
b. Educating the Mediator xxx
Questions xxx
3. Preparing the Client xxx
Client Preparation for Mediation-Thomas Arnold xxx
Questions xxx
A. Joint Meetings 000
1. The Opening Session 000
a. Should There Be an Opening Session? 000
Question 000
b. What Role Will You Take in the Session? 000
c. What Role Will Your Client Take? 000
Question 000
2. Other Joint Formats 000
B. Caucusing 000
1. Early Caucuses 000
a. Exchanging Information and Arguments 000
Problem 000
b. Initiating Bargaining 000
2. Later Caucuses 000
a. Facilitating Bargaining 000
Questions 000
Questions 000
b. Impasse-Breaking Techniques 000
Questions 000
A. Policy Issues Regarding the Use of Mediation 000
1. Should Some Cases Not Be Settled? 000
Against Settlement-Owen M. Fiss 000
Lessons from the Alternative Dispute Resolution Movement-
Jethro K. Lieberman & James F. Henry 000
Questions 000
ADR and the Dispossessed: Recent Books about the Deformalization
Movement -Richard Delgado 000
Questions 000
2. Should Some Disputes Not Be Mediated? 000
a. Issues of Gender, Ethnicity, and Culture 000
New Mexico Research Examines Impact of Gender and Ethnicity
in Mediation-Michele Hermann 000
Questions 000
A Red Flag: Mediator Cultural Bias in Divorce Mediation-Sina
Bahadoran 000
Questions 000
b. Mandatory Mediation of Family Disputes 000
Questions 000
The Mediation Alternative: Process Dangers for
Women-Trina Grillo 000
Notes and Questions 000
c. Domestic Violence Cases 000
Mediation and Domestic Abuse-Ann L. Milne 000
Questions 000
d. Termination of Parental Rights 000
In the Matter of T.D., Deprived Child v. State of Oklahoma, et al. 000
Questions 000
B. Ethics Issues for Advocates and Neutrals 000
1. Advocates in Mediation 000
a. Candor Toward the Mediator 000
Problems 12.1 and 12.2 000
b. Obligations to Other Parties 000
Problems 12.3 and 12.4 000
c. The Duty to Advise Clients About ADR 000
Questions 000
2. Concerns for Mediators 000
Excerpts from the Model Standards of Conduct for Mediators 000
Excerpt from the Uniform Mediation Act 000
Questions 000
a. Issues of Fairness 000
Problems 12.5 and 12.6 000
b. Questions of Competence 000
Problem 12.7 000
c. Repeat-Player Concerns 000
Problem 12.8 000
d. Differences Between Attorney and Client 000
Problems 12.9 and 12.10 000
e. Improper Conduct by Litigants 000
Problems 12.11-12.13 000
3. Combining Practice as an Advocate and a Mediator 000
a. Conflicts of Interest 000
Question 000
b. Role Confusion 000
Questions 000
A. Confidentiality 000
Problems 13.1 and 13.2 000
1. How Important Is Confidentiality to Mediation? 000
Confidentiality in Mediation: The Need for Protection-Lawrence R.
Freedman and Michael L. Prigoff 000
A Closer Look: The Case for a Mediation Confidentiality
Privilege Still Has Not Been Made -Scott H. Hughes 000
Questions 000
2. Sources of Mediation Confidentiality 000
a. Rules of Evidence 000
b. Privileges 000
c. Confidentiality Statutes and Rules 000
d. Mediation Agreements 000
e. Positive Disclosure Obligations 000
3. Examples from Practice 000
a. Use of Mediation Information in Litigation 000
Rojas v. Superior Court of Los Angeles County 000
Questions 000
Byrd v. The State 000
Questions 000
Problems 13.3 and 13.4 000
b. Supervisory Intrusions into the Process 000
Questions 000
Olam v. Congress Mortgage Co. 000
Questions 000
4. Confidentiality in Caucusing 000
Problems 13.5 and 13.6 000
5. Proposals for Change 000
a. The Current State of Protection 000
b. A Response: The Uniform Mediation Act 000
B. Enforcement of Participation in Mediation 000
1. Agreements to Mediate 000
Questions 000
2. Mandates to Mediate 000
a. Issues of Court Authority 000
Question 000
b. Good-Faith Bargaining Requirements 000
Questions 000
Questions 000
Nick v. Morgan's Foods of Missouri, Inc. 000
Questions 000
Problem 13.7 000
3. Enforcement of Mediated Settlements 000
a. The Existence of an Agreement 000
b. Grounds for Invalidation 000
Questions 000
Christian Cooper v. Melodie Austin 000
Questions 000
C. Certification and Licensing 000
Points of View: Is Mediation Really a Profession?-Juliana
Birkoff and Robert Rack, with Judith M. Filner 000
Certification: An Idea Whose Time Has Come-James E. McGuire 000
A. Family Disputes 000
1. What Is Unique About Family Mediation? 000
2. The Process 000
Questions 000
Mediating Divorce: Casebook of Strategies for Successful Family
Negotiations-John Haynes 000
3. Policy Issues 000
Questions 000
Divorce Mediation: The Emerging American Model-Jay
Folberg 000
B. Employment Cases 000
Employment Disputes-Carol A. Wittenberg, Susan
T. MacKenzie, and Margaret L. Shaw 000
Questions 000
C. Environmental and Public Controversies 000
The Environment in the Balance: Mediators Are Making a
Difference-Gail Bingham 000
Questions 000
Convening-Chris Carlson 000
D. Intellectual Property Disputes 000
High Tech and Intellectual Property Disputes-Technology
Mediation Services 000
Questions 000
E. Criminal Matters 000
Questions 000
1. Potential Charges 000
Police Mediators: Rethinking the Role of Law Enforcement in the
New Millennium-Christopher Cooper 000
Question 000
2. Victim-Offender Cases 000
Questions 000
Personalizing Crime: Mediation Produces Restorative Justice for
Victims and
Offenders-Marty Price 000
Question 000
F. Deal Mediation 000
Contract Formation in Imperfect Markets: Should We Use
Mediators in Deals?-Scott R. Peppet 000
Question 000
G. International Mediation 000
1. Foreign Legal Systems 000
2. International Legal Disputes 000
Mediation in International Business-Jeswald Salacuse 000
The Asian Concept of Conciliator/Arbitrator: Is It Translatable
to the Western World?-M. Scott Donahey 000
Questions 000
H. Online Mediation 000
Online Dispute Resolution-Colin Rule 000
Questions 000
A. Issues of Program Design 000
1. What Goals Should a Program Seek to Achieve? 000
Why Should Courts Offer Non-Binding ADR Services?-Wayne
D. Brazil 000
Questions 000
Making Deals in Court-Connected Mediation: What's Justice Got
to Do with It?-Nancy A. Welsh 000
Questions 000
2. How Should Services Be Provided? 000
Problem 000
B. Models of Court-Connected Programs 000
1. State Trial Courts 000
Alternative Dispute Resolution in Minnesota-An Update
on Rule 114-Nancy A. Welsh and Barbara McAdoo 000
The Texas ADR Experience-Mike Amis et al. 000
Florida's Court-Connected State Mediation Program-Sharon
Press 000
Questions 000
2. Federal Trial Courts 000
Demonstrating the Possibilities of Providing Mediation Early
and by Court Staff: The Western District of Missouri's Early
Assessment Program-Donna Stienstra 000
Question 000
3. Small Claims Sessions 000
The Use of Mediation in Small Claims Courts-Susan
Raitt et al. 000
4. Appellate Courts 000
Representing Clients In Appellate Mediation: The Last Frontier-
Dana Curtis and John Toker 000
Question 000
A. The Use of Mixed Processes: Med-Arb 000
1. Concerns about Med-Arb 000
Questions 000
2. The Need for Precision in Specifying Roles 000
Questions 000
B. Changing Roles for Lawyers 000
A Judge's Perspective on Lawyering and ADR-Hon. Wayne
Brazil 000
Question 000
C. Transforming the Community 000
Promoting Problem Solving and Peacemaking as Enduring Values
in Our Society -Hon. Janet Reno 000
D. Mediative Skills as Part of a Legal Career 000
Appendix 000
Bibliography and References 000
Table of Cases 000
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Mediation -- United States.
Dispute resolution (Law ) -- United States.
Compromise (Law) -- United States.