Table of contents for The bourgeois virtues : ethics for an age of commerce / Deirdre McCloskey.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface		0
Acknowledgments	00
Apology: A Brief for the Bourgeois Virtues	1
I. Exordium: The Good Bourgeois 	00
II. Narratio: How Ethics Fell 	00
III. Probatio A: Modern Capitalism Makes Us Richer 	00
IV. Probatio B: And Lets Us Live Longer 	00
V. Probatio C: And Improves Our Ethics 	00
VI. Refutatio: Anticapitalism Is Bad for Us 	00
VII. Peroratio	00
Appeal 	00
Please be patient about the argument, for your own good.
1	The Very Word ¿Virtue¿	00
¿Virtue ethics¿ says that acting well is not a matter of finding the most 
general ethical rule but of finding stories for a good character. Can a bourgeois 
person be virtuous?
2	The Very Word ¿Bourgeois¿	00
¿Bourgeois¿ is used here for the middle class: haute, petite, and the angry 
clerisy sprung from it, too.
3	On Not Being Spooked by the Word ¿Bourgeois¿	00
¿Bourgeois¿ need not be a term of contempt.
Part 1	The Christian and Feminine Virtues: Love
4	The First Virtue: Love Profane and Sacred	00
Ethics comes from stories. Love stories, for example.
5	Love and the Transcendent	00
Love is for people; but it is love for Art, Science, Nature, God, too.
6	Sweet Love vs. Interest	00
Loving is not the same thing as ¿maximizing utility.¿
7	Bourgeois Economists against Love	000
Some economists mistake this. Adam Smith did not.
8	Love and the Bourgeoisie	000
Capitalism requires love.
9	Solidarity Regained	000
The market has not eroded love.
Part 2	The Christian and Feminine Virtues: Faith and Hope
10	Faith as Identity	000
The other ¿theological virtues,¿ besides love, also figure in any human 
society, even a commercial one. For instance, Faith¿who you are.
11	Hope and Its Banishment	000
Hope in a commercial society is mobility. Its transcendent version makes 
the clerisy uneasy.
12	Against the Sacred	000
Religious Hope and faith were disdained by some, 1700 to the present. But 
other faiths and hopes expanded.
13	Van Gogh and the Transcendent Profane	000
Thus, for example, Vincent van Gogh, who was hopeful, not crazy.
14	Humility and Truth	000
Such ¿theological¿ virtues¿faith, hope, and love¿show themselves even 
in some economists, and in any good scientist.
15	Economic Theology	000
Economics needs a theology. In fact, it already is a theology
Part 3	The Pagan and Masculine Virtues: Courage, with Temperance
16	The Good of Courage	000
Courage is modeled by Achilles or Odysseus. The stories are myths, in the 
double sense: culturally important tales; and false in detail and sometimes in 
spirit. A bourgeois army is a contradiction, as at Srebrenica.
17	Anachronistic Courage in the Bourgeoisie	000
Yet bourgeois men have adopted the mythical histories of knights and 
cowboys as their definition of masculinity.
18	Taciturn Courage against the ¿Feminine¿	000
For example, they have taken taciturnity as a marker of masculinity, against 
the talk-talk of the marketplace. Male bourgeois writers in America came to need 
a way of distinguishing themselves from women. Therefore they adopted a 
nostalgia for the silent, violent hero.
19	Bourgeois vs. Queer	000
And they needed to distinguished themselves from homosexuals, a big 
project in American literature and in English, German, and American law.
20	Balancing Courage	000
The outcome was some generations of courage-loving men, especially 
those of the Greatest Generation, modeling their behavior in business on myths of 
aristocracy. But Temperance is a virtue, too.
Part 4	The Androgynous Virtues: Prudence and Justice
21	Prudence Is a Virtue	000
Prudence makes other virtues work, and is proper benevolence toward the 
22	The Monomania of Immanuel Kant	000
The other, Kantian system that has replaced virtue ethics in the thinking of 
philosophers in the past two centuries was built on an excess of Justice: The 
23	The Storied Character of Virtue	000
We do good mainly by story and example, not by maxim.
24	Evil as Imbalance, Inner and Outer: Temperance and Justice	000
Virtue ethics emphasizes balances in the soul and in the society: 
temperance and justice.
25	The Pagan-Ethical Bourgeois	000
The four pagan virtues, like the three Christian, can fit a commercial 
society, as in Amsterdam¿s City Hall.
Part 5	Systematizing the Seven Virtues
26	The System of the Virtues	000
The virtues fit together, sacred to profane, feminine to masculine.
27	A Philosophical Psychology?	000
Modern positive psychology comes to the same conclusion, near 
28	Ethical Striving	000
The approach to the good is like the approach to the truth. The two depend 
on each other and on the characters we shape in our stories.
29	Ethical Realism	000
The ethical is ¿real,¿ all right.
30	Against Reduction	000
Kantianism assumes that identity is already formed, and utilitarianism 
ignores identity entirely. We need ethical identities, partly given, partly 
31	Character(s)	000
The identities, for example, can be aristocratic, peasant, priestly, or 
32	Antimonism Again	000
Virtue ethics is better than Kantianism.
33	Why Not One Virtue?	000
Because Aristotelianism is better than Platonism.
34	Dropping the Virtues, 1532¿1958		000
The West used the seven virtues until Machiavelli made an art of the state. 
Latterly even moralists like Jane Austen and George Orwell have disdained 
systems of the virtues.
35	Other Lists		000
Many other lists lack discipline.
36	Eastern and Other Ways	000
The Confucian discipline is similar to Western virtue ethics, though not 
37	Needing Virtues	000
The amoralism of the cynics Nietzsche, Holmes, Mencken, Posner is a 
Part 6	The Bourgeois Uses of the Virtues
38	P & S and the Capitalist Life	000
The Profane and the Sacred both work in capitalism.
39	Sacred Reasons	000
The sacred motivates the market for Art, of course; but it figures in most 
40	Not by P Alone	000
The sacred is bigger than economists think.
41	The Myth of Modern Rationality	000
The novelty and extent of rationality in capitalism is usually 
42	God¿s Deal	000
But the sacred need not drive out Prudence.
43	Necessary Excess?	000
Greed is not necessary for a capitalist economy to prosper.
44	Good Work	000
Capitalistic work is consistent with religious values.
45	Wage Slavery	000
And capitalistic production is not dehumanization.
46	The Rich	000
Even successful capitalists can be virtuous.
47	Good Barons	000
Profit is good, not bad, for our persons and our souls.
48	The Anxieties of Bourgeois Virtues	000
So the bourgeoisie can be good. Usually it is good. And yet it 
Postscript: The Unfinished Case for the Bourgeois Virtues
Notes	000
Works Cited	000
Index	000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Capitalism -- Moral and ethical aspects.
Commerce -- Moral and ethical aspects.
Social ethics -- History.
Business ethics -- History.
Virtues -- History.
Economic history.