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Contents Contributors Series Preface Preface About the Editors INTRODUCTION Introduction to Feedstock Recycling of Plastics A. Buekens Introduction Nomenclature Pyrolysis of plastics and rubber Survey of Previous Work Products from Polymers Hetero-atoms and Side Products Fundamentals Value of the resulting products Feedstock Recycling Survey Problems with Hetero-atoms Collection Systems Logistics of Supply Some feasible Processes Pilot and Industrial Plant Operation Conclusions Waste Management Principles Plastics Waste Rubber Waste Plastics Pyrolysis as a Waste Management Option Conclusions CATALYTIC CRACKING Acid Catalyzed Cracking of Polyolefins: Primary Reaction Mechanisms R.L. White Introduction Polyethylene Cracking Hydrocracking Processes PE-PtHZSM-5 PE-PtHY PE-PtHMCM-41 Conclusions Catalytic Upgrading of Plastics Wastes J. Aguado, D.P. Serrano, J.M. Escola Introduction Catalytic versus thermal cracking Plastics susceptible of upgrading by catalytic cracking Products derived from the catalytic cracking Catalytic systems Homogeneous catalysts Heterogeneous catalysts Reactors Batch/semi-batch reactors Fixed bed reactors Fluidized bed reactors Spouted bed reactors Screw kiln reactors Influence of the main operation variables Temperature Catalyst amount Time Plastic waste makeup Processes Direct catalytic cracking Thermal degradation and subsequent catalytic upgrading Related Technologies: coprocessing Coal Petroleum cuts Solvents Concluding remarks Thermal and Catalytic Conversion of Polyolefins J. Walendziewski Introduction General scheme of waste polyolefines processing Waste plastics suitable for cracking and pyrolysis Mechanism of cracking processes Waste plastics processing Catalytic and thermal cracking processes, typical products Co-processing of waste plastics with other raw materials Reactor design Pilot plants and commercial plants Economical aspects Bibliography Thermal and Catalytic Degradation of Waste HDPE K.-H. Lee Introduction Theory of plastics pyrolysis Process flow diagram Total mass balance Effect of temperature Effect of catalyst Various catalysts Effect of other thermoplastic addition Fractional distillation of the products Properties of liquid product Development of a Process for the Continuous Conversion of Waste Plastics Mixtures to Fuel T. Masuda, T. Tago Introduction Recovery of heavy oil from waste plastic Degradation of various plastics Catalytic cracking of waste plastics without any residue Continuous degradation of waste plastics mixtures for the recovery of heavy oil Upgrading of waste-plastics-derived heavy oil over catalysts Catalytic cracking of heavy oil over solid-acid catalysts Production of high-quality gasoline over REY zeolites Kinetics of the catalytic cracking of heavy oil over REY zeolites Usage of steam as a carrier gas The continuous production of fuels from waste plastics Continuous production of fuels Catalytic Degradation of Plastic Waste to Fuel Over Microporous Materials G. Manos Introduction Operation modes Zeolites Polymer to Catalyst ratio Initial degradation mechanism Product distribution Conversion, liquid yield, coke content Characterisation of gaseous/liquid products Boiling point distribution of liquid fraction Summary Liquefaction of Municipal Waste Plastics over Acidic and Non-acidic Catalysts J. Yanik Catalytic liquefaction of MWP Liquid phase contact Thermal cracking plus catalytic upgrading Hydrocracking Hydrogenation Coprocessing of MWP Kinetic Model of the Chemical and Catalytic Recycling of Waste Polyethylene into Fuels N. Miskolczi Introduction Reaction kinetics of degradation Reaction mechanism Catalysts Monofunctional catalysts Bifunctional catalysts Solid alkalis QUALITY OF FUELS Production of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels by Pyrolysis and Gasification of Plastics - Technological Approach C.G. Jung, A. Fontana Introduction Literature review on plastics carbonisation Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Polyvinyl choride (PVC) Polyethylene terephtalate (PET) Plastic mixtures Technological approach Predictive carbonisation model Scale-up Pyrolysis technologies Gasification technologies Fuel valorisation Yield and Composition of Gases and Oils/Waxes from the Feedstock Recycling of Waste Plastic P.T. Williams Introduction Feedstock recycling of plastics Product yield Gas composition Oil/wax composition from the feedstock recycling of single plastics Conclusions Composition of Liquid Fuels derived from the Pyrolysis of Plastics M. Blazso Introduction Experimental methods Chemical composition of pyrolysis liquids Relation of major oil characteristics and chemical features of component compounds Thermal decomposition reactions of polymers Pyrolysis products of packaging waste plastics Polyolefins Vinyl polymers Polyesters Pyrolysis products of automotive waste plastics Styrene copolymers Rubber plastics Polyamides Polyurethanes (PU) Pyrolysis products of electronic waste plastics Polycarbonate Epoxy resin Phenol-formaldehyde resin Production of Premium Oil Products from Waste Plastic by Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing S.J. Miller, N. Shah, G.P. Huffman Background Conversion of waste plastics to transportation fuels Direct liquefaction and co-processing of waste plastic Pyrolysis and hydroprocessing Feasibility study Conversion of waste plastic to lubricating base oil Lubricating base oils from Fischer-Tropsch wax and waste plastic One gallon per day pilot plant Hydroprocessing Pyrolysis pilot plant results for various feedstocks Summary and conclusions The Conversion of Waste Plastics/Petroleum Residue Mixtures to Transportation Fuels M.F. Ali, M.N. Siddiqui Introduction The characteristics and chemical structure of plastics The characteristics and chemical properties of petroleum residue Technologies for petroleum residue upgrading Technologies for tertiary recycling of mixed plastic waste Coprocessing for fuel from mixed plastic waste Pyrolysis Environmental impacts of recycling of waste plastics Economic evaluation Conclusions REACTOR TYPES Overview of Commercial Pyrolysis Processes for Waste Plastics J. Scheirs Introduction Advantages of pyrolysis Thermal cracking Catalytic cracking Feedstock options Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Pyrolysis PET PVC Halogenated polymers Plastic feedstock specification Operational considerations Preventing coking Preventing corrosion Tank/Kettle reactors Reflux Problems with batch pyrolysis Continuous systems Fluidized bed processes Fluid-bed coking Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) Catalytic cracking Engineering design aspects Pyrolysis chamber design Pyrolysis vessel construction Agitator speed Burner characteristics Inert purge gas Distillation columns Centrifuge Scrubber Dechlorination Hydrotreating Catalytic dewaxing an isomerization dewaxing Quality of the output fuels Unsaturation Carbon residue in the fuel Low temperature properties Fuel instability Diesel additives Storage stability of plastic derived diesel fuel Characteristics of the solid residue Gaseous emissions Catalytic cracking Catalyst activity and selectivity Layered clay catalysts External catalysts PS catalytic cracking Catalytic dechlorination Commercial plastic pyrolysis processes ThermofuelTM process Smuda process Polymer-engineering process (catalytic depolymerization) The Royco process The REENTECH process Hitachi process Chiyoda process Blowdec process Conrad process Other processes with separate catalyst beds Conclusions Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes U. Arena, M.L. Mastellone Introduction The fluidised bed technology for waste thermal treatments: the key role of the hydrodynamics From plastic waste to feedstocks and energy by means of fluidised bed pyrolysis Different stages in the fluidised bed pyrolysis of a plastic waste An overview of physical and chemical phenomena The polymer degradation process Operability range of fluidised bed pyrolysers The phenomenology of bed defluidizatioin Predictive defluidization models and operability maps The effect of the main process variables on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products Fluidized bed pyrolysis of mono-polymeric waste Fluidized bed pyrolysis of multi-polymeric waste Fluidized bed pyrolysis of other polymeric wastes The operating experience with industrial fluidised bed pyrolysers The BP chemicals polymer cracking process The Akzo process The Ebara Twinrec process The Hamburg Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Process to Recycle Polymer Wastes and Tires W. Kaminsky Introduction Pilot plant description Pyrolysis product composition Liquefaction of Mixed Plastics Containing PVC T. Bhaskar, Y. Sakata Introduction Experimental and Analytical Methods Fundamental Studies for Decomposition of PVC Liquefaction with Commingled Plastics and Dechlorination Pilot Plant Scale Studies for the Liquefaction of PVC mixed plastics Conclusions Rotary Kiln Liquid Fuel from Plastic Wastes Using Extrusion-Rotary Kiln Reactors S. Behazadi, M. Farid Introduction Pyrolysis Industrial scale pyrolysis processes Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis of Polymers Containing Hetero-atoms A. Hornung, H. Seifert Introduction Technical variations Conrad process Double rotary kiln pyrolysis Pyrolysis of tires - Faulkner system VTA-Pyrolysis - A rotary kiln for the treatment of petrochemical residues and hydrocarbon residues Haloclean-gas tight rotary kiln State of the art rotary kiln technology Rotary kiln principles Treatment of thermoplastics - treatment of PVC Pyrolysis of mono fractions - Polymethymethacrylate PMMA Treatment of shredder light fractions/shredder residues Treatment of electronic scrap The European dimension The Pyrocom rotary kiln Dehalogenation of pyrolysis oils Microwave Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes C. Ludlow-Palafox, H.A. Chase Introduction Background Microwave heating Microwave pyrolysis Microwave pyrolysis of plastics in the scientific literature Microwave pyrolysis equipment Results from the microwave pyrolysis of plastics Microwave effect in microwave pyrolysis Microwave pyrolysis in the commercial literature Patents history and comparison with scientific literature Companies Conclusions Tubular Continuous Thermal Process for Cracking Polyolefin Wastes to Produce Hydrocarbons Jean Dispons Introduction The two principal phases of polyolefin waste cracking Thermal valorization of polyolefin wastes Continuous feeding of the cracking reactors Heating methods Free-Fall Reactors Waste Plastic Pyrolysis in Free-Fall Reactors A.Y. Bilges¿, M.C. Kocak, A. Karaduman Pyrolysis Previous pyrolysis works Design aspects of FFR to be used in pyrolysis A free-fall reactor system for flash pyrolysis Plastic waste recycling Results from Ateklab free-fall reactor Polystyrene results Monomer Recovery Monomer Recovery of Plastic Waste in a Fluidized Bed Process W. Kaminsky Introduction Fluidized bed process Pyrolysis of PMMA Pure PMMA Filled PMMA Pyrolysis of Polystyrene Pyrolysis of PTFE Conclusions Feedstock Recycling of PET T. Yoshioka Introduction Physical recycling (Mechanical Recycling) Solvolysis (Chemolysis) Glycolysis Methanolysis Hydrolysis Other processes Pyrolysis and Other hot processes Decomposition mechanism of PET Pyrolysis processes Asian Developments Liquefaction of Containers and Packaging Plastics in Japan A. Okuwaki, T. Yoshioka Introduction Brief history of plastics liquefaction in Japan The law for promotion of sorted collection and recycling of containers and packaging Feedstock recycling of plastic containers and packaging Niigata Waste Plastic Liquefaction Process Plant outline Process description Quality of waste plastics Properties of outputs Material balance and consumption figures Heat balance Application of the outputs Environmental measurement Sapporo waste plastics liquefaction process Plant outline Process description Quality of waste plastics Property of outputs Material balance and consumption figures Heat balance Application of the outputs Environmental aspect Characteristics of the plant Mikasa Waste Plastic Liquefaction Plant Plant outline Process description Quality and application of reclaimed oil Material balance High energy collection Characteristics of the plant Application of the system The Scope of Liquefaction in Japan Present status of feedstock recycling Scope for liquefaction Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics - Developments in India A. Zadgaonkar Introduction Pyrolysis Efinition Plastics suitable for pyrolysis Pyrolysis: Mode of operation and apparatus Batch pyrolysis Types of pyrolyzers Pyrolysis: Thermal cracking/non-catalytic pyrolysis Operation Process mechanism Degradation of Polymers Pyrolysis: Role of catalyst Role and effect of catalyst in pyrolysis Properties of catalyst Pyrolysis: Output characteristics Effect of temperature of pyrolysis products By-products of pyrolysis Pyrolysis of Hetero-Atomic Polymers Pyrolysis of PVC Pyrolysis of ABS Refinement of Pyrolysis output products Removal of unsaturation and olefinic products Various examples of pyrolysis Comparison of pyrolysis of PE & PP Recently developed innovative technologies Thermalysis of waste plastic by Ozmotech Conversion of waste plastics into fuels: Zadgaonkar's process Converting Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel by Pyrolysis - Developments in China Y. Xingzhong Progress in converting waste plastics into liquid fuel by pyrolysis Theory of plastics pyrolysis Mass balance for the pyrolysis process Energy balance for the pyrolysis process Mechanism of plastics pyrolysis Methods for plastics pyrolysis Process of plastics pyrolysis Veba process BP process Fuji process BASF process Hamburg University process Hunan University process United Carbon process Likun process Others Main effect factors in plastics pyrolysis Temperature Catalyst Pyrolysis of PVC Catalytic reforming of cracked gas Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Plastics -- Recycling.
Plastic scrap -- Recycling.