Table of contents for Feedstock recycling and pyrolysis of waste plastics / editors, John Scheirs, Walter Kaminsky.

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Contents
Contributors
Series Preface
Preface
About the Editors
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Feedstock Recycling of Plastics
A. Buekens
Introduction
Nomenclature
Pyrolysis of plastics and rubber
	Survey of Previous Work
	Products from Polymers
	Hetero-atoms and Side Products
	Fundamentals
	Value of the resulting products
Feedstock Recycling
	Survey
	Problems with Hetero-atoms
	Collection Systems
	Logistics of Supply
Some feasible Processes
	Pilot and Industrial Plant Operation
	Conclusions
Waste Management
	Principles
	Plastics Waste
	Rubber Waste
	Plastics Pyrolysis as a Waste Management Option
Conclusions
CATALYTIC CRACKING
Acid Catalyzed Cracking of Polyolefins: Primary Reaction Mechanisms
R.L. White
Introduction
Polyethylene Cracking
Hydrocracking Processes
	PE-PtHZSM-5
	PE-PtHY
	PE-PtHMCM-41
Conclusions
Catalytic Upgrading of Plastics Wastes
J. Aguado, D.P. Serrano, J.M. Escola
Introduction
	Catalytic versus thermal cracking
	Plastics susceptible of upgrading by catalytic cracking
	Products derived from the catalytic cracking
Catalytic systems
	Homogeneous catalysts
	Heterogeneous catalysts
Reactors
	Batch/semi-batch reactors
	Fixed bed reactors
	Fluidized bed reactors
	Spouted bed reactors
	Screw kiln reactors
Influence of the main operation variables
	Temperature
	Catalyst amount
	Time
	Plastic waste makeup
Processes
	Direct catalytic cracking
	Thermal degradation and subsequent catalytic upgrading
Related Technologies: coprocessing
	Coal
	Petroleum cuts
	Solvents
Concluding remarks
Thermal and Catalytic Conversion of Polyolefins
J. Walendziewski
Introduction
General scheme of waste polyolefines processing
Waste plastics suitable for cracking and pyrolysis
Mechanism of cracking processes
Waste plastics processing
	Catalytic and thermal cracking processes, typical products
	Co-processing of waste plastics with other raw materials
Reactor design
Pilot plants and commercial plants
Economical aspects
Bibliography
Thermal and Catalytic Degradation of Waste HDPE
K.-H. Lee
Introduction
Theory of plastics pyrolysis
Process flow diagram
Total mass balance
Effect of temperature
Effect of catalyst
Various catalysts
Effect of other thermoplastic addition
Fractional distillation of the products
Properties of liquid product
Development of a Process for the Continuous Conversion of Waste Plastics Mixtures to Fuel
T. Masuda, T. Tago
Introduction
Recovery of heavy oil from waste plastic
	Degradation of various plastics
	Catalytic cracking of waste plastics without any residue
	Continuous degradation of waste plastics mixtures for the recovery of heavy oil
Upgrading of waste-plastics-derived heavy oil over catalysts
	Catalytic cracking of heavy oil over solid-acid catalysts
	Production of high-quality gasoline over REY zeolites
	Kinetics of the catalytic cracking of heavy oil over REY zeolites
	Usage of steam as a carrier gas
The continuous production of fuels from waste plastics
	Continuous production of fuels
Catalytic Degradation of Plastic Waste to Fuel Over Microporous Materials
G. Manos
Introduction
Operation modes
Zeolites
Polymer to Catalyst ratio
Initial degradation mechanism
Product distribution
	Conversion, liquid yield, coke content
	Characterisation of gaseous/liquid products
	Boiling point distribution of liquid fraction
Summary
Liquefaction of Municipal Waste Plastics over Acidic and Non-acidic Catalysts
J. Yanik
Catalytic liquefaction of MWP
	Liquid phase contact
	Thermal cracking plus catalytic upgrading
Hydrocracking
Hydrogenation
	Coprocessing of MWP
Kinetic Model of the Chemical and Catalytic Recycling of Waste Polyethylene into Fuels
N. Miskolczi
Introduction
Reaction kinetics of degradation
	Reaction mechanism
Catalysts
	Monofunctional catalysts
	Bifunctional catalysts
Solid alkalis
QUALITY OF FUELS
Production of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels by Pyrolysis and Gasification of Plastics - Technological Approach
C.G. Jung, A. Fontana
Introduction
Literature review on plastics carbonisation
	Polyethylene (PE)
	Polypropylene (PP)
	Polystyrene (PS)
	Polyvinyl choride (PVC)
	Polyethylene terephtalate (PET)
	Plastic mixtures
Technological approach
	Predictive carbonisation model
	Scale-up
	Pyrolysis technologies
	Gasification technologies
	Fuel valorisation
Yield and Composition of Gases and Oils/Waxes from the Feedstock Recycling of Waste Plastic
P.T. Williams
Introduction
Feedstock recycling of plastics
	Product yield
	Gas composition
	Oil/wax composition from the feedstock recycling of single plastics
Conclusions
Composition of Liquid Fuels derived from the Pyrolysis of Plastics
M. Blazso
Introduction
Experimental methods
Chemical composition of pyrolysis liquids
	Relation of major oil characteristics and chemical features of component compounds
	Thermal decomposition reactions of polymers
Pyrolysis products of packaging waste plastics
	Polyolefins
	Vinyl polymers
	Polyesters
Pyrolysis products of automotive waste plastics
	Styrene copolymers
	Rubber plastics
	Polyamides
	Polyurethanes (PU)
Pyrolysis products of electronic waste plastics
	Polycarbonate
	Epoxy resin
	Phenol-formaldehyde resin
Production of Premium Oil Products from Waste Plastic by Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing
S.J. Miller, N. Shah, G.P. Huffman
Background
Conversion of waste plastics to transportation fuels
Direct liquefaction and co-processing of waste plastic
Pyrolysis and hydroprocessing
Feasibility study
Conversion of waste plastic to lubricating base oil
Lubricating base oils from Fischer-Tropsch wax and waste plastic
One gallon per day pilot plant
Hydroprocessing
Pyrolysis pilot plant results for various feedstocks
Summary and conclusions
The Conversion of Waste Plastics/Petroleum Residue Mixtures to Transportation Fuels
M.F. Ali, M.N. Siddiqui
Introduction
The characteristics and chemical structure of plastics
The characteristics and chemical properties of petroleum residue
Technologies for petroleum residue upgrading
Technologies for tertiary recycling of mixed plastic waste
Coprocessing for fuel from mixed plastic waste
Pyrolysis
Environmental impacts of recycling of waste plastics
Economic evaluation
Conclusions
REACTOR TYPES
Overview of Commercial Pyrolysis Processes for Waste Plastics
J. Scheirs
Introduction
	Advantages of pyrolysis
	Thermal cracking
	Catalytic cracking
Feedstock options
	Polyethylene (PE)
	Polypropylene (PP)
	Polystyrene (PS) Pyrolysis
	PET
	PVC
	Halogenated polymers
	Plastic feedstock specification
Operational considerations
	Preventing coking
	Preventing corrosion
	Tank/Kettle reactors
	Reflux
	Problems with batch pyrolysis
	Continuous systems
	Fluidized bed processes
	Fluid-bed coking
	Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC)
	Catalytic cracking
Engineering design aspects
	Pyrolysis chamber design
	Pyrolysis vessel construction
	Agitator speed
	Burner characteristics
	Inert purge gas
	Distillation columns
	Centrifuge
	Scrubber
	Dechlorination
	Hydrotreating
	Catalytic dewaxing an isomerization dewaxing
Quality of the output fuels
	Unsaturation
	Carbon residue in the fuel
	Low temperature properties
	Fuel instability
	Diesel additives
Storage stability of plastic derived diesel fuel
	Characteristics of the solid residue
	Gaseous emissions
Catalytic cracking
	Catalyst activity and selectivity
	Layered clay catalysts
	External catalysts
	PS catalytic cracking
	Catalytic dechlorination
Commercial plastic pyrolysis processes
	ThermofuelTM process
	Smuda process
	Polymer-engineering process (catalytic depolymerization)
	The Royco process
	The REENTECH process
	Hitachi process
	Chiyoda process
	Blowdec process
	Conrad process
	Other processes with separate catalyst beds
Conclusions
Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis
Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes
U. Arena, M.L. Mastellone
Introduction
	The fluidised bed technology for waste thermal treatments: the key role of the hydrodynamics
	From plastic waste to feedstocks and energy by means of fluidised bed pyrolysis
Different stages in the fluidised bed pyrolysis of a plastic waste
	An overview of physical and chemical phenomena
	The polymer degradation process
Operability range of fluidised bed pyrolysers
	The phenomenology of bed defluidizatioin
	Predictive defluidization models and operability maps
The effect of the main process variables on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products
	Fluidized bed pyrolysis of mono-polymeric waste
	Fluidized bed pyrolysis of multi-polymeric waste
	Fluidized bed pyrolysis of other polymeric wastes
The operating experience with industrial fluidised bed pyrolysers
	The BP chemicals polymer cracking process
	The Akzo process
	The Ebara Twinrec process
The Hamburg Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Process to Recycle Polymer Wastes and Tires
W. Kaminsky
Introduction
Pilot plant description
Pyrolysis product composition
Liquefaction of Mixed Plastics Containing PVC
T. Bhaskar, Y. Sakata
Introduction
Experimental and Analytical Methods
Fundamental Studies for Decomposition of PVC
Liquefaction with Commingled Plastics and Dechlorination
Pilot Plant Scale Studies for the Liquefaction of PVC mixed plastics
Conclusions
Rotary Kiln
Liquid Fuel from Plastic Wastes Using Extrusion-Rotary Kiln Reactors
S. Behazadi, M. Farid
Introduction
Pyrolysis
	Industrial scale pyrolysis processes
Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis of Polymers Containing Hetero-atoms
A. Hornung, H. Seifert
Introduction
Technical variations
	Conrad process
	Double rotary kiln pyrolysis
	Pyrolysis of tires - Faulkner system
	VTA-Pyrolysis - A rotary kiln for the treatment of petrochemical residues and hydrocarbon residues
	Haloclean-gas tight rotary kiln
State of the art rotary kiln technology
Rotary kiln principles
Treatment of thermoplastics - treatment of PVC
Pyrolysis of mono fractions - Polymethymethacrylate PMMA
Treatment of shredder light fractions/shredder residues
Treatment of electronic scrap
	The European dimension
	The Pyrocom rotary kiln
Dehalogenation of pyrolysis oils
Microwave
Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes
C. Ludlow-Palafox, H.A. Chase
Introduction
Background
	Microwave heating
	Microwave pyrolysis
Microwave pyrolysis of plastics in the scientific literature
	Microwave pyrolysis equipment
	Results from the microwave pyrolysis of plastics
Microwave effect in microwave pyrolysis
Microwave pyrolysis in the commercial literature
	Patents history and comparison with scientific literature
	Companies
Conclusions
Tubular
Continuous Thermal Process for Cracking Polyolefin Wastes to Produce Hydrocarbons
Jean Dispons
Introduction
The two principal phases of polyolefin waste cracking
Thermal valorization of polyolefin wastes
Continuous feeding of the cracking reactors
Heating methods
Free-Fall Reactors
Waste Plastic Pyrolysis in Free-Fall Reactors
A.Y. Bilges¿, M.C. Kocak, A. Karaduman
Pyrolysis
Previous pyrolysis works
Design aspects of FFR to be used in pyrolysis
A free-fall reactor system for flash pyrolysis
Plastic waste recycling
Results from Ateklab free-fall reactor
Polystyrene results
Monomer Recovery
Monomer Recovery of Plastic Waste in a Fluidized Bed Process
W. Kaminsky
Introduction
Fluidized bed process
Pyrolysis of PMMA
	Pure PMMA
	Filled PMMA
Pyrolysis of Polystyrene
Pyrolysis of PTFE
Conclusions
Feedstock Recycling of PET
T. Yoshioka
Introduction
Physical recycling (Mechanical Recycling)
Solvolysis (Chemolysis)
	Glycolysis
	Methanolysis
	Hydrolysis
	Other processes
Pyrolysis and Other hot processes
	Decomposition mechanism of PET
	Pyrolysis processes
Asian Developments
Liquefaction of Containers and Packaging Plastics in Japan
A. Okuwaki, T. Yoshioka
Introduction
	Brief history of plastics liquefaction in Japan
	The law for promotion of sorted collection and recycling of containers and packaging
	Feedstock recycling of plastic containers and packaging
Niigata Waste Plastic Liquefaction Process
	Plant outline
	Process description
	Quality of waste plastics
	Properties of outputs
	Material balance and consumption figures
	Heat balance
	Application of the outputs
	Environmental measurement
Sapporo waste plastics liquefaction process
	Plant outline
	Process description
	Quality of waste plastics
	Property of outputs
	Material balance and consumption figures
	Heat balance
	Application of the outputs
	Environmental aspect
	Characteristics of the plant
Mikasa Waste Plastic Liquefaction Plant
	Plant outline
	Process description
	Quality and application of reclaimed oil
	Material balance
	High energy collection
	Characteristics of the plant
	Application of the system
The Scope of Liquefaction in Japan
	Present status of feedstock recycling
	Scope for liquefaction
Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics - Developments in India
A. Zadgaonkar
Introduction
Pyrolysis
	Efinition
	Plastics suitable for pyrolysis
Pyrolysis: Mode of operation and apparatus
	Batch pyrolysis
	Types of pyrolyzers
Pyrolysis: Thermal cracking/non-catalytic pyrolysis
	Operation
	Process mechanism
	Degradation of Polymers
Pyrolysis: Role of catalyst
	Role and effect of catalyst in pyrolysis
	Properties of catalyst
Pyrolysis: Output characteristics
	Effect of temperature of pyrolysis products
	By-products of pyrolysis
Pyrolysis of Hetero-Atomic Polymers
	Pyrolysis of PVC
	Pyrolysis of ABS
Refinement of Pyrolysis output products
	Removal of unsaturation and olefinic products
	Various examples of pyrolysis
	Comparison of pyrolysis of PE & PP
Recently developed innovative technologies
	Thermalysis of waste plastic by Ozmotech
	Conversion of waste plastics into fuels: Zadgaonkar's process
Converting Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel by Pyrolysis - Developments in China
Y. Xingzhong
Progress in converting waste plastics into liquid fuel by pyrolysis
Theory of plastics pyrolysis
	Mass balance for the pyrolysis process
	Energy balance for the pyrolysis process
	Mechanism of plastics pyrolysis
	Methods for plastics pyrolysis
Process of plastics pyrolysis
	Veba process
	BP process
	Fuji process
	BASF process
	Hamburg University process
	Hunan University process
	United Carbon process
	Likun process
	Others
Main effect factors in plastics pyrolysis
	Temperature
	Catalyst
Pyrolysis of PVC
Catalytic reforming of cracked gas
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Plastics -- Recycling.
Pyrolysis.
Plastic scrap -- Recycling.