Table of contents for International business : environments and operations / John D. Daniels, Lee H. Radebaugh, Daniel P. Sullivan.

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About the Authors
Part I Background for International Business
Chapter 1	Globalization and International Business
Case: The Globalization of Professional Sports
Why Are Globalization and International Business Important?
The Forces Behind Globalization
	Increase in and Expansion of Technology
	Liberalization of Cross-Border Trade and Resource Movements 
	Development of Services That Support International Business 
	Growing Consumer Pressures 
	Increased Global Competition 
	Changing Political Situations 
	Expanded Cross-National Cooperation
Criticisms of Globalization
	Threats to National Sovereignty
	Economic Growth
	Growing Income Inequality
Why Companies Engage in International Business
	To Expand Sales 
Point - Counterpoint Is Offshoring Good or Bad?
	Acquire Resources 
	Minimize Risk 
Modes of International Business 
	Merchandise Exports and Imports
	Service Exports and Imports
	International Companies and Terms to Describe Them
Why International Business Differs from Domestic Business
	Physical and Societal Factors
	The Competitive Environment
Looking to the Future Is Globalization Inevitable?
Case: Carnival Cruise Line
Chapter Notes
Part II Comparative Environmental Frameworks
Chapter 2 The Cultural Environments Facing Business
Case The Java Lounge: Adjusting to Saudi Arabian Culture
Cultural Awareness
Identification and Dynamics of Cultures
	The Nation as a Point of Reference
	Cultural Formation and Dynamics
	Language as a Cultural Stabilizer
	Religion as a Cultural Stabilizer
Does Geography Matter?
Behavioral Practices Affecting Business
	Social Stratification Systems
	Work Motivation
	Relationship Preferences
	Risk-Taking Behavior
	Information and Task Processing
Dealing with Cultural Differences
	Accommodation to Foreigners
Cultural Distance: Usefulness and Limitations
Culture Shock
Point - Counterpoint Does International Business Lead to Cultural Imperialism? 
	Company and Management Orientations
	Strategies for Instituting Change
Looking to the Future What Will Happen to National Cultures?
Case Charles Martin in Uganda
Chapter Notes
Chapter 3 The Political and Legal Environments Facing Business
Case China's Business Environment
The Political Environment
	Individualism and Collectivism
	Political Ideology
	Trends in Political Systems
Looking to the Future Will Democracy Survive?
	Political Risk
Point-Counterpoint Political Risk Management
The Legal Environment
	Diffusion of Legal Systems
Legal Issues in International Business
	Operational Concerns
	Strategic Concerns
	Intellectual Property Rights
Case Global Software Piracy
Chapter Notes
Chapter 4 The Economic Environment
Case McDonald's and Russia's Economic Transition
International Economic Analysis
Elements of the Economic Environment
	Gross National Income
	Improving the Power of GNI
Features of an Economy
	Income Distribution
	The Balance of Payments
Point-Counterpoint Trade Deficits: Advantage or Crisis
Integrating Economic Analysis
	Types of Economic Systems
	Freedom, Markets, and Transition
	Economic Freedom: Idea, Performance, and Trends
	Transition to a Market Economy
	The Means of Transition
Looking to the Future The Future of Transition
Case Meet the BRICs
Chapter Notes
Chapter 5 Globalization and Society
Case Environmental Challenges for Newmont Mining in Indonesia
Evaluating the Impact of FDI
	Trade-offs Among Constituencies
	Cause-Effect Relationships
	Individual and Aggregate Effects
	Potential Contributions of MNEs
Economic Impact of the MNE
	Balance-of-Payments Effects
	Growth and Employment Effects
Foundations of Ethical Behavior
	Cultural Foundations for Ethical Behavior
	Legal Foundations for Ethical Behavior
Ethics and Bribery
Point-Counterpoint Is Bribery Ever Justified?
Ethical Behavior and Environmental Issues
	Global Warming
Does Geography Matter? The Amazon
Ethical Dilemmas and Pharmaceutical Sales
Ethical Dimensions of Labor Conditions
Corporate Codes of Ethics
Looking to the Future Will FDI Be Welcome and Will Foreign Investors Act More 
Responsibly as the Twenty-First Century Progresses?
Case Anglo American in South Africa
Chapter Notes
Part III Theories and Institutions: Trade and Investment
Chapter 6 International Trade and Factor Mobility Theory
Case Costa Rican Trade, Foreign Investment, and Economic Transformation
Interventionist Theories
Free Trade Theories
	Theory of Absolute Advantage
	Comparative Advantage
	Some Assumptions and Limitations of the Theories of Specialization
Theories Explaining Trade Patterns
	How Much Does a Country Trade?
	What Types of Products Does a Country Trade?
	With Whom Do Countries Trade?
Does Geography Matter?
The Dynamics of Trade
	Product Life Cycle (PLC) Theory
	The Porter Diamond
Point-Counterpoint Should Countries Follow Strategic Trade Policies?
Factor Mobility
	Why Production Factors Move
	Effects of Factor Movements
	The Relationship of Trade and Factor Mobility
Looking to the Future
Case LUKoil
Chapter Notes
Chapter 7 Governmental Influence on Trade
Case Textile and Clothing Trade
Conflicting Results of Trade Policies
Economic Rationales for Governmental Intervention
	Infant-Industry Argument
	Industrialization Argument
	Economic Relationships with Other Countries
Noneconomic Rationales for Government Intervention
	Maintaining Essential Industries
	Dealing with "Unfriendly" Countries
Point-Counterpoint Should Countries Eliminate the Use of Trade Sanctions?
	Maintaining Spheres of Influence
	Preserving Cultures and National Identity
Instruments of Trade Control
	Nontariff Barriers: Direct Price Influences
	Nontariff Barriers: Quantity Controls
Dealing with Governmental Trade Influences
Looking to the Future
Case U.S.-Cuban Trade
Chapter Notes
Chapter 8 Cross-National Cooperation and Agreements
Case Toyota in Europe
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
Gatt: The Predecessor
The Rise of Bilateral Agreements
Regional Economic Integration
The Effects of Integration
Major Regional Trading Groups
The European Union
The EU's Organizational Structure
The Single European Act
EU Expansion
Trade Disputes Between the EU and the U.S.
Implications of the EU for Corporate Strategy
Main Challenges Facing the EU
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
	Rules of Origin and Regional Content
	Special Provisions of NAFTA
	Impact of NAFTA
	NAFTA Expansion
	Implications of NAFTA for Corporate Strategy
Regional Economic Integration in the Americas
Point-Counterpoint Is CAFTA a Good Idea?
Regional Economic Integration in Asia
Regional Economic Integration in Africa
Commodity Agreements
	Producers' Alliances and ICCAs
	The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Looking to the Future Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration 
Case Wal-Mart de Mexico
Chapter Notes
Part IV World Financial Environment
Chapter 9 Global Foreign Exchange and Capital Markets
Case Western Union
Major Characteristics of the Foreign-Exchange Market
	Brief Description of Foreign-Exchange Instruments
	The Size, Composition, and Location of the Foreign-Exchange Market
Geography Matters Foreign Exchange Trades
Major Foreign-Exchange Instruments
	The Spot Market
	The Forward Market
	Foreign-Exchange Convertibility
How Companies Use Foreign Exchange
The Foreign-Exchange Trading Process
	Commercial and Investment Banks
Global Capital Markets
	International Bonds: Foreign, Euro, and Global
	Equity Securities and the Euroequity Market
Point-Counterpoint Speculation in Capital Markets
Looking to the Future The Future of Foreign Exchange and Global Capital Markets
Case HSBC and the Peso Crisis in Argentina
Chapter Notes
Chapter 10 The Determination of Exchange Rates
Case El Salvador and the U.S. Dollar
The International Monetary Fund
	IMF Assistance
	Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)
	Evolution to Floating Exchange Rate
Exchange-Rate Arrangements
	From Pegged to Floating Currencies
	The Euro
Point-Counterpoint Should Africa Develop a Common Currency?
	Black Markets
	The Role of Central Banks
The Determination of Exchange Rates
	Floating Rate Regimes
	Managed Fixed Rate Regime
	Purchasing-Power Parity
	Interest Rates
	Other Factors in Exchange-Rate Determination
Forecasting Exchange-Rate Movements
Fundamental and Technical Forecasting
Factors to Monitor
Business Implications of Exchange-Rate Changes
	Marketing Decisions
	Production Decisions
	Financial Decisions
Looking to the Future Changing Times Will Bring Greater Exchange-Rate 
Case The Chinese Yuan-To Revalue or Not to Revalue, That Is the Question
Chapter Notes
Chapter 11 The Strategy of International Business
Case Zara: Value Creation in the Global Apparel Industry
Industry, Strategy, and Firm Performance
	The Idea of Industry Structure
	Industry Change
	Strategy and Value
	Creating Value
The Firm as a Value Chain
	Using the Value Chain
Does Geography Matter? Labor Costs and Location Decisions
	Value Chains and Change
Point-Counterpoint Value Chains: Real or Virtual? 
Global Integration versus Local Responsiveness
	Pressures for Global Integration
	Globalization of Markets
	Efficiency Gains of Standardization
	Pressures for Local Responsiveness
Strategy Types
	International Strategy
	Multidomestic Strategy
	Global Strategy
	Transnational Strategy
Looking to the Future New Strategy Types?
	The Mix of Reality
Case The Globalization of eBay
Chapter Notes
Part V Global Strategy, Structure, and Implementation
Chapter 12 Country Evaluation and Selection
Case Carrefour
Scanning and Detailed Examination Compared
What Information Is Important?
Does Geography Matter? Don't Fool with Mother Nature 
Collect and Analyze Data
	Problems with Research Results and Data
	External Sources of Information
	Internal Generation of Data
Point-Counterpoint Should Companies Forego Direct Investments in Violent Areas?
Country Comparison Tools
Allocating Among Locations
	Reinvestment versus Harvesting
	Interdependence of Locations
	Geographic Diversification versus Concentration
Noncomparative Decision Making
Making Final Country Selections
Looking to the Future Will the Prime Locations Change?
Case FDI in South Africa
Chapter Notes
Chapter 13 Export and Import Strategies
Case Grieve: A Small-Business Export Strategy
Export Strategy
	Strategic Advantages of Exports
	Characteristics of Exporters
	Stages of Export Development
	Pitfalls of Exporting
	Designing an Export Strategy
Import Strategy
	Strategic Advantages of Imports
	The Role of Customs Agencies
	Import Documentation
Point-Counterpoint A Dirty Dilemma: Exporting Hazardous Waste
The Export Process
	Indirect Selling
	Export Management Companies
	Export Trading Companies
	Foreign Trading Companies
	Direct Selling
	Direct Selling Through the Internet
	Export Documentation
	Foreign Freight Forwarders
Looking to the Future The Technology of Trade
	Sources of Assistance
	Offset Trade
Case Sunset Flowers of New Zealand, Ltd.
Chapter Notes
Part V Global Strategy, Structure, and Implementation
Chapter 14 Direct Investment and Collaborative Strategies 
Case Cisco Systems
Why Exporting May Not Be Feasible
		Cheaper to Produce Abroad
	Transportation Costs
	Lack of Domestic Capacity
	Need to Alter Products and Services
	Trade Restrictions
	Country of Origin Effects
Noncollaborative Foreign Equity Arrangements
	Foreign Direct Investment and Control
	Methods for Making FDI
Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
	General Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
	International Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
Types of Collaborative Arrangements
	Some Considerations in Collaborative Arrangements
Point-Counterpoint Should Countries Limit Foreign Control of Key Industries?
	Management Contracts
	Turnkey Operations
	Joint Ventures
	Equity Alliances
Problems of Collaborative Arrangements
	Collaboration's Importance to Partners
	Differing Objectives
	Control Problems
	Partners' Contributions and Appropriations
	Differences in Culture
Managing Foreign Arrangements
	Dynamics of Collaborative Arrangements
	Finding Compatible Partners
	Negotiating Process
	Contractual Provisions
	Performance Assessment
Looking to the Future Why Innovation Breeds Collaboration
Case International Airline Alliances
Chapter Notes
Chapter 15 The Organization of International Business
Case Johnson & Johnson
The Causes of Change
Organization in the International Business
Organizational Structure
	Vertical Differentiation: Centralization versus Decentralization
	Horizontal Differentiation: The Design of the Formal Structure
	Functional Structure
	Divisional Structures
	Matrix Structure
	Mixed Structure
	Contemporary Structures
	Network Structure
	Virtual Organization 
	Project Structure
Point-Counterpoint Hierarchies or Hyperarchies?
Coordination and Control Systems
	Coordination Systems
	Control Systems
	Control Mechanisms
Organization Culture
	The Growing Importance of Culture
	Challenges and Pitfalls 
	Strategy and Organization Culture
Looking to the Future The Role and Rise of Corporate Universities
Organization in Special Situations
	Shared Ownership
	Dynamic Nature of Performance
The Role of Legal Structures
	Branch and Subsidiary Organizations
	Types of Subsidiaries and Operating Form
Case GE Hungary
Chapter Notes
Part VI Managing International Operations
Chapter 16 Marketing Globally
Case Avon
Filling Global Needs and Wants
Marketing Strategies
	Marketing Orientations
	Targeting and Segmenting Markets
Product Policy
	Reasons for Making Product Alterations
Point-Counterpoint Should First World Governments Regulate Their Companies' 
Marketing in Third World Countries?
	Alteration Costs
	Extent and Mix of the Product Line
	Product Life-Cycle Considerations
	Governmental Intervention
	Greater Market Diversity
	Price Escalation in Exporting
	Currency Value and Price Changes
	Fixed versus Variable Pricing
	Company to Company Pricing
	The Push-Pull Mix
	Standardization of Advertising Programs
	Language Factors
	Brand Acquisitions
	Country-of-Origin Images
	Generic and Near-Generic Names
Does Geography Matter?
	Difficulty of Standardization
	Choosing Distributors and Channels
	Hidden Costs in Distribution
	The Internet and Electronic Commerce
Managing the Marketing Mix
Looking to the Future Will the "Haves" and the "Have-Nots" Meet the "Have 
Case NeoPets
Chapter Notes
Chapter 17 Global Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
Case Samsonite's Global Supply Chain
Global Manufacturing Strategies
	Manufacturing Compatibility
	Manufacturing Configuration
	Coordination and Control
Information Technology and Global Supply Chain Management
	Total Quality Management
	Quality Standards
Supplier Networks
	Make or Buy Decision
Point-Counterpoint Should Firms Outsource Innovation?
	Supplier Relations
	The Purchasing Function
Inventory Management
	Just-in-Time Systems
	Foreign Trade Zones
	Transportation Networks
Looking to the Future The Role of China in the Supply Chain
Case Denso Corporation and Global Supplier Relations
Chapter Notes
Chapter 18 International Accounting Issues
Case Parmalat-Europe's Enron
Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Worldwide
	Accounting Objectives
	Cultural Differences in Accounting
	Classification of Accounting Systems
	International Accounting Standards and Global Convergence
Looking to the Future Will IASB GAAP Become the Global Accounting Standard?
Transactions in Foreign Currencies
	Recording of Transactions
	Correct Procedures for U.S. Companies
Translation of Foreign Currency Financial Statements
	Translation Methods
	Disclosure of Foreign-Exchange Gains and Losses
Environmental Reports
Performance Evaluation and Control
	Foreign Exchange in the Budget Process	
	Budgeting and Currency Practices
Point-Counterpoint Should Local Subsidiary Management Be Held Responsible for 
Exchange Rate Changes?
Transfer Pricing and Performance Evaluation
The Balanced Scorecard
Case Vivendi Universal
Chapter Notes
Chapter 19 The Multinational Finance Function
Case Nu Skin Enterprises in Asia
The Treasury and Finance Functions
Capital Structure
Offshore Financial Centers
Point-Counterpoint Offshore Financial Centers Should Be Shut Down
Capital Budgeting in a Global Context
Internal Sources of Funds
	Global Cash Management
	Multilateral Netting
Cash Flow Aspects of Imports and Exports
Foreign-Exchange Risk Management
	Translation Exposure
	Transaction Exposure
	Economic Exposure
	Exposure-Management Strategy
Taxation of Foreign Source Income
	Foreign Branch
	Foreign Subsidiary
	Transfer Prices
	Tax Credit
	Non-U.S. Tax Practices
	Value-Added Tax
	Tax Treaties: The Elimination of Double Taxation
Looking to the Future Technology and Cash Flows
Case Dell Mercosur
Chapter Notes
Chapter 20 Human Resource Management
Case A Career in International Business
The Strategic Function of International HRM
Staffing Policies
	The Ethnocentric Approach
	The Polycentric Approach
	The Geocentric Approach
Expatriate Selection
	Technical Competence
	Leadership Ability
Expatriate Failure
Expatriate Preparation and Development
	General Country Understanding
	Cultural Sensitivity
	Practical Skills 
	Training Gaps and Trends
Point-Counterpoint Learning a Foreign Language: Still Useful?
Expatriate Compensation
	Types of Compensation Plans
	Key Aspects of Expatriate Compensation
	Complications Posed by Nationality Differences
Expatriate Repatriation
	Managing Repatriation
International Labor Relations
	Labor's Concerns About MNEs
	Product and Resource Flows
	Value Activity Switching
	Scale and Complexity of MNEs
Labor's Actions Toward MNEs
	Labor's Success and Struggle
Looking to the Future Which Countries Will Have the Jobs of the Future?
	Trends in the Relationship Between MNEs and Labor
Case Tel-Comm-Tek (TCT)
Chapter Notes
Photo Credits
Company Index and Trademark
Name Index
Subject Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

International business enterprises.
International economic relations.
Investments, Foreign.