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Contents List of Tables and Map ix Acknowledgements x List of Acronyms xii Introduction 1 1 Struggle for Unity in Africa: The Dream and the Realism 17 Introduction 17 Pan-Africanism and African Unity 17 Kwame Nkrumah and the ¿United States of Africa¿: The Dream and Realism 21 Establishment of the Organisation of African Unity: A Concrete Symbol of Pan-African Unity 26 From Addis Ababa to Lusaka: The Realism of the African Union 29 Conclusion 35 Note and References 36 2 African State System: The Bane of Disunity 39 Introduction 39 Defining and Theorising the State in Africa 40 Characteristics of the State System: Crisis and Mythology of the African State 43 Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction of the African State: Implications for Building Regional Peace and Security Systems 57 Conclusion 59 Note and References 62 3 Africa at War Against Itself: Civil Wars and New Security Threats 67 Introduction 67 Wars and Armed Conflicts in Africa: Mapping the Conflict Scenario 68 Conflict Analysis and the Generations of Wars and Armed Conflicts in Africa 71 New Security Threats in Africa 91 Conclusion 94 Note and References 95 4 Regional Organisations and Humanitarian Intervention in Complex Political Emergencies in Africa 101 Introduction 101 Regional Organisation and the United Nations Charter on Peace and Security in Africa 102 Typology of Interventions and External Peace and Conflict Stabilisation Mechanisms Prescribed for Africa 107 Fire Next Door: Regional Security Complex and the Challenges of Complex Political Emergencies in Africa 111 Humanitarian Intervention in Complex Political Emergencies in Africa 116 Security Regionalism and the Emerging Regional ¿Responsibility to Protect¿ in Complex Political Emergencies 122 Conclusion 124 Note and References 126 5 OAU ¿ African Union: Experiment in Regional Security, Peacekeeping and Peace Support Operations 129 Introduction 129 The OAU and Regionalism in Africa: A Framework for Regional Order, Peace and Security 130 OAU Architecture for Peace and Security: The Adventure into Peace Support Operations 133 OAU-United Nations and Sub-regional Organisations Co-operative Security for Peace and Security 136 From Inherited Failure to the New African Union.: Emerging Structure and Norm for Peace and Security 139 Regional Hegemons and the Maintenance of Peace and Security in Africa 142 Conclusion 146 Note and References 148 6 New Theatre of Wars and Civil Conflicts: Evolution of Security Regionalism and Peacekeeping Capacity in West Africa 151 Introduction 151 Political Economy of West Africa 152 ECOWAS Economic Integration and Coping with Regional Security Threat 157 ECOMOG Experiment in Peacekeeping and Conflict Management in West Africa 162 Building a Regional Peace and Security System: ECOMOG as a Permanent Mechanism for Regional Peacekeeping and Conflict Management 182 Conclusion 184 Note and References 190 7 Promise and Disappointment: Building Regional Peace and Security System in Southern Africa 195 Introduction 195 Political Economy of Southern Africa 197 Regional Security Threats: Building Regional Architecture for Peace and Security 202 Institutionalising Regional Systems for Peace and Security: SADC Organ for Politics, Defence and Security 206 SADC Coalition of Willing States Peacekeeping and Conflict Management in the Democratic Republic of Congo 210 SADC¿s Regional Conflict Management and Resolution: Problems, Challenges and Opportunities 217 UN-OAU / AU-SADC Co-operative Peacemaking and Peacebuilding in the DRC 222 Conclusion 225 Note and References 227 8 From Famine to Sustainable Peace: Building Regional Peace and Preventive Diplomacy System in the Horn of Africa 231 Introduction 231 Political Economy of the Horn of Africa 232 From Famine to Regional Peace and Security Architecture: Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) 239 IGAD and Preventive Diplomacy in the Horn of Africa: Peacemaking in Sudan and Somalia 241 Lessons From IGAD¿s Civil War Peace Settlements and Preventive Diplomacy 248 United Nations, African Union and External Actors in IGAD-led Peace Processes in the Horn of Africa 251 Conclusion 253 Note and References 255 Conclusion 257 Bibliography 263 Index 283
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
National security -- Africa.
Africa -- Politics and government -- 21st century.
Organization of African Unity.