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Contents First Preface 7 Second Preface 9 Introduction 11 Part I: The Human Drama of Abortion 16 1 Listening to Women: Why They Have Abortions 17 The Story of a Poor Peasant 17 A Middle Class Urban Woman 18 A Young, Idealistic Career Woman 19 A Mature Well-Off Physician 21 A Working Class Teenager 22 2 The Meaning of Words 26 The Need for Defining Terms Related to Abortion 27 The Reproductive Process 28 From Embryo to Newborn Baby 31 The Beginning of Pregnancy and of a New Individual 33 Ectopic Pregnancy 35 Defining Induced Abortion 36 Safe and Unsafe Abortion 36 Methods for Pregnancy Termination 37 "Partial-Birth" Abortion 40 Menstrual Regulation 41 3 The Magnitude of Induced Abortion 43 Worldwide Estimations 44 Regional Differences in Induced Abortions 45 Regional Differences in Unsafe Abortions 48 4 Consequences of Unsafe Abortion 50 Maternal Mortality 52 Physical Complications 53 Psychological Consequences 54 Social Consequences 56 Economic Consequences 57 Factors Influencing the Severity of the Consequences of Abortion 58 -Legal Status of Abortion and Access to Safe Abortions 59 -Socioeconomic Status 61 5 Why Women Get Pregnant when They Do Not Want To 63 Lack of Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods 64 Lack of Access to Contraceptive Methods 67 Contraceptive Failure 70 Lack of Control in Their Sexual Relationships 70 6 Why Is a Pregnancy So Unwanted That It Ends in Abortion? 73 Lack of a Father 74 Financial Constraints 74 Inability to Provide Good Parenting/Interference with Life Prospects 75 Conflict with Prevailing Social Norms 76 Health Reasons 76 Lack of Social Support 77 Part II: The Values Involved 79 7 Conflicting Values Faced by Health Professionals 80 The Value of Life and Health Professionals 81 Obstetricians and the Fetus 81 The Presence of the Fetus and Medical Technology 82 Technology and the Acceptance of Abortion 83 Obstetricians and Unwanted Pregnancies 85 Cultural Pressures 86 Public Condemnation and Private Acceptance 87 From Accepting the Exception to Understanding the Rule 88 8 Religious Values 91 Historical Context of Christian Perspectives 92 Christian Values about Abortion 94 Present Position of the Catholic Church 98 -Exceptions to the Rule - Direct and Indirect Action 100 Protestant Perspectives on Abortion 102 Jewish Perspectives 104 Muslim Perspectives 105 Hindu Perspectives 107 Buddhist Perspectives 109 Chinese Perspectives 111 Is a Religious Consensus Possible? 112 -The Genval Consensus 113 -The Chiang Mai Declaration 116 Teachings of Two Prominent Religious Leaders 117 9 Ethical Values 119 What We Understand by Ethics 119 The Four Principles of Bioethics 121 The Bioethical Principles Applied to Abortion 124 Respect for Persons 125 Non Maleficence/Beneficence 128 Justice 130 The Ethical Dilemma for Gynecologists/Obstetricians 131 Our Reflections on Ethical Values Concerning Abortion 132 10 Values as Reflected in Law 133 Legal Systems 134 Legal Systems and Abortion 135 Legality of Abortion in the World 136 Declarations and Conventions on Human Rights 139 Abortion Laws and Human Rights 141 General Conclusions on Abortion and the Law 144 Part III: Improving the Situation 145 11 How to Decrease the Number of Abortions 146 Legal and Moral Prohibition 146 Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies 148 Contraceptive Services to Reduce Unwanted Pregnancies 148 Increase Women's Power Related to Sex and Reproduction 153 Social Support to Motherhood 156 12 How to Reduce the Human, Social, and Economic Cost of Abortions 159 Improving Women's Status in Society 159 Decriminalizing or Extending Legal Grounds for Abortion 161 Improving Access to Legal Abortion 162 More Liberal and Fairer Interpretation of the Law 166 Access to Good Quality Post Abortion Care 171 More Positive Attitude of Health Workers 173 13 The Paradox: Rejecting Abortion and Opposing the Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies 174 Opposition to "Artificial" Contraceptive Methods 175 Opposition to Contraceptive Methods Claiming They Induce Abortions 176 Opposition to Sex Education 180 Abortion-Promoting Effects of "Anti-Abortion" Politics 181 Part IV: Seeking a Consensus 183 14 How to Reach a Consensus on Abortion 184 The Social Need for an "Overlapping Consensus" 184 Is an "Overlapping Consensus" about Abortion Possible? 187 The Basis for an "Overlapping Consensus" on Abortion 189 Some Reflections Regarding the Process for Achieving Consensus 193 References 196 Index 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Abortion -- Cross-cultural studies.
Pregnancy, Unwanted -- Cross-cultural studies.
Family Planning Services.