Table of contents for Turkey in the European Union : implications for agriculture, food and structural policy / edited by Alison Burrell and Arie Oskam.

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Contents
 
List of Tables, Figures and Boxes	xi	
Acknowledgements 	xvii
Acronyms and Abbreviations	xix
Reference Exchange Rates 	xxiii
1. Introduction	1
	Arie Oskam and Alison Burrell
2. Turkey's Economy and Regional Income Distribution	9
	Arie Oskam, Natasha Longworth and Ayselin Yildez
2.1	Introduction, 9
2.2	Turkey at a glance, 9
2.3	Key features of the Turkish economy, 11
Instability of economic growth, 11
Inflation, 13
Employment, 14
The exchange rate, 15
Trade, 15
Current account and debt service, 16
2.4	Measuring the size of the economy and the standard of living, 17
2.5	Income distribution in Turkey, 19
Developments in the household income distribution, 19
Regional income distribution, 20
2.6	Summary, 23
3. The Institutional Framework of Turkey and Turkish Agriculture 	27
	Tugrul Temel
3.1	Introduction, 27
3.2	Institutional environment, 2
Political, social and economic ground rules, 28
Competition rules, 33
Property rights, 34
Education, science and innovation, 35
Institutional environment: summary, 37
3.3	Resource, technology and market institutions, 38
Resource institutions, 38
Technology institutions, 44
Market institutions, 48
3.4	Conclusions, 52
4. Agricultural Production, Prices and Trade	57
	Natasha Longworth
4.1	Introduction, 57
4.2	Agriculture in the economy, 58
4.3	Labour and land in agriculture, 59
Labour, 59
Land, 60
4.4	Agricultural Production, 62
Size and regional diversity of agricultural production, 62
Value of agricultural production, 64
Crop production, 66
Fruit and vegetable production, 68
Livestock production, 72
Agronomic potential, 74
4.5	Agricultural prices, 76
Producer and input price indices, 76
Real price trends for selected products, 77
Comparison of prices in the EU-15 and Turkey, 78
4.6	Agricultural incomes, 81
4.7	Trade, 83
4.8	Summary and conclusions, 84
5. Turkey's Rural Population and Agricultural Workforce	89
	Alison Burrell
5.1	Who is working in Turkish agriculture?, 89
Some basic definitions and data, 89	
Labour force participation rates, 90
Unemployment, 92
5.2	Human capital in agriculture, 95
Literacy and schooling, 95
Agricultural education and training, 98
5.3	Quality of life in rural areas, 99
Health, 99
Nutrition, 101
Poverty and security, 101
5.4	Discussion, implications and conclusions, 103
6. Agricultural and Food Industry Structure	107
	Siemen van Berkum
6.1	Introduction, 107
6.2	Structural features of the upstream industries, 107
Agro-chemicals, animal feed and the food processing machinery industries, 107
Seed industry, 109
Financing the agriculture and food sector, 110
6.3	The structure of primary agriculture, 111
6.4	Trends in the food industry structure and performance, 113
Importance of the food industry, 113
Branch composition, 113
Ownership in the food industry, 114
Concentration in the food industry, 115
Performance of the food industry, 116
6.5	Wholesale and retailing, 118
Wholesale structures, 118
Retail market structures, 119
6.6	Relationship of farms with markets, 120
Linkages between farms, processors and traders, 120
Retail procurement systems and vertical integration in the agrifood supply chain, 122
6.7	Conclusions, 123
7. Overview of Agricultural, Food, Rural and Structural Policies	127
	Arie Oskam
7.1	Introduction, 127
7.2	Agricultural policy, 129
Introduction, 129
Policy process, 129
The agricultural sector and the functioning of agricultural policies, 130
The Agriculture Reform and Implementation Project (ARIP), 132
Agricultural policies for specific products, 139
7.3	Food policy, 140
Food safety, 141
Food quality, 142
Conclusions on food safety and food quality, 143
7.4	Rural development policy and structural policy, 143
Introduction, 143
Rural development projects, 144
Structural policy, 145
7.5	Discussion and conclusions, 145
8. Turkey's Foreign Trade Position	149
	Alison Burrell
8.1	Overview, 149
Total merchandise trade and balance of payments, 149
Trade in agricultural products, 151
Turkey's agricultural trade with the European Union, 154
8.2	Trade policy, 155
Institutional aspects, 155
Agricultural trade policy measures and WTO commitments, 156
Turkey within the WTO, 161
8.3	Turkey's agricultural trade arrangements with the EU, 163
8.4	Turkey's agricultural trade profile, 165
8.5	Conclusions, 166
9. Environment and Agriculture	169
	Irene Molina V¡lchez
9.1	Introduction, 169
9.2	Environmental impacts of agriculture in Turkey, 169
Impacts on water resources, 169
Impacts on the soil, 171
Impacts on climate change, 172
Summary of agriculture's environmental impacts, 173
9.3	Overview of policies relating to the environmental impacts of agriculture, 173
Environmental policy, 173
Agricultural policy, 175
Rural development policy, 175
9.4	Environmental institutions, 176
Institutional reforms and organisational set-up, 176
Policy implementation, monitoring, and enforcement, 177
Participation, collaboration and partnerships, 177
Financing environmental projects, 178
9.5	Organic agriculture and relevant institutions, 179
Market for organic products, 180
Institutional set-up for organic farming, 181
Prospects, 182
9.6	Biodiversity, 183
Biological diversity, 183
Influence of agriculture on biodiversity, 184
Institutional framework, 185
9.7	Conclusions, 187
10. Animal and Plant Health in Turkey	191
	Alison Burrell
10.1	Animal health, 191
Turkey's animal sector, 191
List A diseases, 193
List B diseases, 198
Zoonoses in humans, 201
Current situation, prospects and conclusions, 202
10.2	Plant health, 204
Overview of agricultural and horticultural crops, 204
Arable crops, 205
Horticultural crops, 208
Current situation, prospects and conclusions, 210
10.3	Conclusions, 212
11. Consequences for the EU-27 of Enlargement to Turkey	217
	Arie Oskam, Natasha Longworth and Irene Molina V¡lchez
11.1	Introduction, 217
11.2	Assumptions regarding policy trends, 218
WTO and trade policy, 218
Food policy, 219
Environmental policy, 219
11.3	Consequences of Turkey's accession for EU agriculture and agricultural policy, 219
11.4	Sensitive single market issues, 220
Animal disease status, 220
New external borders, 221
11.5	Consequences for the EU food industry, 222
11.6	Assumptions underlying budget estimates, 224
11.7	Financial framework, structural policy and decision-making context, 226	The budget process 2007-
2013, 227
	Competition between growth strategies and rural/agricultural policies, 229	
	Proposed structural policy reform, 229
	Rural policy, 232
	Changes due to the Constitution, 232
	Assumptions made about policies, 233
11.8	Turkish accession and the implementation of agricultural and rural policy, 234
Payments under the first pillar of the CAP, 234
Payments under the second pillar of the CAP, 236
11.9	Turkish accession and the implementation of structural policy, 237
Methodology, 237
Statistical effect of Turkish accession, 238
Cohesion fund, 239
11.10	Budgetary consequences, 240
Estimated budget items from the literature, 240
11.11	Discussion and Conclusions, 245
12. Expected Consequences for Turkey of EU Entry in 2015	251
	Temel Tugrul
12.1	Introduction, 251
12.2	Summary of assumptions, 252
12.3	Consequences for Turkish policies, 253
Implications for agricultural, food, rural and structural policies, 253
Implications for trade policy, and animal and plant health, 256
Implications for policies concerning environmental impacts of agriculture, 259
12.4	Implications for agrifood chain development, 260
12.5	Implications for institutions and their functioning, 263
12.6	Economic consequences, 269
Budget flows, 269
Other consequences, 269
12.7	Selected studies on Turkish accession, 270
Discussion, 270
12.8	Conclusions, 273
Appendix: Summary of four studies using simulation models, 276
13. Opportunities, Threats and Challenges	279
	Alison Burrell
13.1	Introduction, 279
13.2	Opportunities, 280
13.3	Threats, 282
13.4	Challenges, 284
Appendix: Summary of Conclusions	287
Subject Index	297

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Agriculture and state -- Turkey.
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Turkey.
European Union -- Turkey.