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Table of Contents Acknowledgements i Introduction 1 Part One: Hermeneutics 15 1. The Qur??n as the ocean of all knowledge 16 The ?ad?th of Ibn Mas??d 19 Sayings from ?Al? and Ja?far al-??diq 31 2. The Qur??nic text and ambiguity 42 The clear and ambiguous verses (mu?kam?t wa mutash?bih?t) 43 Those in whose hearts is a turning away and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge (r?sikh?n f??l-?ilm) 52 3. Uncovering meaning: knowledge and spiritual practice 94 Reading the Qur??n with presence of the heart (?u??r al-qalb) 98 4. Methods of interpretation 115 Ab? Na?r al-Sarr?j and the methods of understanding (fahm) and allusion (ish?ra) 115 Al-Ghaz?l? and the method of striking similitudes (?arb al-mith?l) 120 Ibn ?Arab? and the method of allusion (ish?ra) 128 Al-N?s?b?r? and al-K?sh?n? and the method of esoteric interpretation (ta?w?l) 135 Al-Simn?n? and commentary on the seven inner senses (tafs?r al-bu??n al-sab?a) 142 5. Attacking and defending ??f? Qur??nic interpretation 155 The problem of distinguishing sound exegesis from exegesis by mere personal opinion (tafs?r bi?l-ra?y) 155 Al-Ghaz?l? on tafs?r bi?l-ra?y 157 Ibn al-Jawz? and Ibn Taymiyya on the importance of transmitted information 165 Ibn Taymiyya on sound interpretation of the Qur??n 179 Al-Ghaz?l??s defense of ta?w?l 182 Problems with al-Ghaz?l??s defense of ta?w?l 191 Al-Ghaz?l??s final defense of ??f? interpretation 195 Part Two: Commentary 215 6. ??f? commentators on the Qur??n 216 Al-Tustar? (d.896) 219 Al-Sulam? (d.1021) 221 Al-Qushayr? (d.1074) 227 Ab? ??mid al-Ghaz?l? (d.1111) 230 Rash?d al-D?n al-Maybud? (fl.1135) 234 R?zbih?n al-Baql? (d.1209) 238 Al-K?sh?n? (d.1329) 242 Al-N?s?b?r? (d.1327) 246 7. Qur??nic verses 18:60-82: The story of M?s? and al-Kha?ir 262 ?Ilm ladun? 272 The Journeys of M?s? 288 ?I wanted,? ?we wanted,? and ?your Lord wanted? 308 8. Qur??nic verses on Maryam 334 Mu?arrar 335 Prayer 344 The Virgin Maryam 357 9. Verse 24:35 (The Light Verse) 375 God is the light of the heavens and the earth 375 ??f? interpretations of God is the light of the heavens and the earth 386 The similitude of His/his light is as a niche 396 ??f? interpretations of the similitude of His/his light is as a niche 403 Conclusion 457 Appendix: Other Commentators on the Qur??n 466 Al-?abar? (d.923) 466 Al-Zamakhshar? (d.1144) 468 Fakhr al-D?n al-R?z? (d.1210) 470 Al-Qur?ub? (d.1272) 474 Ibn Taymiyya (d.1328) 476 Glossary of terms 486 Works Cited 490
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Koran -- Commentaries.
Sufism -- Doctrines.