Table of contents for Bone densitometry for technologists / Sydney Lou Bonnick, Lori Ann Lewis.

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Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Dedication	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	xi
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Conventions in Densitometry	1
Densitometry as a Quantitative Measurement Technique	xxx
Accuracy and Precision	xxx
The Skeleton in Densitometry	xxx
Weight Bearing or Non-Weight Bearing	xxx
Axial or Appendicular	xxx
Central or Peripheral	xxx
Cortical or Trabecular	xxx
What Do the Machines Actually Measure?	xxx
The Effect of Bone Size on Areal Densities	xxx
Bone Mineral Apparent Density	xxx
Calculating "Average" Spine Bone Densities	xxx
Ultrasound Parameters	xxx
The Densitometry Printout	xxx
The Percentage Comparisons	xxx
The Standard Score Comparisons	xxx
The Age-Regression Graph	xxx
The Standardized BMD	xxx
The Utility of the sBMD	xxx
The NHANES III Database for the Proximal Femur	xxx
Nomenclature Guidelines from the International Society 
for Clinical Densitometry	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 2: Densitometry Techniques	xxx
Plain Radiography in the Assessment of Bone Density	xxx
Qualitative Morphometry:	xxx
Qualitative Spinal Morphometry	xxx
The Singh Index	xxx
Quantitative Morphometric Techniques	xxx
Calcar Femorale Thickness	xxx
Radiogrammetry	xxx
The Radiologic Osteoporosis Score	xxx
Radiographic Photodensitometry	xxx
Radiographic Absorptiometry	xxx
Photon Absorptiometry Techniques	xxx
Single Photon Absorptiometry (SPA)	xxx
Dual Photon Absorptiometry (DPA)	xxx
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)	xxx
Peripheral DXA (pDXA)	xxx
Single Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (SXA)	xxx
Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT)	xxx
Peripheral QCT (pQCT)	xxx
Quantitative Ultrasound Bone Densitometry (QUS)	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 3: Skeletal Anatomy in Densitometry	xxx
The Spine in Densitometry	xxx
Vertebral Anatomy	xxx
Artifacts in PA or AP Spine Densitometry	xxx
Vertebral Fractures	xxx
The Effect of Osteophytes on BMD	xxx
The Effect of Aortic Calcification on BMD	xxx
The Effect of Facet Sclerosis on BMD	xxx
The Effect of Rotation on BMD	xxx
Other Causes of Artifacts in PA and AP Lumbar Spine Studies	xxx
The Spine in the Lateral Projection	xxx
The Proximal Femur in Densitometry	xxx
Proximal Femur Anatomy	xxx
The Effect of Rotation on BMD in the Proximal Femur	xxx
The Effect of Leg Dominance on BMD in the Proximal Femur	xxx
The Effect of Scoliosis, Osteoarthritis, Osteophytes, Surgery 
and Fracture on BMD in the Proximal Femur	xxx
The Forearm in Densitometry	xxx
Nomenclature	xxx
The Effect of Arm Dominance on Forearm BMD	xxx
The Effect of Artifacts on BMD in the Forearm	xxx
The Metacarpals, Phalanges and Calcaneus	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 4: FDA-Approved Densitometry Devices	xxx
Computer Enhanced Radiogrammetry	xxx
Pronosco X-posure System¬ 2.0	xxx
Computer Enhanced Radiographic Absorptiometry	xxx
Automated Osteogram¿	xxx
Central X-ray Densitometers	xxx
Delphi¬	xxx
Discovery¬	xxx
DPX Bravo¿	xxx
DPX Duo¿	xxx
DPX-IQ¬	xxx
DPX MD¬	xxx
DPX MD+¬	xxx
DPX-NT¬	xxx
Excell¬	xxx
Excell¬plus	xxx
Explorer¬	xxx
Prodigy¬	xxx
QDR¿ 4500 A	xxx
QDR¿ 4500 C	xxx
QDR¿ 4500 SL	xxx
QDR¿ 4500 W	xxx
XR-46¬	xxx
Peripheral X-ray Densitometers	xxx
accuDEXA¬	xxx
Apollo¬	xxx
DexaCare¬ G4	xxx
DexaCare¬ DTX-200	xxx
pDEXA¿	xxx
PIXI¿ (Peripheral Instantaneous X-ray Imager)	xxx
XCT 2000¿	xxx
Ultrasound Bone Densitometers	xxx
Achilles+¬	xxx
Achilles Express¬	xxx
Achilles Insight¬	xxx
DTU-one UltraSure¿	xxx
McCue C.U.B.A. Clinical¬ (Contact Ultrasound Bone Analyzer)	xxx
Omnisense¬ 7000S Ultrasound Bone Sonometer	xxx
QUS¬-2	xxx
Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer¬	xxx
Chapter 5: Computer Basics	xxx
Types of Computers	xxx
Desktops, Towers, Minitowers, and Laptops	xxx
PCs and MACs	xxx
The Major Components of a Computer System	xxx
Important Components Inside the Computer Housing	xxx
The Motherboard, RAM, and Slots	xxx
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)	xxx
The Hard Drive	xxx
Internal Disk Drives	xxx
Input Devices: The Keyboard, Mouse, and Trackball	xxx
The Keyboard	xxx
The Mouse	xxx
The Trackball	xxx
Output Devices: Monitors and Printers	xxx
Monitors	xxx
Printers	xxx
Computer Ports	xxx
Keyboard and Mouse Ports	xxx
Parallel Ports	xxx
Serial Ports	xxx
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Ports	xxx
Power, Monitor, Modem, and Network Ports	xxx
Types of Storage Media	xxx
Magnetic Media 	xxx
Optical Storage Media	xxx
Flash Memory	xxx
Protecting the Data	xxx
Computer Maintenance	xxx
Chapter 6: Precision in Bone Densitometry	xxx
The Concept of Precison	xxx
Performing a Precision Study	xxx
Short-Term Precision Studies	xxx
Mathematical Procedures Used to Calculate Precision	xxx
Long-Term Precision Studies	xxx
Applying the Precision Value to Serial Measurements	xxx
The Determination of Least Significant Change	xxx
Using Least Significant Change to Determine the Timing 
of Repeat Measurements	xxx
A Case in Point	xxx
More Sophisticated Issues of Statistical Confidence 
for the Measured Change	xxx
Determining the Level of Confidence for Any Change and Precision	xxx
The Confidence Interval for the Change in BMD 
Between Two Measurements	xxx
The Importance of Precision	xxx
Which Skeletal Sites Should Be Used for Monitoring	xxx
How Frequently Should Measurements Be Repeated?	xxx
A Final Consideration	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 7: Radiation Safety in X-ray Densitometry	xxx
Radiation Basics	xxx
Radiation Quantities	xxx
The Curie	xxx
The Roentgen	xxx
The Rad	xxx
The Rem	xxx
The Effective Dose Equivalent	xxx
Harmful Effects of Ionizing Radiation	xxx
Acute Lethal Radiation Syndromes	xxx
Local Tissue Damage from Radiation	xxx
The Skin	xxx
The Ovaries and Testes	xxx
The Bone Marrow and Blood	xxx
Late Effect of Ionizing Radiation	xxx
Radiation Doses in Densitometry	xxx
Radiation Protection Programs	xxx
Protection of the Public	xxx
Protection of the Patient	xxx
Protection of the Technologist	xxx
Time, Distance, and Shielding	xxx
Personnel Monitoring Devices	xxx
The Pregnant Technologist	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 8: Quality Control Procedures	xxx
Phantoms	xxx
The European Spine Phantom	xxx
The Bona Fide Spine Phantom	xxx
The Hologic Spine and Hip Phantoms	xxx
The Lunar Spine Phantom	xxx
Using the Phantom to Create Control Tables and Charts	xxx
Shewhart Rules and CUSUM Charts	xxx
Shewhart Rules	xxx
CUSUM Charts	xxx
Automated Quality Control Procedures	xxx
Replacing a Densitometer	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 9: An Overview of Osteoporosis	xxx
The Definition of Osteoporosis	xxx
The 1991 and 1993 Consensus Development Conferences	xxx
The 1994 World Health Organization Criteria for Diagnosis of Osteoporosis	xxx
The 2000 National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference 
Definition of Osteoporosis	xxx
The Prevalence of Osteoporosis	xxx
Consequences of Osteoporosis	xxx
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis	xxx
The Attainment of Peak Bone Density	xxx
The Maintenance of Bone Density	xxx
Guidelines for Bone Mass Measurements	xxx
The National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines 
for Bone Mass Measurements	xxx
Guidelines from Specialty Societies	xxx
The 1997 Bone Mass Measurement Act	xxx
Treatment Guidelines for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis	xxx
The NOF Guidelines	xxx
Treatment Guidelines from AACE and NAMS	xxx
Interventions in Osteoporosis	xxx
Non-Prescription Interventions	xxx
Life-Style Modifications	xxx
Calcium, Vitamin D and Exercise	xxx
Prescription Interventions	xxx
Estrogen Replacement	xxx
The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene	xxx
Synthetic Salmon Calcitonin	xxx
The Bisphosphonates	xxx
Alendronate	xxx
Risedronate	xxx
Ibandronate	xxx
Dosing, Contraindications, and Safety	xxx
Teriparatide	xxx
Patient Education Materials	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 10: Interpretation of Bone Densitometry Data	xxx
The Results	xxx
The Skeletal Image	xxx
The Measured and Calculated Bone Density Parameters	xxx
Comparisons to the Reference Database	xxx
The sBMD	xxx
The Age-Regression Graph	xxx
Assignment of Diagnostic Category Based on WHO Criteria	xxx
Conflicting Diagnoses from the Measurement of Multiple Sites 	xxx
Report Review	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 11: Considerations in Pediatric Densitometry	xxx
Scan Acquisition and Analysis Considerations	xxx
Bone Age	xxx
Sexual Maturation Stage	xxx
Considerations of Bone Size and Shape	xxx
Skeletal Development and the Use of Standard Scores 
in Pediatric Densitometry	xxx
Skeletal Development	xxx
The Use of Standard Scores	xxx
Pediatric Reference Databases	xxx
International Society for Clinical Densitometry Guidelines for Children	xxx
The Specialty of Pediatric Densitometry	xxx
References	xxx
Chapter 12: Moving Beyond Bone Density with Bone Densitometers: 
Skeletal Morphometry and Body Composition Assessments	xxx
Skeletal Morphometry for Structural Diagnoses 
and Prediction of Fracture Risk	xxx
Vertebral Morphometry and Fractures	xxx
The Relationship Between Prevalent Spine
Fractures and Future Fracture Risk	xxx
Diagnosing Vertebral Fractures	xxx
Vertebral Fracture Assessment 
with Genant's Semiquantitative Technique	xxx
Vertebral Fracture Assessment with Quantitative Techniques	xxx
Performance Comparisons of Semiquantitative 
and Quantitative Techniques	xxx
Fan-Array Spine Imaging with DXA	xxx
Proximal Femur Morphometry	xxx
Hip Axis Length	xxx
The Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle	xxx
Femoral Neck Width	xxx
The Upper Femoral Neck	xxx
Hip Strength Analysis	xxx
Body Composition Analysis	xxx
The Body-Mass-Index	xxx
Body Composition Methods	xxx
2-Compartment Body Composition Measurement Techniques	xxx
Underwater Weighing	xxx
Skinfold Measurements	xxx
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis	xxx
Air Displacement Plethysmography	xxx
3-Compartment Body Composition Measurement Techniques	xxx
Near Infrared Interactance	xxx
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry	xxx
References	xxx
Appendix I: Contacts for Bone Densitometry Manufacturers 
and Organizations of Interest	xxx
Appendix II: World Health Organization Criteria for the Diagnosis 
of Osteoporosis Based on the Measurement of Bone Density	xxx
Appendix III: Guidelines for Bone Density Testing	xxx
Appendix IV: Bone Mass Measurement Act of 1997	xxx
Appendix V: CPT Codes for Bone Densitometry	xxx
Appendix VI: DXA PA Lumbar Spine Labeling Guidelines	xxx
Appendix VII: Conversion Formulas	xxx
Appendix VIII: Procedures for Short-Term Precision Studies	xxx
Appendix IX: Calculation of Least Significant Change	xxx
Appendix X: Quality Control Shewhart Rules	xxx
Appendix XI: Glossary of Computer Terms	xxx
Appendix XII: Contents of the CD-ROM	xxx
Index	xxx

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Bone densitometry.