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Content Dedication to Orlee Acknowledgements The main arguments Part I: Language, manipulations, policy Chapter 1 Expanding language Expanding language Language as individual, personal and interactive Language as dynamic and evolving Crossing the fixed language boundaries 'Languaging' through multi-modalities Language as expression of freedom Summary Chapter 2: Manipulating languages Overview Manipulating languages in the nation state Role of linguists in language manipulations Negotiating and battling languages in the current nation state Ideology and propaganda Summary and conclusion Chapter 3: Expanding language policy (LP) Overview LP in the current nation state Types of language policies Overt and covert policies Language policy and language practice Language policies in the new nation-state An expanded view of language policy Summary Part II: Mechanisms affecting de facto policies Chapter 4: Laws and regulations Overview The devices Effect on de facto language policies Laws and regulations and de facto policies: The case of Israel Chapter 5: Language education policies (LEP) Overview LEP and its power as a mechanism The agents of LEP LEP and de facto language practices LEP: The case of Israel Conclusions Chapter 6: Language tests (LT) Overview The power of tests Tests as tools for manipulating language Language testing scenarios The sources of power of language tests The role of teachers in language testing Tests as mechanisms for de facto LP Tests as hidden mechanisms Democratic processes and language rights Conclusions Chapter 7: Language in the public space Overview Linguistic landscape (LL) A LL study Negotiating policies in he public space Additional devices in the public space Effects on de facto LP Violation of language rights Conclusions Part III: Consequence and reactions Chapter 8: Consequences Democratic principles and rights Violations of democratic principles Violations of personal rights Chapter 9: Reactions Democracy of inclusion Critical awareness and language activism Critical awareness and the mechanisms Policy, practice and negotiations Epiloque: Language as a free commodity
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Language and education.