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Table of Contents Preface Organization of this book Chapter Summaries Introduction Social Inequality in Chicago Slums Railroads as Indicators of Civilized Society Early Social Ecology: Spatial Studies of Chicago Relevant websites Chapter 1: Introduction to GIS Chapter Description What is a Geographic Information System? Understanding Geographic Information Systems The "G" in GIS Difficulties with the "G" Expanding the ?G? The "I" in GIS Extending the "I" The "S" in GIS Difficulties with the "S" Summary Relevant websites Chapter 2: GIS Basics Chapter Description An Example of a Spatially-based Study GIS data formats Spatial Data Formats GIS Data Models Vector GIS Raster GIS Topological and Raster data models and analysis approaches Data compression and packaging Essential Mapping Concepts Scale Projections and Coordinates A bit about datums So what do I do? GIS Output Summary Relevant websites Suggested Reading Chapter 3: Topics for Sociospatial Research Chapter Description Introduction What value does GIS present in social science research? Exploring and Integrating Information Seeking relationships Thinking Critically Acknowledging Differences Finding Common Ground Determining Project Goals Guiding Questions Questions about Concept Questions about Data Questions about Location Boundaries for Analysis How to: Steps in the process Public Health Example Relevant Websites Chapter 4: Research Design Chapter Description Inductive versus Deductive Approach to Research What is the purpose of your Research? Descriptive research Exploration Explanation Stages of Sociospatial Research for Deductive Research 1. Choosing a topic 2. Defining the problem 3. Conduct a Literature Review 4. Develop a Hypothesis 5. Develop a Conceptual Framework 6. Choose Research Methods 7. Collect and Prepare Data 8. Ground Truth Data 9. Analyze Data 10. Share results The Role of Time Cross-sectional Studies Longitudinal Studies Errors in Human Inquiry Ecological Fallacy Ethics and GIS Privacy and Data Aggregation Primary and Secondary Data Accuracy Considerations Relevant websites Suggested Reading Chapter 5: Qualitative Research Methods and GIS Chapter Description Introduction Grounded Theory: GIS Using an Inductive Approach Grounded Theory and GIS Sociospatial Grounded Theory Using GIS 1. Determine a general topical of interest 2. Determine the geographic location of interest 3. Collect the Data (Spatial and Social Data) 4. Spatially Code the Data 5. Ground Truth the Data 6. Analyze Data/Look for Spatial and Social Patterns in the Data 7. Generate Theory (Spatial and Social) Questions to Guide Integration of GIS into Field Research GIS software in the field? Maps of your Research Area Ground Truth of Map Data Cultural Perceptions of Technology Access to Results Local Sources of Data Oral History Interviews GIS and Oral History / GIS as an Interactive Data Recorder Participant Observation News as a Source of Data Ethnography and GIS Case Studies and GIS Public Participation and GIS Relevant websites Chapter 6: GIS Data collection and development (sources, input and output): Chapter Description Introduction Data acquisition Evaluating Data Suitability Obtaining GIS data from the Internet Obtaining data from offline sources How can I use my own data? Approaching the Use of GIS/ With and Without Computer in the Field Without a field computer With a field computer Data collection considerations Address Matching Using a Global Positioning System Creating base maps from scratch Unit of analysis Database concepts and GIS Rules for GIS Database Development Creating GIS Friendly Data Tables Space and Case Data format and coding considerations Software output formats Integrating other types of data GIS Output Data Visualization Statistical output Exporting data to other applications Conclusions Relevant websites Chapter 7: Measurement Chapter Description Introduction Type of Data Source: Primary or Secondary Concepts, Variables and Attributes Operationalization of Concepts in GIS Different data types: Matching geographic and social variables? Nominal data Ordinal data Interval data Ratio data Validity and Reliability Validity and GIS Reliability and GIS Data Sampling and GIS Probability and Non-Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling Purposive Sampling Available Subjects Snowball Sampling Quota Sampling Random sampling Study Area and Sample Unit Boundaries Edge Effects The modifiable area unit problem (MAUP) Selecting boundaries Factors Affecting Choice of GIS Variables Relevant websites Suggested Reading Chapter 8: Data Documentation and Model Development Chapter Description The Importance of Ground Truthing of your Data Documenting data accuracy and quality (metadata) Analytical approach Phases of abstraction Reality Conceptual data model ? Incorporating GIS Logical data model Physical data model Statistical Outputs from GIS Relevant websites Chapter 9: Analysis, Interpretation and Application Chapter Description Analysis techniques Cartographic Classification Buffer and Overlay Buffer Overlay Proximity Polygons and Nearest Neighbors Social Networks and Network Analysis Network Analysis Least cost path Topographic Tools Spatial Interpolation and Simulation Modeling Raster Modeling When to use GIS as a problem solving tool Potential Pitfalls Revisiting the Accessibility Example Test it! Virtual reality is still NOT reality Relevant websites Chapter 10: Future Opportunities for Social Research and GIS Chapter Description Linking GIS and the Social Sciences Using GIS to Study Society and Change Identifying Social Inequality GIS City Case Example Developing Community Profiles Factors Affecting Choice of GIS Variables Stages of Socio-spatial Research for Deductive Research Surveys: Focus Groups: GIS and the Focus Group Data Capture as a Visualization Process: GIS Analysis: Government and GIS Data continuity over time Metadata documentation of your data Future directions for GIS and Social Sciences Visualization and GIS Faster Response Time Impact of Tools for the Future Parting Thoughts Some suggestions for student research projects Relevant websites Glossary Summary of Websites References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Social sciences -- Research -- Methodology.
Geographic information systems.
Spatial analysis (Statistics).