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Contents Introduction 00 I.1 The Way It Was What Changed? New Kind of Audience Technology Makes More Possible I.2 New Kinds of Presenters and Presentations Less Formality New Expectations of Presentations Shifting Boundaries The "Technical Presentation" I.3 You Can Learn to Be a Credible, Competent Presenter Chapter 1 Overview of Technical Presentations and Public Speaking 1.1 Speaking As One Part of a Much Larger Communications Process 1.2 Choosing the Best Communication Mode Written or Oral Mode Level of Formality Size of Audience Encouragement Exercises Chapter 2 Audience Analysis 2.1 Why Is an Audience Analysis Important? Gauging the Audience: What to Look for, Where to Find It, and What to Do with the Information You Collect Guidelines for Doing an Audience Analysis 2.2 Analyzing Audience Members' Roles Technical Role and Educational Background Educational Background Decision-making Level Interest in the Topic The Main Question Audience Members Need Answered 2.3 Don't Lose Sight of Your Goal 2.4 Meeting Audience Expectations General Preferences 2.5 Understanding the Problems and Barriers That Listeners Face Listeners Are Often Distracted and Self-interested Listeners Are Impatient Listeners Lack Your Technical Knowledge Most Speeches Have Listeners with Diverse Backgrounds 2.6 Establishing Your Credibility: Factors That Make Presenters Believable Why Should the Audience Believe You? What Makes a Person Credible? Guidelines for Building Credibility and Confidence and for Establishing Expertise Guidelines for Appropriate Dress Guidelines for Ethical Presentations Encouragement Exercises Chapter 3 Know Your Purpose 3.1 Define Your Purpose Purpose May Determine the Type of Speech Types of Speeches Characterized by Purpose S-L-M-R ("Slimmer") Speech Model Speech Types Based on Delivery Method 3.2 Choosing a Topic Review Your Life Experience Consider Hobbies or Special Interests Choose an Academic or Career Interest Examine the Experiences of Others Explore Possibilities in Current Events Ideas for Technical Presentations Keep It Simple 3.3 Know Your Topic Gather Information from Credible Sources Refine Your Search Ask Experts for Information 3.4 Using Borrowed Information Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement Avoiding Plagiarism Guidelines for Using Borrowed Information Encouragement Exercises Chapter 4 Coping with Anxiety 4.1 Anxiety: Effects of stress in the Speech Process Anxiety and Stage Fright Are Extremely Common Anxiety Comes from Fears Fear Creates Stress Effects of Stress 4.2 Coping with the Sources of Stress Preparation and Planning Get Control of Your Timing 4.3 Coping with the Effects of Stress Prepare Your Presentation Well Prepare Yourself Physically Try Visualization; Picture Yourself Giving a Great Presentation Arrange the Room the Way You Want Be Ready for Emergencies Talk with Audience Members Before Your Speech Remember That You Are the Expert Don't Admit Nervousness to the Audience Slow Down Seek Opportunities to Grow as a Presenter Encouragement Exercises Chapter 5 Organizing Your Presentation 5.1 Outlines Work from a Strong Outline Writing a Hierarchical Outline 5.2 Using the I-B-C Format Introduction-Body-Conclusion; The I-B-C Format Background on the I-B-C Format Organizing with the I-B-C Format Guidelines for Introductions Guidelines for the Body Guidelines for Conclusions 5.3 Final Preparations Using Presenter's Notes Guidelines for Making and Using Presenter's Notes Encouragement Exercises Chapter 6 Illustrating Your Presentation 6.1 Use Visual Aids 6.2 Making Graphics General Guidelines for Presentation Graphics Guidelines for Using Numbers in Presentations Types of Visuals Deciding What Visuals to Use 6.3 Text Lists Quotations 6.4 Data Graphics Tables Charts 6.5 Misuse of Data Graphics Description of the Graphics Problem Examples of Distorted Graphics and Chartjunk Tips for Avoiding Chartjunk and Deceptive Graphics 6.6 Representational Graphics Pictorial Graphics: Models, Photos, and Drawings Symbolic Representations of Reality Rogues' Gallery of Problem Graphics Encouragement Exercises Chapter 7 Using Graphics 7.1 Special Issues Related to PowerPoint About Microsoft PowerPoint PowerPoint Guidelines 7.2 Interact with Your Visuals No-nos When Using Visuals Guidelines for Using Presentation Graphics 7.3 Mastering PowerPoint PowerPoint Views: Slides, Notes, and Handouts Combine Text and Images Inserting Movies, Audio Clips, Sounds, and Narration Keyboard Controls for Screen, Pointer, and Drawing Pen Customizing Backgrounds and Adding Logos Linking to Websites: Hyperlinks and Action Buttons Drawing Toolbar Convert PowerPoint Files to Portable Data File (PDF) Files Color Combinations for Visuals 7.4 Final Thoughts on Presentation Visuals Try Other Presentation Software The Real Thing Is Still Best Hope for the Best, But Back up Everything Encouragement Exercises Chapter 8 Delivering Your Presentation 8.1 Word Choice Is Important Choosing the Right Words Decide When to Give Definitions 8.2 Voice as a Nonverbal Communication Tool Guidelines for Improving Your Voice 8.3 Humor: Adding a Lighter Touch Appropriate Use of Humor When to Avoid Humor Tell Anecdotes, Not Jokes Avoid Humor with Hypersensitive Audiences 8.4 Guidelines for Delivery 8.5 How to Handle Question-and-Answer Sessions Let the Person Complete the Question Be Sure You Understand the Question Repeat the Question Aloud Pause for a Moment Before You Begin Your Answer Admit It When You Don't Know an Answer Avoid Being Defensive Always End on Time 8.6 Final Preparations Checklist Encouragement Exercises Chapter 9 Evaluating Presentations 9.1 Importance of Evaluations 9.2 Asking for Feedback Responses Evaluation Tools Using the feedback you get Applying lessons learned 9.3 Observing to Learn Encouragement Exercises Chapter 10 Adapting to Different Situations 10.1 Speaking on the Job Getting Hired Leading a Plant Tour Presenting to Your Peers 10.2 Persuasive Presentations Proposals and Business Plans Guidelines for Proposal Presentations 10.3 Training Guidelines for Running a Training Session 10.4 Public Meetings and Hearings Public Meetings Difficult Audiences Testifying at Public Hearings 10.5 Using New Technology to Communicate Teleconferencing Background Tips for Videoconferencing Conclusion Appendix: Resources for Presenters Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Communication of technical information.