Table of contents for Geothermal energy : utilization and technology / edited by Mary H. Dickson and Mario Fanelli.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiv
List of Contributors xvi
Notes on the Editors xviii
Unit Conversion Tables xix
1. Geothermal Background
Mary H. Dickson and Mario Fanelli
Aims 1
Objectives 1
Introduction 2
Brief geothermal history 2
Present status of geothermal utilization 3
Nature of geothermal resources 4
The Earth's thermal engine 4
Geothermal systems 8
Definition and classification of geothermal 
resources 10
Exploration 12
Objectives of exploration 12
Exploration methods 13
Exploration programme 14
Utilization of geothermal resources 14
Electricity generation 15
Direct heat uses 16
Economic considerations 19
Environmental impact 20
Sources of pollution 21
Final considerations 22
References 24
Self-assessment questions 26
Answers 27
2. Electricity Generation
Roger B. Hudson
Aims 29
Objectives 29
Technical features of plant options 30
Atmospheric exhaust conventional steam turbine 30
Condensing exhaust conventional steam turbine 31
Binary plant 36
Biphase rotary separator turbo-alternator 38
Well-head generating units 41
Economic considerations regarding small geothermal 
plants 42
Reference 44
Recommended literature 44
Appendix A 
Thermodynamics of cycles 45
Thermodynamics of flash process 45
Thermodynamics of organic Rankine cycle 45
Thermodynamics of biphase process 48
Appendix B 
Principal manufacturers 49
Manufacturers of conventional atmospheric exhaust 
or condensing steam turbine plants 49
Manufacturers of geothermal binary plants 49
Manufacturers of geothermal biphase rotary separator 
plants 49
Self-assessment questions 50
Answers 51
3. Space and District Heating
Einar Tjörvi Elíasson, Halldór Ármannsson, 
Sverrir Thórhallsson, María J. Gunnarsdóttir, 
Oddur B. Björnsson and Thorbjörn Karlsson
Aims 53
Objectives 53
Introduction 54
Preamble 54
Utilization of low-temperature geothermal 
resources 54
Resource considerations 54
Resource development 54
Temperature of fluid 55
Available flow rates 55
Chemistry of fluids 55
Distance from potential market 57
Space heating (or cooling) needs 58
Climate 58
Population, population density 58
Building types 59
Techno-economic aspects 59
Hot water collection and transmission system 59
Types of district heating systems 59
Pipe systems 61
Equipment selection 64
Down-hole pumps 64
De-gassing tanks 65
Heat exchangers 65
Radiators 66
Control equipment 66
Heat pumps 67
Economic considerations 67
Cost of drilling 67
Cost of pipeline 67
Capital investment 68
Operating cost 69
Cost of improving heat efficiency of buildings 69
Cost of alternative thermal energy sources 69
Tariffs 70
Sales policies and metering 70
Integrated uses 71
Environmental considerations 72
Chemical pollution 72
Thermal pollution 72
Physical effects 72
Social and economic considerations 73
Recommended literature 73
Self-assessment questions 74
Answers 77
4. Space Cooling
Kevin D. Rafferty
Aims 81
Objectives 81
Introduction 82
Air conditioning 82
Lithium bromide/water cycle machines 82
Performance 83
Large tonnage equipment costs 84
Small tonnage equipment 85
Commercial refrigeration 86
Water/ammonia cycle machines 86
Absorption research 87
Materials 87
Conclusions 88
References 88
Self-assessment questions 89
Answers 90
5. Greenhouse Heating
Kiril Popovski
Aims 91
Objectives 91
Introduction 92
Energy aspects of protected crop cultivation 92
Why protected crop cultivation 92
Greenhouse climate 93
Characteristics of heat consumption 94
Technical solutions for geothermal greenhouse 
heating 95
Factors influencing the choice of technological 
solution 95
Hot-water transmission systems 95
Combined uses 96
Geothermal greenhouse heating installations 98
Classification 98
Soil heating installations 100
Soil-air heating installations 101
Aerial pipe heating installations and convectors 102
Fan-assisted convectors 102
Other types of heating installation 102
Factors influencing the choice of heating 
installation 102
Temperature profiles in the greenhouse 102
Economic aspects 106
Operating problems 107
Environmental aspects 107
Adaptation of technological solutions to local 
conditions 108
Final considerations 108
References 109
Self-assessment questions 111
Answers 112
6. Aquaculture
Aims 113
Objectives 113
Introduction to Geothermal 
Aquaculture 
John W. Lund
Background 114
Examples of geothermal projects 114
General design and considerations 116
Additional information 117
References 117
Self-assessment questions 119
Answers 120
Aquaculture Technology 
Kevin D. Rafferty
Introduction 121
Heat exchange processes 121
Evaporative loss 121
Convective loss 122
Radiant loss 123
Conductive loss 123
Reduction of heating requirements 124
Surface cover 124
Pond enclosure 124
Thermal mass 125
Flow requirements 125
References 126
Self-assessment questions 127
Answers 128
7. Industrial Applications
Paul J. Lienau
Aims 129
Objectives 129
Introduction 130
Examples of industrial applications of 
geothermal energy 130
Pulp, paper and wood processing 130
Diatomite plant 132
Vegetable dehydration 132
Other industrial uses 132
Selected industrial applications 134
Pulp and paper mill (Hornburg and Lindal, 1978) 134
Drying lumber (VTN-CSL, 1977) 136
Crop drying (Lienau, 1978) 138
Vegetable and fruit dehydration (Lienau, 1978) 142
Potato processing (Lienau, 1978) 145
Heap leaching (Trexler et al., 1987, 1990) 148
Waste-water treatment plant (Racine et al., 1981) 150
References 151
Self-assessment questions 153
Answers 154
8. Environmental Impacts 
and Mitigation
Kevin Brown and Jenny Webster-Brown
Aim 155
Objectives 155
Introduction 156
Physical impacts 156
Land and the landscape 156
Noise 156
Natural geothermal features 157
Heat-tolerant vegetation 157
Hydrothermal eruptions 158
Subsidence 158
Induced seismicity 159
Thermal effects of waste discharge 159
Water usage 159
Solid wastes 160
Impacts on air quality 160
Composition of gas discharges 160
Toxic and environmental effects 161
Impacts on water quality 162
Composition of fluid discharges 163
Toxicity and environmental effects 163
Social impacts 164
Workplace impacts 165
Exposure to airborne contaminants 165
Exposure to liquid contaminants 166
Exposure to noise 167
Exposure to heat 167
OSH criteria and standards 167
Legislation and EIA 168
Environmental impact assessment 168
The consent application and award process 168
Monitoring programmes 170
The future 170
References 170
Recommended literature 171
Self-assessment questions 172
Answers 173
9. Economics and Financing
R. Gordon Bloomquist and George Knapp
Aims 175
Objectives 175
Introduction 176
Economic considerations 176
Provision of fuel 176
Project design and facility construction 178
Revenue generation 185
Financing considerations 187
Institutional framework 188
Financing approaches and sources 191
Contracts and risk allocation 194
References 200
Self-assessment questions 202
Answers 204

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Geothermal engineering.
Geothermal resources.