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Contents Preface What research libraries can offer that the Internet cannot (both resources and search techniques) - Trade-offs of what, who, and where restrictions on free access - Hierarchy of levels of learning - Data, information, opinion, knowledge, understanding - Wisdom separate - Implications of format differences - Nine methods of subject searching - Patterns in inefficient searches 1. Initial Overviews: Encyclopedias Characteristics of encyclopedias - Specialized vs. General encyclopedias - Examples - How to find articles in specialized encyclopedias - Cross-disciplinary searching - How to identify additional specialized encyclopedias - Peculiar strengths of general sets 2. Subject Headings and the Library Catalog Problems in determining the right subject headings - Uniform Heading - Scope-match specificity and its modifications - Specific entry - Four ways to find the right subject headings - Cross-references - Alphabetically adjacent terms - Subject tracings - Browse displays of subdivisions - Recognition vs. prior specification - Use of three menu listings - Precoordination vs. postcoordination - Particularly useful subdivisions - Miscellaneous tips on subject headings - Narrowing a topic - Proper names - Finding foreign language books - Pattern headings 3. General Browsing, Focused Browsing, and Use of Classified Bookstacks Alternative methods of shelving book collections - The problems with shelving by accession number, by height, or in remote warehouses - Serendipity and recognition - General browsing vs. focused browsing - Full text searching and depth of access - Lighthouse libraries example - Searching for a single word - Valery and Dreyfus example - Inadequacy of Google Print as a replacement for classified bookstacks - The complementary relationship of the library catalog and the classified bookstacks - The catalog as the index to the classification scheme - Trade-offs and remedies - Exploiting the internal structure of the cataloging system - The problems that result when the system is ignored - Browsing in other contexts - Importance of full texts of books arranged in subject groupings 4. Subject Headings and Indexes to Journal Articles Descriptors - Separate thesauri - Descriptor fields in online records - Eureka databases - Browse search feature - FirstSearch databases and WilsonWeb counterparts - Related Subjects search feature - Contrast of Eureka and FirstSearch softwares - EBSCO Host research databases - Search features - Dialog and DataStar databases - ProQuest databases - Miscellaneous databases with controlled descriptors - Cross-disciplinary searching - Finding where journals are indexed and which journals are available electronically - Identifying the best journals - Problems with abbreviations of journal titles - The change in cataloging rules for serials 5. Keyword Searches Problems with controlled vocabulary searches - Advantages of controlled vocabularies - Problems with keyword searches - Advantages of keywords - Index/Abstract-level keyword databases and printed sources - Full text databases - Convenience vs. quality of access - ProQuest databases - EBSCO Host research databases - InfoTrac databases - JSTOR - Project Muse - LexisNexis - Web sites on the open Internet - Search engines - Subject directories - Invisible Web sites - Google Print project - Summary 6. Citation Searches Finding where a known source has been footnoted by a subsequent journal article - ISI indexes - Web of Science - Cross-disciplinary coverage - Cycling sources - "Reviews" of journal articles - Additional features of ISI indexes - Citation searching in other databases 7. Related Record Searches Finding articles that have footnotes in common with a starting-point article - Examples - Differences between CD-ROM versions and Web of Science 8. Higher-Level Overviews: Review Articles "Literature review" or "state of the art" assessments - Differences from book reviews and encyclopedia articles - Web of Science "review" limit capability - Other sources of literature reviews 9. Published Bibliographies Differences from computer printouts of sources - Doing Boolean combinations without a computer - Two problems in identifying published bibliographies - Bibliographies not shelved with regular books - Subdivision -Bibliography can be missed in library catalog - Finding bibliographies via the library catalog - Finding bibliographies in Z class shelving area - Other sources for finding bibliographies - Guides to the literature - Bibliographies not superseded by computer sources 10. Boolean Combinations and Search Limitations Boolean combinations - Component word searching within controlled subject strings - Word truncation - Proximity searches - Limitations of sets - Limiting by time periods - Limiting by geographic area codes - Limiting by document types - Combining keywords and citation searches - Boolean combinations without computers - Precoordinated headings and browse displays - Published subject bibliographies - Focused shelf-browsing - How to identify which databases exist 11. Locating Material in Other Libraries Determining library locations of desired items - WorldCat, RLG Union Catalog, National Union Catalog of Pre-1956 Imprints - Other union lists and databases - Web sites for identifying out of print books for sale - Determining which libraries have special collections on your subject - Interlibrary loan and document delivery 12. People Sources Journalists and academics - Inhibiting assumptions - "Find it on your own" - Advantages of people sources - Listservs and discussion groups online - Techniques for students - Sources for identifying experts - Associations and directories - How to talk to reference librarians 13. Hidden Treasures Resources not shelved or cataloged with conventional research materials - Microform sets and counterpart Web sites - Web collections - Government documents - Particular importance of Congressional hearings - Archives, Manuscripts, and Public Records 14. Special Subjects and Formats Biography - Book reviews - Business and economics - Copyright status information - Genealogy and local history - Illustrations, pictures, and photographs - Literary criticism - Maps - Newspapers - Out-of-print and secondhand books - Primary sources - Standards and specifications - Statistics - Tabular data - Tests (psychological and educational) - Translations 15. Reference Sources: Searching by Types of Literature Reference questions vs. research questions - Review of search techniques for research questions - Type of literature searches - Internet sources for fact searches - Coverage of the various types of literature - Understanding the formal properties of retrieval systems - The discipline of library and information science - Sources for identifying types of literature in any subject area - Concluding thoughts Appendix: Wisdom
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Library research -- United States.