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Contents Preface Fiction 1 1. Reading a Story 3 Fable, Parable, and Tale 4 W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra 4 Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes 5 Chuang Tzu, Independence 6 Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death 8 Plot 11 The Short Story 13 John Updike, A & P 15 Writing Critically 21 What's The Plot? 21 Writing Assignment 22 Further Suggestions For Writing 22 2. Point of View 23 William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily 30 Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart 39 Writing Critically 44 How Point of View Shapes a Story 44 Writing Assignment 44 Further Suggestions for Writing 45 3. Character 46 Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 50 Alice Walker, Everyday Use 59 Raymond Carver, Cathedral 68 Writing Critically 82 How Character Creates Action 82 Writing Assignment 82 Further Suggestions for Writing 82 4. Setting 84 Kate Chopin, The Storm 87 T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake 92 Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets 102 Writing Critically 120 How Time and Place Set a Story 120 Writing Assignment 120 Further Suggestions for Writing 121 5. Tone and Style 122 Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place 127 William Faulkner, Barn Burning 132 Irony 147 Ha Jin, Saboteur 149 Writing Critically 159 Be Style Conscious 159 Writing Assignment 160 Further Suggestions for Writing 160 6. Theme 162 Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path 165 Luke 15: 11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son 168 Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper 170 Writing Critically 184 Stating the Theme 184 Writing Assignment 185 Further Suggestions for Writing 185 7. Symbol 186 John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums 189 Shirley Jackson, The Lottery 199 Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 207 Writing Critically 214 Recognizing Symbols 214 Writing Assignment 215 Further Suggestions For Writing 215 8. Stories for Further Reading 216 Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings 216 Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour 220 Sandra Cisneros, House on Mango Street 223 Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown 225 Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat 237 James Joyce, Araby 249 Franz Kafka, Before the Law 255 Jamaica Kincaid, Girl 257 Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 259 Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried 274 Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find 290 Poetry 305 9. Reading a Poem 308 William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree 310 Lyric Poetry 313 D. H. Lawrence, Piano 314 Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 314 Narrative Poetry 315 Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence 315 Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" 317 Dramatic Poetry 318 Robert Browning, My Last Duchess 319 Writing Critically 321 Can a Poem be Paraphrased? 321 William Stafford, Ask Me 322 William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" 322 Writing Assignment 323 10. Listening to a Voice 324 Tone 324 Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz 324 Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know 326 Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book 326 Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter 327 Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles 328 Benjamin Alire Sçenz, To the Desert 329 The Person in the Poem 330 Natasha Trethewey, White Lies 330 Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal 332 Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting 333 William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 334 Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry 335 Langston Hughes, Theme for English B 336 Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu 337 Francisco X. Alarcùn, The X in My Name 338 William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow 339 Irony 339 Robert Creeley, Oh No 340 W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen 341 Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage 342 Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links 343 Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est 344 Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilinge 345 Thomas Hardy, The Workbox 346 Writing Critically 347 Paying Attention to the Obvious 347 Writing Assignment 347 Further Suggestions for Writing 348 11. Words 349 Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First 349 William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say 350 Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! 351 John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You 352 The Value of a Dictionary 353 J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead 355 Carl Sandburg, Grass 355 Word Choice and Word Order 356 Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes 358 Kay Ryan, Blandeur 360 Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid 361 Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment 362 Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts 363 For Review and Further Study 364 E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town 364 Anonymous, Carnation Milk 365 Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky 365 Writing Critically 367 How Much Difference Does a Word Make? 367 Writing Assignment 367 Further Suggestions for Writing 367 12. Saying and Suggesting 368 John Masefield, Cargoes 369 William Blake, London 370 Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock 372 Timothy Steele, Epitaph 373 Robert Frost, Fire and Ice 373 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears 374 Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights - Wild Nights! 374 Writing Critically 375 The Ways a Poem Suggests 375 Writing Assignment 375 Further Suggestions for Writing 375 13. Imagery 377 Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro 377 Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel 377 T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down 379 Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar 379 Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish 380 Charles Simic, Fork 382 Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty 383 About Haiku 383 Arakida Moritake, The falling flower 383 Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak 384 Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool 384 Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell 385 Taniguchi Buson, I go 385 Kobayashi Issa, only one guy 385 Kobayashi Issa, Cricket 385 Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, A Selection of Haiku 385 For Review and Further Study 386 John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art 386 T. E. Hulme, Image 386 Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 387 Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning 387 Writing Critically 387 Analyzing Images 387 Writing Assignment 388 Further Suggestions for Writing 388 14. Figures of Speech 389 Why Speak Figuratively? 389 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle 390 William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? 390 Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? 391 Metaphor and Simile 392 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall 393 William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand 394 Sylvia Plath, Metaphors 394 N. Scott Momaday, Simile 395 Other Figures 396 James Stephens, The Wind 397 Margaret Atwood, You fit into me 399 John Ashbery, The Cathedral Is 399 For Review and Further Study 399 Denise Levertov, Leaving Forever 399 Jane Kenyon, The Suitor 400 Robert Frost, The Secret Sits 400 A. R. Ammons, Coward 401 Writing Critically 401 How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning 401 Writing Assignment 402 Further Suggestions for Writing 402 15. Sound 403 Sound as Meaning 403 Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance 404 William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? 406 John Updike, Recital 407 Alliteration and Assonance 407 A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock 408 Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice 409 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls 409 Rime 410 William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga 411 Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus 413 Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur 414 Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud 415 Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane 416 William Shakespeare, Full fathom five thy father lies 416 Writing Critically 417 Is it Possible to Write about Sound? 414 Writing Assignment 417 Further Suggestions for Writing 417 16. Rhythm 418 Stresses and Pauses 418 Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool 423 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break 423 Meter 424 Max Beerbohm, On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm 424 Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme 430 A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty 430 Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! 431 David Mason, Song of the Powers 432 Writing Critically 433 Freeze-Framing the Sound 433 Writing Assignment 433 Further Suggestions for Writing 433 17. Closed Form 435 Formal Patterns 436 John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable 437 Robert Graves, Counting the Beats 439 Ballads 440 Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan 440 Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham 443 The Sonnet 444 William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds 445 Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why 445 Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night 446 Claude McKay, America 447 Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You 447 R. S. Gwynn, Scenes from the Playroom 448 Other Forms 448 Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night 449 Robert Bridges, Triolet 450 Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina 450 Writing Critically 451 Turning Points 451 Writing Assignment 452 Further Suggestions for Writing 452 18. Open Form 453 Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway 453 E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's 457 W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death 457 Stephen Crane, The Heart 458 Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford 458 Ezra Pound, The Garret 459 Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 459 Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse 462 E. E. Cummings, in Just- 462 Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red 463 Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover 463 Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It 464 Langston Hughes, I, Too 465 Writing Critically 465 Lining Up for Free Verse 465 Writing Assignment 466 Further Suggestions for Writing 466 19. Symbol 467 T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript 468 Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork 469 Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones 471 Matthew 13:24-30, The Parable of the Good Seed 472 George Herbert, The World 473 Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken 474 Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar 475 For Review and Further Study 475 Robinson Jeffers, The Beaks of Eagles 475 Sara Teasdale, The Flight 476 Ted Koosor, Carrie 477 Writing Critically 477 How to Read a Symbol 477 Writing Assignment 478 Further Suggestions for Writing 478 20. Myth and Narrative 479 Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay 481 Thomas Hardy, The Oxen 481 H. D., Helen 481 William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us 482 Archetype 483 Louise Bogan, Medusa 484 Myth and Popular Culture 485 Anne Sexton, Cinderella 486 Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus 489 Writing Critically 492 Demystifying Myth 492 Writing Assignment 493 Further Suggestions for Writing 493 21. Poems for Further Reading 494 Sherman Alexie, Indian Boy Love Song (#1) 494 Anonymous, Lord Randall 495 Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach 496 W. H. Auden, MusÄe des Beaux Arts 497 Elizabeth Bishop, On
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Literature -- Collections.