Table of contents for Backpack literature : an introduction to fiction, poetry, and drama / X.J. Kennedy Dana Gioia.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Preface
Fiction 1
1.	Reading a Story 3
Fable, Parable, and Tale 4
W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra 4
Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes 5
Chuang Tzu, Independence 6
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death 8
Plot 11
The Short Story 13
John Updike, A & P 15
Writing Critically 21
What's The Plot? 21
Writing Assignment 22
Further Suggestions For Writing 22
2.	Point of View 23
William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily 30
Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart 39
Writing Critically 44
How Point of View Shapes a Story 44
Writing Assignment 44
Further Suggestions for Writing 45
3.	Character 46
Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 50
Alice Walker, Everyday Use 59
Raymond Carver, Cathedral 68
Writing Critically 82
How Character Creates Action 82
Writing Assignment 82
Further Suggestions for Writing 82
4.	Setting 84
Kate Chopin, The Storm 87
T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake 92
Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets 102
Writing Critically 120
How Time and Place Set a Story 120
Writing Assignment 120
Further Suggestions for Writing 121
5.	Tone and Style 122
Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place 127
William Faulkner, Barn Burning 132
Irony 147
Ha Jin, Saboteur 149
Writing Critically 159
Be Style Conscious 159
Writing Assignment 160
Further Suggestions for Writing 160
6.	Theme 162
Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path 165
Luke 15: 11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son 168
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper 170
Writing Critically 184
Stating the Theme 184
Writing Assignment 185
Further Suggestions for Writing 185
7.	Symbol 186
John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums 189
Shirley Jackson, The Lottery 199
Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 207
Writing Critically 214
Recognizing Symbols 214
Writing Assignment 215
Further Suggestions For Writing 215
8.	Stories for Further Reading 216
Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings 216
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour 220
Sandra Cisneros, House on Mango Street 223
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown 225
Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat 237
James Joyce, Araby 249
Franz Kafka, Before the Law 255
Jamaica Kincaid, Girl 257
Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 259
Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried 274
Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find 290
Poetry 305
9.	Reading a Poem 308
William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree 310
Lyric Poetry 313
D. H. Lawrence, Piano 314
Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 314
Narrative Poetry 315
Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence 315
Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" 317
Dramatic Poetry 318
Robert Browning, My Last Duchess 319
Writing Critically 321
Can a Poem be Paraphrased? 321
William Stafford, Ask Me 322
William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" 322
Writing Assignment 323
10.	Listening to a Voice 324
Tone 324
Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz 324
Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know 326
Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book 326
Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter 327
Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles 328
Benjamin Alire Sçenz, To the Desert 329
The Person in the Poem 330
Natasha Trethewey, White Lies 330
Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal 332
Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting 333
William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 334
Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry 335
Langston Hughes, Theme for English B 336
Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu 337
Francisco X. Alarcùn, The X in My Name 338
William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow 339
Irony 339
Robert Creeley, Oh No 340
W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen 341
Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage 342
Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links 343
Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est 344
Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilingƒe 345
Thomas Hardy, The Workbox 346
Writing Critically 347
Paying Attention to the Obvious 347
Writing Assignment 347
Further Suggestions for Writing 348
11.	Words 349
Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First 349
William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say 350
Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! 351
John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You 352
The Value of a Dictionary 353
J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead 355
Carl Sandburg, Grass 355
Word Choice and Word Order 356
Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes 358
Kay Ryan, Blandeur 360
Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid 361
Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment 362
Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts 363
For Review and Further Study 364
E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town 364
Anonymous, Carnation Milk 365
Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky 365
Writing Critically 367
How Much Difference Does a Word Make? 367
Writing Assignment 367
Further Suggestions for Writing 367
12.	Saying and Suggesting 368
John Masefield, Cargoes 369
William Blake, London 370
Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock 372
Timothy Steele, Epitaph 373
Robert Frost, Fire and Ice 373
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears 374
Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights - Wild Nights! 374
Writing Critically 375
The Ways a Poem Suggests 375
Writing Assignment 375
Further Suggestions for Writing 375
13.	Imagery 377
Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro 377
Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel 377
T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down 379
Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar 379
Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish 380
Charles Simic, Fork 382
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty 383
About Haiku 383
Arakida Moritake, The falling flower 383
Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak 384
Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool 384
Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell 385
Taniguchi Buson, I go 385
Kobayashi Issa, only one guy 385
Kobayashi Issa, Cricket 385
Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, A Selection of Haiku 385
For Review and Further Study 386
John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art 386
T. E. Hulme, Image 386
Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 387
Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning 387
Writing Critically 387
Analyzing Images 387
Writing Assignment 388
Further Suggestions for Writing 388
14.	Figures of Speech 389
Why Speak Figuratively? 389
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle 390
William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? 390
Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? 391
Metaphor and Simile 392
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall 393
William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand 394
Sylvia Plath, Metaphors 394
N. Scott Momaday, Simile 395
Other Figures 396
James Stephens, The Wind 397
Margaret Atwood, You fit into me 399
John Ashbery, The Cathedral Is 399
For Review and Further Study 399
Denise Levertov, Leaving Forever 399
Jane Kenyon, The Suitor 400
Robert Frost, The Secret Sits 400
A. R. Ammons, Coward 401
Writing Critically 401
How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning 401
Writing Assignment 402
Further Suggestions for Writing 402
15.	Sound 403
Sound as Meaning 403
Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance 404
William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? 406
John Updike, Recital 407
Alliteration and Assonance 407
A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock 408
Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice 409
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls 409
Rime 410
William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga 411
Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus 413
Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur 414
Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud 415
Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane 416
William Shakespeare, Full fathom five thy father lies 416
Writing Critically 417
Is it Possible to Write about Sound? 414
Writing Assignment 417
Further Suggestions for Writing 417
16.	Rhythm 418
Stresses and Pauses 418
Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool 423
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break 423
Meter 424
Max Beerbohm, On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm 424
Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme 430
A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty 430
Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! 431
David Mason, Song of the Powers 432
Writing Critically 433
Freeze-Framing the Sound 433
Writing Assignment 433
Further Suggestions for Writing 433
17.	Closed Form 435
Formal Patterns 436
John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable 437
Robert Graves, Counting the Beats 439
Ballads 440
Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan 440
Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham 443
The Sonnet 444
William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds 445
Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why 445
Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night 446
Claude McKay, America 447
Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You 447
R. S. Gwynn, Scenes from the Playroom 448
Other Forms 448
Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night 449
Robert Bridges, Triolet 450
Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina 450
Writing Critically 451
Turning Points 451
Writing Assignment 452
Further Suggestions for Writing 452
18.	Open Form 453
Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway 453
E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's 457
W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death 457
Stephen Crane, The Heart 458
Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford 458
Ezra Pound, The Garret 459
Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 459
Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse 462
E. E. Cummings, in Just- 462
Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red 463
Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover 463
Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It 464
Langston Hughes, I, Too 465
Writing Critically 465
Lining Up for Free Verse 465
Writing Assignment 466
Further Suggestions for Writing 466
19.	Symbol 467
T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript 468
Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork 469
Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones 471
Matthew 13:24-30, The Parable of the Good Seed 472
George Herbert, The World 473
Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken 474
Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar 475
For Review and Further Study 475
Robinson Jeffers, The Beaks of Eagles 475
Sara Teasdale, The Flight 476
Ted Koosor, Carrie 477
Writing Critically 477
How to Read a Symbol 477
Writing Assignment 478
Further Suggestions for Writing 478
20.	Myth and Narrative 479
Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay 481
Thomas Hardy, The Oxen 481
H. D., Helen 481
William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us 482
Archetype 483
Louise Bogan, Medusa 484
Myth and Popular Culture 485
Anne Sexton, Cinderella 486
Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus 489
Writing Critically 492
Demystifying Myth 492
Writing Assignment 493
Further Suggestions for Writing 493
21.	Poems for Further Reading 494
Sherman Alexie, Indian Boy Love Song (#1) 494
Anonymous, Lord Randall 495
Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach 496
W. H. Auden, MusÄe des Beaux Arts 497
Elizabeth Bishop, On

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Literature -- Collections.