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Table of Contents SECTION I - TODAY'S FOOD SCENE 1. Our Daily Bread 2. Food Safety SECTION II - FOOD PREPARATION 3. Factors in Food Preparation 4. Vegetables 5. Fruits 6. Salads and Salad Dressings 7. Fats and Oils 8. Carbohydrates: Sugar Cookery 9. Carbohydrates: Starches and Cereal Cookery 10. Proteins: Milk and Cheese 11. Proteins: Meats, Poultry, and Fish 12. Proteins: Eggs 13. Leavening Agents 14. Basics of Batters and Doughs 15. Breads - Quick and Yeast 16. Cakes, Cookies, and Pastries 17. Beverages 18. Preserving Food SECTION III - FOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFE 19. Nutrition and Food 20. Menu Planning and Preparation 21. Meal Service and Hospitality Appendix A. Measuring and Metrics Appendix B. Some Food Additives Appendix C. Glossary Index SECTION I - TODAY'S FOOD SCENE 1. Our Daily Bread Key Concepts Food patterns Dining venues Cultural Accent - Foreign Flavors Food choices Impact on health Determinants of Palatability Aroma Taste Science Note - Anatomy of Flavor Color Texture Overall appearance/presentation Challenges for Food Professionals Industry Insight- Food for Health Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 2. Food Safety Key Concepts Why the Concern? Industry Insight - HACCP Maintaining Food Safely The food handler Kitchen sanitation Storage conditions and practices Control of Food Waste Short term Long term Potential Microorganisms in Foods Sources and control of microorganisms Types of microorganisms Science Note - pH, Temperature, Osmosis Food-borne Illnesses Bacterial poisoning Cultural Accent - Soy Sauce Viral poisoning Industry Insight- TSP Parasites Chemicals Contaminants in fish Additives What are additives? Why are additives used? How are additives categorized? Incidental contaminants Natural Toxicants Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References SECTION II - FOOD PREPARATION 3. Factors in Food Preparation Key Concepts Basic Equipment Preparation equipment Industry Insight - Cutlery Cooking equipment Cultural Accent - Woks to Omelet Pans Safety in the Kitchen Temperatures in Food Preparation Freezing temperatures Intermediate temperatures Boiling temperatures Frying temperatures Thermometers Principles of Heating Foods Conduction Convection Radiation Science Note - Heating by Microwaves Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 4. Vegetables Key Concepts Classification Structure Science Note - Structure of Plant Foods Nutrient Content Survey of Vegetables Industry Insight - Biotechnology Harvesting and Marketing Selection Fresh vegetables Cultural Accent - Chili Peppers Frozen and canned vegetables Storage Vegetables in Menu Planning Factors in Vegetable Cookery Nutritional factors Texture Color Science Note - Pigments Flavor Preparation Procedures for Fresh Vegetables Preliminary steps Boiling Steaming Simmering Broiling Baking Frying Stir-frying or panning Other techniques Preparing Canned and Frozen Vegetables Canned vegetables Frozen vegetables Adding Interest Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 5. Fruits Key Concepts Classification Industry Insight - Products and Byproducts Composition of Fruits Pigments Nutritive Value Marketing Aspects Selection Fresh fruits Cultural Accent - Choices from Afar Canned and frozen fruits Dried fruits Storage in the Home Preparation Raw fruits Simmered fruits Science Note - Osmotic Pressure Other preparation procedures Preparation using canned and frozen fruits Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 6. Salads and Salad Dressings Key Concepts The Nutritional Perspective Planning Salads Role in the meal Arrangement and shape Color Flavor Cultural Accent - Parsley, Italian Parsley, or Cilantro? Texture Types of Salads Fruit salads Vegetable salads Gelatin salads High-protein salads Garnishes Principles of Preparation Washing Handling of greens Science Note - Turgor Gelatin salads Science Note - Gelatin Gels Serving Salads Salad Dressings Temporary emulsion Semi-permanent emulsion Permanent emulsion Science Note - "Safe" Mayonnaise Cooked salad dressings Varying salad dressings Evaluating salad dressings Industry Insight - Diet Salad Dressing Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 7. Fats and Oils Key Concepts Controversial Ingredients Types of Fats and Oils Lard Butter Cultural Accent - Ghee Margarine Whipped spreads Shortenings Salad oils Cooking sprays Science Note - Chemistry of Fats Technology of Fats Origin of the fat Rendering Refining Hydrogenating Blending and tempering Winterizing Science Note - Fat Crystals Storing Fats Selecting Fats Spreads Frying Salad dressings Baked products Industry Insight - Fat Substitutes Functions in Food Preparation Palatability Textural influences Cooking medium Performance of Fats in Food Preparation Shortening value Frying Science Note - Chemical Changes in Fats Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 8. Carbohydrates: Sugar Cookery Key Concepts Introducing the Carbohydrates Sugars in the Marketplace Granulated sugar Frosting sugar Confectioner's sugar Raw sugar Brown sugar Maple sugar and syrup Molasses Corn syrup Honey Other sweeteners Industry Insight - Fructooligosaccharides Sweetening Power Science Note - Mono- and Disaccharides Reactions of Sugar Hydrolysis Caramelization Science Note - Caramelization Reactions Types of Candies Crystalline candies Science Note - Saturated and Supersaturated Solutions Amorphous candies Cultural Accent - Turkish Delight Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References Chapter 9. Carbohydrates: Starches and Cereal Cookery Key Concepts Starch, A Key Polysaccharide Sources Starch in food preparation Dextrinization Gelatinization Science Note - A Chemical and Physical Portrait Factors influencing properties Science Note - Chemical Degradation Starch gels Industry Insight - Freeze-Thaw Stability Starch products Starch Cookery White sauces Gravies Cream soups Cornstarch puddings Cereals Cereals in the diet Grain structure Nutritional contribution Commercial processing Corn and barley Rice Science Note - Characteristics of Rice Grains Cultural Accent - Mochi Wheat Other grains Storage Preparation of cereals Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 10. Proteins: Milk and Cheese Key Concepts Introduction Cultural Accent - Exotic Sources Nutritional Value of Milk Keeping Milk Safe Storage of Milk and Cream Modifying Milk Homogenization Fortification Milk Products Fluid milks Canned milks Dry milks Creams Frozen milk products Imitation milk and whiteners Inspection and Grading Problems in Milk Cookery Science Note - Proteins and Denaturation Scum formation Scorching Curdling Science Note - pH and Protein Denaturation Clotting of milk Dairy Foams Whipped cream Evaporated milk foams Nonfat dried milk foams Ice Creams and Other Frozen Desserts Crystallization Ingredients and their influence Other factors Evaluation and selection Cheeses Origins and applications Types of cheese Natural cheese Process cheese Cheese cookery Industry Insight - Whey Products Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 11. Proteins: Meats, Poultry, and Fish Key Concepts Meats Definition of meats Muscle Connective tissue Science Note - Collagen and Gelatin Fat Nutritional contributions Preparing meat for the market Industry Insights - High Tech and Cattle Cultural Accents - Kobe Beef Inspection Grading Selection and care Selecting an appropriate cookery method Dry heat methods Moist heat method Poultry Classification Shopping for Poultry Storage Cookery Fish Kinds of fish Inspection and grading Selection and care Fish cookery Soy Protein Products Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 12.Eggs Key Concepts Introduction Industry Insights - Unique Options Nutritive Value Structure Selection and Storage Deteriorative changes Grading Weight classes Designer Eggs Alternative to Fresh Eggs Frozen eggs Dried eggs Egg substitutes Storage Egg Cookery Functional roles Science Notes - Factors Influencing Denaturation Science Note - Egg Foams In the shell Out of the shell Custards Cream puddings and pies Cultural Accents -- Quiche Meringues Fluffy omelets SoufflÄs Foam cakes Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 13. Leavening Agents Key Concepts Overview Air Amount of manipulation Viscosity of the batter Nature of the ingredients Bench time Steam Carbon Dioxide Biological agents Chemical agents Science Note - Baking Powders Commercial leavening agents Industry Insight - Acid Salts for Bakers Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 14. Basics of Batters and Doughs Key Concepts Introducing Flour Mixtures Wheat Flour Milling Bleaching and maturing Enrichment Types of flour Use of flour in baked products Science Note - Flour Proteins and Lipids Cultural Accents - Rice Paper Functions of Other Ingredients Eggs Sugar Salt Leavening agents Liquids Fats and oils Industry Insights - Using Alternatives Mixing Techniques Baking Treatment Following Baking Industry Insights - Anti-staling Enzyme Adjustments to Altitude Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 15. Breads - Quick and Yeast Key Concepts The World of Bread Quick Breads Ingredients for variety Comparison of quick breads Science Note - Flour/Liquid Ratios Muffins Fruit and nut breads Biscuits Cake doughnuts Waffles and pancakes Popovers Cream puffs Cultural Accent -- Naan Yeast Breads Straight dough method Sponge method Rapidmix method Bread machines Factors in yeast quality Managing yeast bread preparation Industry Insights - Staling Sourdough Summary Study Question Into the Web Selected References 16. Cakes, Cookies, and Pastries Key Concepts "Short and Sweet" Cakes Foam cakes Shortened cakes Industry Insights - Bakery Blends Science Note - High Altitude Baking Cookies Pastry Ingredients Preparation Factors influencing tenderness Flakiness in pastry Evaluation of pies Cultural Accents -- Empanadas Puff pastry Mixes Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 17. Beverages Key Concepts The Symbol of Hospitality Coffee Production Constituents of coffee Science Note - Chemical Constituents in Beverages Selecting coffee Preparing the beverage Evaluating coffee Cultural Accent - La Dolca Vita Iced coffee Tea Types of tea Preparing the beverage Cultural Accent - Japanese Tea Ceremony Evaluating tea Iced tea Instant tea Herb teas Cocoa and Chocolate Processing of cocoa and chocolate Preparing the beverage Substitutions Industry Insight - Quenching Thirst Fruit Beverages Alcoholic Beverages Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 18. Preserving Food Key Concepts Rationale Preservation Methods Canning Science Note - Acidity and Canning Methods Freezing Preserving with sugar Science Note - The Pectic Substances Drying Cultural Insight - Pemmican Irradiation Industry Insight - Commercial Approaches High Pressure Processing Summary Selected References Study Questions SECTION III - FOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFE 19. Nutrition and Food Key Concepts Nutrition, the Ultimate Application of Food Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Minerals Vitamins Dietary Reference Intakes Achieving Good Nutrition The Food Guide Pyramid Cultural Accent - The Food Guide Pagoda Buying good nutrition Industry Insight - Nutritional Claims Science Note - Trans Fatty Acids Retaining the nutrients in food Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 20. Menu Planning and Meal Preparation Key Concepts Putting It Together Planning for good nutrition Sensory aspects of meal planning Cultural Accent - Blending Cuisines Energy Management Human energy Appliances Managing Costs Planning The shopping list Industry Insight - Ingredients for Customers Consumer aids Comparison shopping Time Management Managing Leftovers Preplanning Care of leftovers Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References 21. Meal Service and Hospitality Key Concepts A Matter of Aesthetics and Hospitality Table Appointments Linens Centerpieces Flatware Dishes Glassware Setting the Table Cultural Accent - West meets East Meal Service Table Etiquette Special Types of Hospitality Buffets Teas and coffees Summary Study Questions Into the Web Selected References Appendix A. Measuring and Metrics Appendix B. Some Food Additives Appendix C. Glossary Index
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