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TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: IKEA Introduction 1.2 Defining The Strategic Management Field 1.3 Phases to Global Strategy 1.3.1 Single-Country Strategy 1.3.2 Export Strategy 1.3.3 International Strategy 1.3.4 Global Strategy 1.4 International Strategy and Global Strategy: What is the deference? 1.5 Defining Global Strategic Management 1.6 Drivers for a Global Strategic Perspective 1.6.1 Macro Globalising Drivers Globalisation Information Communication Technology (ICT) 1.6.2 Industry Globalising Drivers Market Globalisation Drivers Cost Globalisation Drivers Government Globalisation Drivers Competitive Drivers 1.6.3 Internal Globalising Drivers Global orientation International experience 1.7 Organisation of the Book Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: The Starbucks Experience: Going Global References Websites CHAPTER TWO: GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT - THE EXTERNAL MACRO ENVIRONMENT Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: The World Trade Organisation, Sept 11. events and the Brazilian Embraer 2.1 Introduction 2.2 External Business Environment 2.3 PEST Analysis 2.4 The Political Environment 2.4.1 Global Political Institutions 2.4.2 Regional Integration 2.4.1 Global Political Institutions 2.4.4 Political Risk 2.5 The Economic Environment 2.5.1 Cost of Production 2.5.2 Currency Exchange Rates 2.5.3 Cost of Capital 2.6 The Social Environment 2.6.1 Social Change 2.6.2 Global Convergence 2.7 The Technological Environment 2.7.1 Global Technology Scanning and Technology Clusters 2.7.2 The Knowledge-Based Economy 2.7.3 The Spread of the Internet 2.8 National Environmental Influences and the Diamond Model 2.8.1 Factor Conditions 2.8.2 Demand Conditions 2.8.3 Related and Supporting Industries 2.8.4 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry 2.9 Criticisms of the Diamond Model 2.9.1 The Diamond Model for Small Nations 2.9.2 The Diamond Model and Globalisation 2.9.3 Response to Criticisms 2.10 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Lockheed Martin - From conquering Russia to conquering space References Websites CHAPTER THREE: GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT - THE INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: The rise of the internet and the fall of Boo.com 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Understanding and Adapting to Industry Environment 3.2.1 Market Segmentation Analysis 3.2.2 Strategic Group Analysis 3.3 The Five Forces Model 3.3.1 Barriers of Entry Capital Requirements. Economies of Scale Product Differentiation. Access to Distribution Channels. Government Policy. Expected Retaliation. 3.3.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers and Suppliers Buyer/Supplier Concentration. Buyer Switching Costs Product Differentiation. Price/Total Purchases. Threat of vertical integration. Buyer information. Impact on Quality/Performance. International expansion. 3.3.3 Threat of Substitutes 3.3.4 Rivalry Concentration. Diversity of Rivals. Product Differentiation and Switching Costs. Industry Growth Fixed Costs and Storage Costs. Exit Barriers. Excess Capacity. 3.4 Criticisms of the Five Forces Model 3.4.1 Static versus Dynamic Competition 3.4.2 Industry Profitability 3.4.3 Response to Criticisms 3.5 Industry Evolution 3.5.1. The Five Phases of International Product Life Cycle (IPLC) 3.5.2 Criticisms of the IPLC Model Duration of Life Cycles. Applicability of the Model in the Global Economy. Importance of Innovation. Non-Standard Industrial Products. 3.6 Forecasting the Future 3.6.1 Trend extrapolation 3.6.2 Delphi Survey 3.6.3 Scenario Analysis 3.6.4 Forecasting and The Challenge of Internationalisation 3.7 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: The Rise of Linux: The battle for the operating system (OS) market References Websites CHAPTER FOUR: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: Two crises influence the strategy of Royal Dutch/Shell 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Emergence of NGO-Business Relations 4.2.1 Emergence of a global economy 4.2.2 Linkages between political and economic institutions 4.2.3 Developments in global communications 4.3 Arguments on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 4.3.1 Companies and Profit-Maximisation 4.3.2 National differences and CSR 4.4 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Stakeholder View 4.4.1 Stakeholder View of the Firm 4.4.2 Stakeholder issues 4.4.3 Triple bottom line concept 4.5 Business Opportunities of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Stakeholder Involvement 4.5.1 Collaboration between business and NGOs 4.5.2 Benefits of NGO-business partnerships 4.5.3 From stakeholder involvement to profit-making 4.5.4 CSR without profits? 4.6 Stakeholder Analysis in the Global Business Environment 4.6.1 Stakeholder Mapping 4.6.2 Problems in Stakeholder Mapping 4.6.3 Who constructs stakeholder maps 4.6.4 Stakeholders and the Industry Environment 4.7 Identifying the Key Stakeholders of the Multinational firm 4.7.1 The primary stakeholders 4.7.2 The secondary stakeholders 4.7.3 Which stakeholders should the firm focus on? 4.7.4 Critique of stakeholder analysis 4.7.5 Issue analysis 4.7.6 From Strategic Analysis to Strategy Development 4.8 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Stakeholders and Suncor Energy Inc. work together to create value References Websites CHAPTER FIVE: GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT - THE INTERNAL FIRM ENVIRONMENT Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: Google.com 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The Positioning Perspective versus Resource-Based Perspective 5.2.1 The Positioning Perspective 5.2.2 The Resource-Based Perspective 5.2.3 Industry Profitability versus Firm Profitability 5.3 Analysing Firm Resources and Capabilities 5.3.1 Resources 5.3.2 Capabilities 5.3.3 Core Competencies 5.3.4 The VRIO Framework 5.3.5 Resources and Capabilities in Multinational Firms 5.4 Global Value Chains and Value Systems 5.4.1 Value Added 5.4.2 Value Chain Analysis 5.4.3 Value System Analysis 5.4.4 Value analysis and cost advantages 5.4.5 Value analysis and strategic linkages 5.4.6. Value analysis and global location decisions 5.5 Comparative Analysis 5.5.1 Competitor intelligence 5.5.2 Benchmarking 5.5.3 Internal Comparative Analysis 5.5.4 Comparative Analysis in Global Markets 5.6 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Outsourcing at F&C Management References Websites CHAPTER SIX: MANAGING THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS Learning Outcome Opening Case Study: The Internationalisation of Carrefour: Life the way we want it! 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Motives and The Decision to Internationalise 6.2.1 Organisational factors Decision-maker characteristics Firm-specific factors 6.2.2 Environmental factors Unsolicited proposals: The "bandwagon" effect Attractiveness of the host country 6.3 The Internationalisation Process 6.3.1 The Uppsala Mode 6.3.2 Limitations of the Uppsala Model 6.3.3 The Born Global Firm Characteristics of Born Global Firms 6.4. Entry Modes Strategies 6.4.1 Export 6.4.2 Licensing 6.4.3 International Franchising 6.4.4 Wholly-Owned Ventures The Greenfield Strategy The Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) Strategy 6.4.5 Entry Modes and Risk Versus Control 6.5 De-internationalization 6.6 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Case Study: Marks and Spencer's Exit from France References Websites CHAPTER SEVEN:INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES: PARTNERSHIP AND CO-OPERATION Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: American and British law firms try to work smarter by working together 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Concept of International Strategic Alliances 7.3 International Strategic Alliances: Drivers, Needs, Motives and Pitfalls 7.3.1 Drivers of International Strategic Alliances Formation Globalisation Firm and industry specific factors 7.3.2 Motives for International Strategic Alliances 7.3.3 Pitfalls of International Strategic Alliances 7.4 Types of Alliances 7.4.1 Vertical Relationship 7.4.2 Horizontal Relationship 7.5 Selecting and Managing Partners 7.5.1 Partner Selection Criteria 7.5.2 International Strategic Alliances and Fit Strategic fit Operational fit Cultural Fit 7.5.3 Strategic Alliances in Emerging Economies 7.6 International Strategic Alliances - Balancing Trust and Risks 7.7 End Game: Alliance Dissolution 7.8 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Proteome Systems - Dancing with the Big Pharmas References Websites CHAPTER EIGHT: THE SUBSIDIARY-LEVEL STRATEGY Learning Outcomes Opening case Study: Global E-Biz Mishmash - To standardise or not Standardise 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Global Strategy Levels 8.3 Subsidiaries Strategic Role 8.4 Types of subsidiary Level Strategies 8.4.1 Support and Implementation Advantages of Support and Implementation Role Strategy 8.4.2 Mini-Replica Role Advantages and Disadvantages of Mini Replica Strategy 8.4.3 Global Product Mandate Advantages and Disadvantage of Global Product Mandate 8.5 Global Generic Strategies 8.5.1 Cost Leadership Strategy The Cost Leadership Strategy and the Subsidiary-Headquarter Relationship 8.5.2 Differentiation Strategy Differentiation Strategy and Subsidiary - Headquarter Relationship 8.5.3 Focused Low-Cost Strategy Focused Low-Cost Strategy and Subsidiary -Headquarter Relationship 8.5.4 Focus Differentiation Strategy Focused Differentiation Strategy and Subsidiary -Headquarter Relationship 8.5.5 Integrated Strategy or "Stuck in the Middle" 8.6 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Vive la difference References Websites CHAPTER NINE: HEADQUARTER-LEVEL STRATEGY Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: The House of Tata 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The Role of The Corporate Parent 9.3 Global Sourcing Strategies 9.3.1 Vertical Integration Motives for Vertical Integration Disadvantages of Vertical Integration 9.3.2 Outsourcing Conditions of Outsourcing Types of Outsourcing Advantages of Outsourcing Disadvantages of Outsourcing 9.4 Diversification Strategies 9.4.1 Industrial Diversification Types of industrial diversification Risks and Pitfalls of Diversification Diversification in Emerging Economies 9.4.2 Global Diversification Related and Unrelated Global Diversification Benefits of global diversification Costs of global diversification 9.4 Managing Global Portfolios 9.5.1 The Roles of Corporate Parent 9.5.2 Managing Global Portfolios 9.5 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Lufthansa's Diversification Strategy References Websites CHAPTER TEN: GLOBAL STRUCTURES AND DESIGN Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: Al-Qaeda 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Domestic Organisational Structures 10.3 Strategy and Structure of Multinationals 10.4.1 Functional Structures 10.4.2 International Division Structure 10.4. 3 Area or Geography Divisions Structures 10.4.4 Product Divisions Structure 10.4.5 The Matrix Structure 10.5 Balancing Integrations and Local Responsiveness: Broad Forms of International Strategy 10.5.1 Export firm 10.5.2 The Multi-domestic firm Organisational structures to support a multi-domestic strategy 10.5.3 The Colonial firm Organisational structures to support a colonial strategy 10.5.4 The Transnational firm Organisational structures to support a transnational strategy 10.6 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: Restructuring Sony References Websites CHAPTER ELEVEN: GLOBAL MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: Minebea and Rose 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Types of Change 11.2.1 Incremental Change 11.2.2 Transformational Change 11.2.3 Type of Changes And national Cultures 11.3 People Involved in The Change Process 11.3.1 The Change Agent 11.3.2 The Role of Subordinate and subsidiary Managers 11.4 The Change Process 11.4.1 A model of The Change Process 11.4.2 Peoples' Reaction to Change 11.5 Appropriate Change Management Styles 11.6 Implementing Change 11.6.1 Project Teams 11.6.2 Moving People 11.6.3 Expatriates 11.7 Communication Issues 11.7.1 Difficulties in Discussing Change Issues 11.7.2 Role of Language 11.7.3 Business Implications 11.7.4 Overcoming Language Problems 11.8 Negotiation With Outside Parties 11.9 Summary Recommended Key Readings Discussion Questions Closing Case Study: ARM Ltd. References Websites CHAPTER TWELVE: GLOBAL STRATEGIC CONTROL Learning Outcomes Opening Case Study: Korean Multinationals- Samsung and GoldStar: Contrasts in control 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Types of Strategic Control System 12.2.1 Assumption control 12.2.2 Surveillance control 12.2.3 Climate control 12.2.4 Implementation control 12.2.5 Operational control 12.2.6 Crisis control 12.3 A model of Control 12.3.1 A simple model of control 12.3.2 A fuller model of control 12.4 Methods of Control 12.4.1 Control through outputs The characteristics of a good strategic objective 12.4.2 Control through process Unstructured activities 12.4.3 Control through inputs The role of culture Visions and missions 12.5 Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Key Readings Closing Case Study: Sappron References Exhibits Exhibit 1.1: Strategic management steps Exhibit 1.2: Single Country, Export and International and Global Strategies Exhibit 1.3: The Three Dimensions of Corporate Globality Exhibit 1.4: Drivers for a Global Strategy Perspective Exhibit 1.5: Number of Regional Trade Agreements 1948-2002 Exhibit 1.6: Global Corporations: National Regulation & Global Corporation Investment 1991- 1997 Exhibit 2.1: Elements of Environmental Analysis Exhibit 2.2: Summary of key PEST factors in Global Strategic Management Exhibit 2.3: The Most Important Global Economic Institutions Exhibit 2.4: Important Regional Economic Blocks Exhibit 2.5 Diamond model Exhibit 2.6: The Diamond Model and the Japanese Video Game Industry Exhibit 3.1 Strategic Groups in the Food Processing Industry Exhibit 3.2 Five Forces Model Exhibit 3.3: The Five Forces Model and Amazon.com Exhibit 3.4: The International Product Life Cycle Exhibit 3.5: The International Product Life Cycle and TV Manufacturing Exhibit 4.1: Different views of Corporate Social Responsibility Exhibit 4.2: Generic Stakeholder Map of a Multinational firm Exhibit 4.3: Drivers and Constraints of NGO-Business Partnerships Exhibit 4.4: Specific Stakeholders for Shell in Nigeria in 1995 Exhibit 4.5: Four Forces in the Industry Environment Exhibit 4.6: Four Forces Model Applied to the Sports Shoe Industry Exhibit 4.7: Example of Cross-impact Analysis Exhibit 4.8: A Six-Step Process For "FOSTERing" Stakeholder Relationships Exhibit 5.1: Core Competencies and Competitiveness Exhibit 5.2: VIRO Framework Exhibit 5.3: Link Between Subsidiary Resource and International Firm's Competitive Advantage Exhibit 5.4: Global Sourcing in the Clothing Industry Exhibit 5.5: The Product Value of South African Peaches Exhibit 5.6: The Value Chain Exhibit 5.7: The Value System Exhibit 5.8: The changing distribution of value added in four industries Exhibit 5.9: Value-Added Chain of Comparative Advantage Exhibit 5.10: Intelligence Onion Exhibit 5.11: 10 Step Benchmarking Process Exhibit 6.1: Motives for the decision to internationalise Exhibit 6.2: The Uppsala Model Exhibit 6.3: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Different Modes of Entry Exhibit 6.4: Modes of Entry and Control vs Risk Exhibit 7.1: Drivers of International Strategic Alliances Formation Exhibit 7.2: Pitfalls of International Strategic Alliances Exhibit 7.3: Types of International Strategic Alliances: Vertical and Horizontal Alliances Exhibit 7.4: The four Cs when selecting a strategic alliance partner Exhibit 7.5: Managing Strategic Alliances Risks Exhibit 8.1: Level of Global Strategy Exhibit 8.2: Generic Strategies and Examples Exhibit 8.3: Skoda from the Joke of customers to a respected low cost car Exhibit 8.4: Generic Strategies and Headquarter - Subsidiary Support Exhibit 9.1: Roles of Corporate Parents Exhibit 9.2: Outsourcing Strategies Exhibit 9.3: Diversification Strategies Exhibit 9.4: Three tests for judging a diversification move Exhibit 9.5: The eight synergy killers Exhibit 9.6: Six criteria that firms should use to select an industry to diversify into Exhibit 9.7: A Global Market Portfolio Matrix Exhibit 10.1: Domestic Structures Exhibit 10.2: Functional Structure Exhibit 10.3: International Divisional Structure Exhibit 10.4: Geographical Structure Exhibit 10.5: Product Structure Exhibit 10.6: Matrix Structure Exhibit 10.7: International Configurations Exhibit 10.8: Export Structure Exhibit 10.9: The Holding Company Structure Exhibit 10.10: A Network Structure Exhibit 11.1: Differences between Incremental and Transformational Change Exhibit 11.2: The Requirement of a Change Agent Exhibit 11.3: The Coping Cycle Exhibit 11.4: Change Management Styles Exhibit 12.1: Types of Strategic Control System Exhibit 12.2: Example of Assumption Control Exhibit 12.3: Characteristics of Strategic Control Exhibit 12.4: A Simple Model of a Control System Exhibit 12.5: A Model of a Parent-subsidiary Control System Exhibit 12.6: Characteristics of the 3 control methods Exhibit 12.7: Characteristics of the Financial Control and Strategic Planning Styles Exhibit 12.8: The Characteristics of a Good Objective Exhibit 12.9: Purpose of Matsushita Electric
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
International business enterprises -- Management.
International business enterprises -- Case studies.
International economic relations.