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CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT · xxi FOREWORD · xxiii INTRODUCTION · xxix CHAPTER ONE · 1 NOBODY CAN STOP IT CHAPTER TWO · 23 AN ADVOCATE'S SUMMING UP CHAPTER THREE · 41 THE EXTENT OF THE CONSPIRACY CHAPTER FOUR · 87 CRUDE, DANGEROUS, AND INACCURATE CHAPTER FIVE · 101 A SOUND ALL OVER CHAPTER SIX · 113 THE MAGIC BULLET CHAPTER SEVEN · 145 NO SIGNS OF DISTRESS CHAPTER EIGHT · 157 THE LAWS OF PHYSICS VACATED CHAPTER NINE · 177 POOR DAMN COP CHAPTER TEN · 183 BUNGLED AUTOPSY CHAPTER ELEVEN · 219 A PUFF OF SMOKE CHAPTER TWELVE · 239 THE CONSPIRACY MYTH: "I'M JUST A PATSY" APPENDIX A · 253 RUMORS DISPELLED BY THE WARREN COMMISSION APPENDIX B · 261 RETARDATION AND DEFORMATION OF BULLETS APPENDIX C · 275 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPENDIX D · 297 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM AND ENERGY APPENDIX E · 301 "STARTLE" AND "JIGGLE" ANALYSIS LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. 43 Sketch of the Trajectory of the "Magic Bullet" presented by Robert Groden on the First Day of Public Hearings by the House of Representatives. (National Archives) FIGURE 2. 47 Dox Drawing of the Wound at the Base of President Kennedy's Neck with an Inserted Enlargement of the Actual Photograph of the Entry Wound. (National Archives/John Hunt) FIGURE 3. 48 Drawing of the Method of Production and Final Appearance of the Abrasion Collar Produced by Normal Impact (F-23) and Oblique Impact (F-24). (National Archives) FIGURE 4. 50 "Stretcher Bullet," CE 399, Goat Rib Shot Bullet, CE 853, and Two Bullets Recovered in Cotton Waste by the FBI to Use as Standards. (National Archives) FIGURE 5. 59 Front and Back of the "Backyard" Photograph that Lee Oswald Gave to his Friend George de Mohrenschildt, Dated April 5 or May 4, 1963. (National Archives) FIGURE 6. 73 Echo Correlation Table with Dr. Barger's Handwritten Numbers Showing the Four, One-Second Time Intervals. The Third Was Linked to a Shot from the "Grassy Knoll." (National Archives) FIGURE 7. 90 Gunner Donald Smith Firing the Oswald Rifle in the Biophysics Division Tests at Edgewood Arsenal in May 1964. (Biophysics Division, EA/L. M Sturdivan) FIGURE 8. 90 Close-up of the Oswald Rifle and 4-Power Scope, Showing No Apparent Damage to the Scope. (Biophysics Division, EA/L. M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 9. 92 Pre-Shot Photograph of Skull from Biophysics Tests, Showing the Aim Point Given by the Warren Commission as the Entrance Location. (Biophysics Division, EA/L. M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 10. 95 Comparison of Engraving on FBI Test Bullet and Bullet Fragments, CE 567 and CE 569, Found in the Front Seat and Front Floorboard of the President's Limousine. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 11. 96 Comparison of Engraving on FBI Test Bullet and Bullet, CE 399, Found After Falling From a Stretcher in Parkland Hospital. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 12. 97 Comparison of Base Markings on FBI Test Cartridge and One of the Three M-C Cartridges Found on the Floor of the "Sniper's Nest" on the Sixth Floor of the Book Depository Building. (National Archives) FIGURE 13. 103 Spark Shadowgraph of a Western Cartridge Company Bullet, made for the Mannlicher-Carcano Rifle, Showing the Shock Wave. (National Archives/ Modified) FIGURE 14. 105 Direction from Which the Shot Appears to Have Originated, as Detected by Hearing the Shock Wave from a Supersonic Bullet. (National Archives/ Modified) FIGURE 15. 107 Directional Perception from the Shock Wave of the Bullet and the Blast Wave from the Weapon (notation added). (National Archives) FIGURE 16. 115 Photograph of the Western Cartridge Company Bullet, Made for the Mannlicher-Carcano Rifle, with the US 5.56 mm M193 Bullet for Comparison. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 17. 117 Representation of the Yaw Angle of a Bullet. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 18. 118 Bullet and Bone Deformation Regions for the Bullet Made for the Mannlicher-Carcano Rifle by the Western Cartridge Company (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 19. 119 The "Stretcher" Bullet, CE 399, Compared to the Goat Bullet, CE 853, and a WCC/MC Bullet Recovered from a Gelatin Block. (National Archives and Biophysics Division, EA and Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 20. 120 Broken WCC/MC Bullets Recovered from Biophysics Division Skull Shots, Compared to WCC/MC Bullet from Gelatin Test and an Unfired Bullet. (Biophysics Division, EA and Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 21. 121 Bullet Fragments Recovered from Front Seat and Front Floorboard of the President's Limousine. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 22. 122 Picture from the Warren Commission Reenactment of the Assassination Scene. (National Archives) FIGURE 23. 124 Gelatin Block with a Permanent Track from a 7.62 mm M80 Bullet, Which Deforms and Breaks Up; 10 Meters Range. (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 24. 124 7.62 mm Military Bullet (M80), Deformed and Broken in Gelatin Tissue Stimulant at 100 Meters Range. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 25. 127 Permanent Tracks of the WCC/MC Bullet Fired Directly into Gelatin Block A (Near Zero Yaw) and into Block B After Having Passed Through a Simulated "Neck" (with Large Striking Yaw). (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 26. 128 M-C Bullets Recovered from Biophysics Division Wrist Simulation Firings, Fired into Two Types of Wrist Bone, Using the Oswald Rifle. (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 27. 129 X-Rays of Shattered Wrists, Governor Connally's Versus Experimental Shots from the Biophysics Tests. (Biophysics Division, EA/Dale Myers) FIGURE 28. 137 Abrasion Collar Produced by a Yawing Bullet with an Exaggerated Illustration of the Bullet's Yawing Motion. (National Archives) FIGURE 29. 140 Circle of Probable Error on the Sniper's Nest Window in the Texas School Book Depository Building, from Dale Myers' Backward Extrapolation of the Shot Through the Two Men. (© 1995-2004 Dale K. Myers. All Rights Reserved) FIGURE 30. 141 Dale Myers' Reconstruction of the Trajectory of CE 399 Through President Kennedy and Governor Connally. (© 1995-2004 Dale K. Myers. All Rights Reserved) FIGURE 31. 153 Track of the President's Neck Wound as Established by the House Forensic Pathology Panel. (National Archives) FIGURE 32. 155 Temporary Cavity from a High-Speed Movie of a 5.56 mm M193 Military Bullet Penetrating Gelatin Tissue Simulant (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 33. 161 Sequence from the High-Speed Movie of One of the Biophysics Division Skull Shots, using the Oswald Rifle. (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 34. 164 Sequence from a High-Speed Movie of a Shot to the Head of an Anesthetized Goat, Showing an Intense Neuromuscular Spasm Similar to the President's. (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 35. 167 Robert Capa Picture of a Casualty in the Spanish Civil War, 1936. (Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos) FIGURE 36. 170 Still Photograph of an Experimental Skull after Being Struck by the Bullet from the Oswald Rifle, after Loose Flaps of Bone and Gelatin "Scalp" were Removed. (Biophysics Division, EA/ Dale Myers) FIGURE 37. 170 All Fragments of an Experimental Skull, with the Gelatin Melted Away by Hot Water. (Biophysics Division, EA/ Dale Myers) FIGURE 38. 171 X-rays Comparing JFK Skull (top) to Experimental Skull. (Note Lead Fragments Deposited After the Jacket Ruptured.) (Biophysics Division, EA/ Dale Myers & National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 39. 174 Dox Drawing of Brain Wound from Photograph, Showing Nearly Intact Cerebellum and Severely Injured Right Cerebrum. Gutter Wound Extends from Tip of Occipital Lobe to Tip of Frontal Lobe. (National Archives) FIGURE 40. 179 Split-view Photographs of Cartridge Cases Found at Tippit Murder Scene, Compared to Test Cartridges Fired by the FBI from the Handgun in Oswald's Possession at the Time of His Arrest. (National Archives) FIGURE 41. 188 Dox Drawing of the Forensic Pathology Panel's "Cowlick" Entry Wound to the Back ot the President's Head. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 42. 189 Dox Drawing of the Path of the Bullet in the Fatal Skull Shot, Established by the Fpp, Representing the Explosive Post-Shot Rupture. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 43. 190 Autopsy X-ray of JFK Skull, Front-to-Back View, with Disk-like Object Indicated. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 44. 193 The Lower Portion of the Exit Wound in the Frontal Bone (at the arrow), as Identified by the HSCA Forensic Pathology Panel. (From an Enlargement of a Section of one of the Autopsy Photographs.) (Web/ John Hunt) FIGURE 45. 194 The "Cratering" of the Back Surface of a Skull or Other Brittle Material when Struck by a Projectile (WCC/MC Bullet Pictured). (National Archives) FIGURE 46. 195 Photograph of a Skull with the Location of the Entry Crater in the President's Skull Marked by Dr. Pierre Finck for the HSCA Forensic Pathology Panel. (Annotations added). (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 47. 196 Complete Copy of the Only Interior View in the Autopsy Photographs, Showing the Entry Wound in the Inner Table of the Skull. (Annotations added). (Web/ John Hunt) FIGURE 48. 200 Picture of Skull with Approximate Location of Purported Impact Points Marked: HSCA Entry (upper) and Autopsy Entry (lower). (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 49. 200 Autopsy Photograph Superimposed on the Skull with the Entry Wound Projected to the "Autopsy" Location Near the EOP. (Larry M. Sturdivan/ Christopher Sturdivan) FIGURE 50. 201 Autopsy Photograph Superimposed on a Human Skull with the Entry Projected to the Forensic Pathology Panel's "Cowlick" Location. (Larry M. Sturdivan/ Christopher Sturdivan) FIGURE 51. 202 Bullet Entry on One of the SKulls in the Biophysics Tests. Pencil Spot Indicates Aim Point. (Biophysics Division, EA) FIGURE 52. 204 Dr. Robert Grossman's Sketch of the JFK Entry Wound. (Reprinted, by permission, from Neurosurgery, November 2003) FIGURE 53. 205 Warren Commission Drawing, CE 388, Made to Illustrate the Fatal JFK Head Injury. (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 54. 208 Sketch of the JFK Head Wound with Curved Trajectory of the Bullet. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 55. 212 Illustration of Bullet Exit Wounds through Skin; Unconstrained and Constrained by Snug Clothing. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 56. 213 Entrance and Exit Holes through Goat Skin from the Biophysics Neck Shot Simulations. (Biophysics Division, EA/ Dale Myers) FIGURE 57. 213 Dox Drawing from the Photograph of the Tracheostomy in the President's Throat. (National Archives) FIGURE 58. 215 Croft Photograph of the Presidential Limousine, Showing the Position of the President's Coat Shortly Before the Second Shot (First Hit). (National Archives/ John Hunt) FIGURE 59. 220 Picture of the Village of King's Somborne in Rural England, with "London Fog" from Soft Coal Fires. (Larry M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 60. 229 Dr. William Hartmann's Sketch of Startle Reactions in Pencil Lines Drawn at the Time of Rifle Shots in Dealy Plaza During the Reenactment for the Acoustic Tests. (William Hartmann/ L. M. Sturdivan) FIGURE 61. 231 "Jiggle Plot" from the Zapruder Movie, Prepared by Wm. Hartmann for the HSCA, Extending the Pioneering Effort by Louis Alvarez. (National Archives) FIGURE 62. 236 Hartmann's, Scotts', and Alvarez' "Jiggle" Peaks Plotted on the Same Graph. (National Archives) FIGURE C1. 281 N-Plot of Guinn's Measurements of Antimony Levels in 14 WCC/MC Bullets FIGURE C2. 281 N-Plot of Guinn's 14 Antimony Measurements on the Natural Log Scale FIGURE C3. 294 Raw Values of Antimony Concentration as a Function of Sample Weight FIGURE C4. 295 Antimony Concentration versus Weight on Natural Log Scales FIGURE E1. 309 Frame-by-frame Plot of the Blur in the Zapruder File, as a Percent of the Whole Frame. Prepared by Dr. William Harmann for the House Select Committee on Assassinations. FIGURE E2. 310 Normal Plot of Zapruder's Normal Tracking Adjustment Peaks FIGURE E3. 310 Normal Plot of the 18 Normal Peaks Plus the Lowest Startle Peak LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. 144 Number of Shots Reported TABLE II. 148 Approximate Velocities At Which Western Cartridge Co./MC bullets and Bones Will Be Deformed TABLE III. 174 Probable Velocity and Orientation of CE 399 at Various Points Along Its Trajectory TABLE B1. 298 Velocities measured for the Biophysics Division Simulations. TABLE C1. 311 Antimony Content of Random WCC/MC Bullets TABLE C2. 312 Comparison of Means and Medians for Antimony Content, Raw and Log Values TABLE C3. 315 General Linear Models: Analysis of Variance for LnSb, using Adjusted SS for Tests TABLE C4. 316 Calculation of the Standard Normal Variate and Cumulative Distribution from Guinn's NAA of Recovered Bullet and Fragments in the Kennedy and Connally Shootings TABLE C5. 318 Cumulative Probability from the Gaussian Distribution TABLE C6. 321 Data from FBI Neutron Activation Analysis, Run 4 (Source: National Archives) TABLE C7. 321 Comparison of Means and Medians for Antimony Content, FBI Run 4 TABLE C8. 322 General Linear Model Analysis (with Natural Logs of Antimony and Weight) TABLE C9. 323 Analysis of Variance for LnSb, using Adjusted SS for Tests TABLE C10. 324 General Linear Model (with raw values of Antimony and Weight) TABLE C11. 324 Analysis of Variance for Sb, using Adjusted SS for Tests TABLE C12. 324 General Linear Model (with Natural Logs of Antimony and Weight) TABLE C13. 325 Analysis of Variance for LnSb, using Adjusted SS for Tests TABLE E1. 337 Relative Peaks from Hartmann's Blur Measurements from the Zapruder Film
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963 -- Assassination.
Firearms -- United States -- Identification -- Case studies.
Forensic ballistics -- United States -- Case studies.