Table of contents for The ancient Maya.

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Contents
Preface		xxxx
A Note on Names, Pronunciations, and Conventions		xxxx
Introduction	1 
Discovery and Conquest by Europeans
The Fate of the Maya Heritage
The Meaning of Maya Civilization
Foreign Domination and Rebirth of the Maya Heritage
The Destruction of the Maya Heritage
Bibliographic Summary
1. The Setting of Maya Civilization
Natural and Cultural Subdivisions of the Maya Area
The Pacific Coastal Plain
The Highlands
	The Southern Maya Highlands 
	The Northern Maya Highlands
The Lowlands
	The Southern Lowlands
	The Central Lowlands
	The Northern Lowlands
The Consequences of Ecological Diversity
Sidebars : Origin of Mayan Languages, The Original Maya Homeland, Cacao, Stone Tools, 
Jade, Feathers, Eccentric Flints, Textiles.
Bibliographic Summary
2. Archaeology and Maya Civilization
Reconstructing the Past
Changing Perspectives on the Maya Past
	Etic and Emic Views of the Past
	Perspective and Goals of this Book
	Basic Concepts
Models of Past Societies
Development of Complex Society and Civilization
The Evolution of Civilization
Understanding the Evolution of Maya Civilization
The Maya Economy
	Subsistence and Population Growth
	Specialization and Trade
	Economic Distinctions
Social and Political Systems
	Social Stratification
	Polities and Kings
	Competition and Warfare
Maya Ideology and Religion
The Ancient Maya World
Elite and Non-elite Views of the Ancient Maya
Chronology
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Pottery and Archaeology, Maya Archaeological Projects (Copan, Chichen Itza, 
Uaxactun, Tikal, Mayapan, Barton Ramie).
Chapter 3: History and Maya Civilization
Time and Maya History
Arithmetic
The Calendar
	The Almanac of 260 Days
	The Haab of 365 Days
	The Calendar Round of 52 Years
	The Long Count
	Distance Numbers
	Period-Ending Dates and Count of the K'atuns
Measuring the Cycles of Time
	The Sun and Moon
	Venus
	Other Planets, the Stars and the Constellations
Recording the Cycles of Time
Sources of Maya History
The Maya Chronicles
Ancient Writing Systems
PreColumbian Maya Texts
	The Maya Codices
	The Maya Inscriptions
	The Language of the Classic Maya texts
Ancient Maya Writing
	The Discovery of Maya History
	The Discovery of Phoneticism in Maya Writing
Milestones in Decipherment
Contributions to Understanding the Ancient Maya
History and Maya Civilization
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Year Bearers, Correlation of the Maya Calendar, Mayan Dictionaries and Literature, 
The Structure of Mayan Languages, Classic Maya Texts, Pioneers of Decipherment.
Chapter 4: The Origins of Maya Civilization
The Chronology of Pre-Columbian Development
The Archaic: Origins of Highland and Coastal Cultural Traditions
The Early Preclassic: Agriculture, Warfare, and Evidence of Complex Society
Preclassic Developments on the Gulf Coast of Mexico
Preclassic Developments in Highland Mexico
Summary of Archaic and Early Preclassic Developments
Patterns in the Evolution of Mesoamerican Civilization
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Early Preclassic Maya Pottery, Monumental Architecture, Origins of Carved 
Monuments.
Chapter 5: The Emergence of Civilization in the Middle Preclassic
The Emergence of Complex Societies
Markers of Complex Societies
The Pacific Plain in the Middle Preclassic
Middle Preclassic Commodities and Monuments
The Highlands in the Middle Preclassic
The Lowlands in the Middle Preclassic
Middle Preclassic Communities
The Rise of Complex Society in the Lowlands
Further Middle Preclassic Developments in the Lowlands
Summary: The Middle Preclassic Precursors of Maya Civilization
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Mirrors and Mosaics, Middle Preclassic Maya Pottery, Maya Monuments and 
Sculpture; La Blanca, Chalchuapa, Kaminaljuyu, Salama Valley, Cuello, K'axob, Nakbe, Ball 
Courts, Masonry Architecture
Chapter 6: The Origins of Maya States in the Late Preclassic
Late Preclassic Civilization and Writing Traditions
The Late Preclassic Isthmian Tradition
The Late Preclassic Southern Maya
	Southern Maya Pottery and Monument Traditions
	Late Preclassic Rulers in the Southern Maya Area
	Late Preclassic Civilization in the Southern Maya Area
Highland-Lowland Interaction in the Preclassic
The Maya Lowlands in the Late Preclassic
	Regional Hegemony in the Central Lowlands
	Late Preclassic Rulers in the Maya Lowlands
Patterns of Late Preclassic Rulership
Preclassic Developments in the Northern Lowlands
Late Preclassic Lowland Maya Civilization
Decline in the Terminal Preclassic
Summary: Reconstructing the Maya Preclassic
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Izapa, El Ujuxte, Abaj Takalik, Late Preclassic Maya Pottery, El Mirador, San Bartolo, 
Cerros, Komchen.
Chapter 7: The Expansion of Maya States in the Early Classic
The Early Classic and the Origins of Maya Civilization
The Southern Maya Area in the Classic Period
	Early Classic Changes on the Pacific Coast
	Early Classic Changes in the Highlands
	Teotihuacan and the Maya
	The End of Teotihuacan Contacts in the Southern Maya Area
The Classic Transition in the Lowlands
The Expansion of States in the Maya Lowlands
	Divine Kings and Royal Houses
	Titles and Emblems of Royal Power
Competition and Warfare in the Classic Lowlands
The Early Classic in the Maya Lowlands
The Rise of Tikal in the Early Classic (ca. 100-378)
Neighboring Centers in the Central Lowlands (ca. 328-416)
Strangers in the Lowlands (378-456)
Expansion into the Southeastern Area (406-437)
Archaeology, History, and Copan's Dynastic Founding (ca. 400-470)
The Founder of Quirigua
The Rise of the Calakmul Dynasty (435-561)
The Calakmul-Caracol Alliance
Prosperity and Problems at Tikal (458-562)
The Defeat of Tikal (562)
Summary: The Early Classic States of the Maya Lowlands
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Early Classic Maya Pottery, Tikal, Uaxactun, Rio Azul, Copan, Quirigua, Calakmul, 
Caracol, Becan, Nakum, Yaxha.
Chapter 8: The Apogee of Maya States in the Late Classic
Ascendancy of Calakmul (562-695)
	Confrontation in the Petexbatun
	The Naranjo Wars
The Resurgence of Tikal (682-768)
	Defeat of Calakmul (695)
	Breaking of the Calakmul Alliance
Rise and Fall of the Petexbatun Kingdom (682-802)	
The End of the Calakmul Dynasty (695-909)
Recovery and Decline at Caracol (798-859)
The End of the Tikal Dynasty (768-869)
Expansion of the Usumacinta Polities
	Birth and Rebirth of the Piedras Negras Dynasty
	History and Propaganda at Yaxchilan
Expansion of the Western Polities
	Origins of the Palenque Dynasty
	Apogee and Defeat at Palenque
	Recovery and Decline at Palenque
	Late Classic Apogee at Tonina
Expansion of the Southeastern Polities
	Growth and Prosperity at Copan
	A Tale of Two Cities
	Revitalization and Decline at Copan
	The Last Days of Quirigua
Summary: Development of States in the Late Classic Lowlands
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Late Classic Maya Pottery, Naranjo, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Altar De Sacrificios, Piedras 
Negras, Yaxchilan, Bonampak, Palenque, Tonina, Cities Without History.
 Chapter 9: Transformations in the Terminal Classic
Decline in the Classic Heartland
	Patterns of Change
	The Collapse Issue
The Collapse of Classic Maya States	
Explanations for the Collapse
	Theories Emphasizing Catastrophic Events
	Theories Emphasizing Problems within Maya Society
	Theories Emphasizing Foreign Intervention
	Theories Emphasizing Environmental Changes
A Scenario for the Collapse of the Classic Maya States
	Overpopulation
	Warfare
	Drought 
	The Breakup of Classic Polities
	Abandonment and Migration
Survival and Revival of Classic Enclaves
Transformation in the Terminal Classic
	The Fate of Divine Kings
	The New Lowland Economy
	The New Power Brokers
The Transitional Regional Traditions
The Rise of the Northern Lowland Polities
Polities in Northwestern Yucatan
	The Puuc Region
	Salt production and Trade
Polities in Northeastern Yucatan
The Rise of Chichen Itza
The Itza Economy
The Itza State
The Cult of K'uk'ulkan
Changes in the Southern Maya Area
Summary: Culmination and Transition in the Terminal Classic
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Terminal Classic Maya Pottery, Xunantunich, Seibal, Uxmal, Sayil, Kabah, 
Dzibilchaltun, Coba, Chichen Itza, Metalwork.
Chapter 10: Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic
The Downfall of Chichen Itza
The Rise of Mayapan
The Mayapan State
The Fall of Mayapan and the Rise of Petty States
The East Coast of Yucatan
Revival of Fortunes in the Central Lowlands
The Southern Maya Area in the Postclassic
Summary: Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic
Overview: Changing Perspectives on Maya Civilization
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Postclassic Maya Pottery, Mayapan, Tulum, Santa Rita Corozal, The Mythical City of 
Tollan.
Chapter 11: The Ancient Maya Economy
The Political Economy
The Social Economy
 Mobilization of Labor
Ancient Maya Subsistence
	Hunting and Gathering
	Animal Husbandry
	Extensive Agriculture
	Intensive Agriculture
Reconstructing the Patterns of Subsistence
Production of Goods
Distribution of Goods
The Importance of Trade
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Long-Distance Trade
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebar: The Swidden Hypothesis; Colha.
Chapter 12: The Organization of Maya Society
Reconstructing The Social Landscape
Maya Society in the Pre-Columbian Era
	Personal Appearance
	Birth and Early Childhood
	Puberty
	Life and Death
Marriage and the Family
Ancient Maya Households
Settlement in the Maya Lowlands
	Chronological Control
	Population Reconstructions
Social Stratification
Residential and Descent Groups
Residential Groups and the House Model
Reconstructing The Political Landscape
Divine Kings and the Hierarchy of Power
Hierarchy within Polities
Hierarchy among Polities
Maya Polities
	Location and Power
	Size and Power
	Number and Size of Polities
Cycles of Growth and Decline
State Organizational Models
The Basis of Political Power
Bibliographic Summary
Sidebars: Ceren, Maya Society In Postclassic Yucatan, Maya Society in the Postclassic 
Highlands.
Chapter 13: Maya Ideology and Religion
Maya World View
Origins of Maya Ideology
Transformations by Outsiders
Cosmology
	Creation Myths
	The Maya Universe
	Afterlife and Ancestors
Maya Deities
Rituals and Ceremonies
Royal Rituals of the Classic Period
Rituals of the Postclassic and Conquest Periods
	Divination and Altered Consciousness
	Human Sacrifice
	The Thirteen K'atun Endings
	Other Calendrical Ceremonies
The Ideological Foundations of Maya civilization
Bibliographic Summary
Epilogue: The Conquest of the Maya
Appendix: Dates For K'atun and Half-K'atun Endings
Reference Material
Bibliography
Illustration Credits
Index
Tables
Table 2.1	Chiefdoms and States
Table 2.2	Pre-Columbian Chronological Periods in the Maya Area
Table 3.1	Yucatec Mayan Sounds and Transcriptions 
Table 3.2	Names of Maya Rulers
Table 7.1	Dynastic Chronology of Tikal
Table 7.2	Dynastic Chronology of Copan
Table 7.3	Dynastic Chronology of Calakmul
Table 7.4	Dynastic Chronology of Caracol
Table 8.1	Dynastic Chronology of Naranjo
Table 8.2	Dynastic Chronology of Dos Pilas
Table 8.3	Dynastic Chronology of Piedras Negras
Table 8.4	Dynastic Chronology of Yaxchilan
Table 8.5	Dynastic Chronology of Palenque
Table 8.6	Dynastic Chronology of Tonina
Table 8.7	Dynastic Chronology of Quirigua
Table 10.1	Dynastic History of the Postclassic K'iche Maya
Table 11.1	Common Wild Animal Resources 
Table 11.2	Common Plant Cultigens 
Table 11.3	Production and Distribution in the Ancient Maya Economy
Table 11.4	Distribution Modes in the Maya Economy (Lowlands)
Table 11.5	Principal Trade Goods from the Maya Area 
Table 11.6	Goods Traded to or through the Maya Area 
Table 12.1	Density of Structures (Selected Lowland Sites) 
Table 12.2	Late Classic Density of Structures (Selected Lowland Sites and Rural Areas)
Table 12.3	Population Estimates (Selected Lowland Sites and Rural Areas) 
Table 12.4	Relative Population Size as Percentage of Maximum Population Estimates at 
Selected Lowland Sites 
Table 12.5	Relative Population Size as Percentage of Maximum Population Estimates at 
Selected Rural Areas 
Table E.1	Summary of Events of the Spanish Conquest Period
Table A.1	Correlation of Maya and Gregorian Chronologies 
Figures
Frontispiece: Copan Maize god
Introduction
In.1.	The principal buildings of Tikal, Guatemala
In.2	Temple IV, the tallest structure at Tikal
In.3	Archaeologists excavating at Tikal and at Tancah
	(above) Trik & Rainey in Tikal Temple II
	(below) Miller & Stuart at Tancah
In.4	Weaving with the back-strap loom, Huehuetenango
In.5	Modern market at Chichicastenango, El Quiché
In.6	Portraits of Lacandon Maya from Chiapas, Mexico 
In.7	Portraits of Yucatec Maya from Quintana Roo
In.8	Portraits of Yucatec, Quiche, and Mam Maya
	(top four) Yucatec & Quiche portraits
	(lower left) San Pedro portrait
In.9	Portraits of Tzotzil Maya from Chiapas
In.10	Maya teachers in the classroom
In.11	Destruction wrought by looting at Naachtun, Guatemala 
In.12	Desecration of Stela 1 at Jimbal, Guatemala, by looters
Chapter 1 The Setting
1.1	Map of the Maya Area
1.2	Map of Mayan languages
1.3	Subgrouping of Mayan languages
1.4	Map of surface elevations in the Maya Area
1.5	Map of Mean annual temperatures in Maya Area
1.6	Map of Mean annual rainfall in the Maya area
1.7	Pacific Coast mangrove growth
1.8	Southern Highlands: Agua volcano
1.9	Southern Highlands: house buried by volcanic ash
1.10	Northern Highlands: view of the Salam  Valley
1.11	Southern lowlands: forest & Usumacinta river
1.12	Central lowlands: tropical forest
1.13	Central lowlands: Lake Petén Itza
1.14	Central lowlands: savanna
1.15	Northern lowlands: low forest
1.16	Northern lowlands: low hills
1.17	Northern lowlands: cenote
Chapter 2 Archaeology and Maya Civilization
2.1	Analysis of Maya pottery (NAA chart from Copan)
2.2	Drawing of Jaguar Throne at Palenque from del Rio 1822
2.3	Alfred Maudslay's research at Copan
2.4	Tikal Project multidisciplinary research supplied by aircraft
2.5	Contemporary archaeological excavations
Chapter 3 History and Maya Civilization
3.1	Glyphs for completion ("zero") and numbers
3.2	Examples of positional mathematics
3.3	Glyphs for the Maya time periods
3.4	Glyphs for the Maya days
3.5	Glyphs for the Maya months
3.6	Diagram of the 260-day almanac & solar year
3.7	The Mesoamerican 52-year period
3.8	Example of a Maya Long Count date
3.9	Maya Period-ending date
3.10	K'atun wheel after Landa
3.11	Astronomical alignment at Copan, Honduras 
3.12	Astronomical observations from the Mexican codices
3.13	Recording Maya history (codex and scribe)
3.14	Maya "zodiac" from the Paris Codex
3.15	Almanacs from the Madrid Codex
3.16	Maya Glyphs with historical meaning
3.17	Emblem glyph affixes and main signs
3.18	Title glyphs for elite women
3.19	The Landa "alphabet"
3.20	A syllabary of Maya phonetic glyphs
3.21	Syllabic spellings and complements
3.22	Glyphs for way ("spirit companion")
3.23	Postclassic direction and Color glyphs
3.24	Title glyphs for Maya rulers and secondary lords
3.25	Translation by Simon Martin of Seibal Stela 10 text
Chapter 4 The Origins of Maya Civilization
4.1	Early chipped stone tools from Belize
4.2	Early Preclassic pottery from Copan, Honduras
4.3	Middle Preclassic house remains at La Venta, Mexico 
4.4	Monument 12 from Chalchuapa, El Salvador
4.5	Monument 3 from San Jose Mogote, Oaxaca, Mexico 
Chapter 5 Emergence in the Middle Preclassic
5.1	Stela 11 at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala
5.2	Map of La Blanca, Guatemala
5.3	La Blanca Mound 1
5.4	La Blanca Monument 1
5.5	Map of El Ujuxte, Guatemala
5.6	Takalik Abaj Monument 1
5.7	Map of Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala
5.8	Kaminaljuyu Monument 65
5.9	El Portón, Guatemala, excavation of Monument 1
5.10	Tomb at Los Mangales, Guatemala
5.11	Middle Preclassic platforms at Cuello, Belize
5.12	K'axob, Belize; house platforms and subfloor burials
5.13	Blackman Eddy, Belize. Str. B1 Stratigraphic Section
5.14	Middle Preclassic houses at Blackman Eddy, Belize
5.15	Middle Preclassic stages Str. B1, Blackman Eddy, Belize
5.16	Map of Nakbe, Guatemala
5.17	Stela 1, Nakbe, Guatemala
5.18	Cross sections of Maya Corbeled Vaults
5.19	Plans of Maya Structures
Chapter 6 Origin of States in the Late Preclassic
6.1	Stela 1, La Mojarra, Veracruz, Mexico
6.2	Tuxtla Statuette
6.3	Fragment of Tres Zapotes Stela C
6.4	Map of Izapa, Chiapas, Mexico
6.5	Izapa Stela 21
6.6	View of Kaminaljuyu
6.7	Kaminaljuyu Stela 10
6.8	Kaminaljuyu E-III-3 tomb
6.9	Takalik Abaj Stela 2
6.10	Takalik Abaj Stela 5
6.11	Map of Chocola, Guatemala
6.12	Chocola Monument 1
6.13	Chocola captive sculpture
6.14	Chalchuapa Monument 1
6.15	Salama Valley Monument 16
6.16	Late Preclassic Pot Belly sculptures
6.17	El Baúl Stela 1
6.18	Map of Western Group at El Mirador
6.19	El Mirador El Tigre
6.20	El Mirador Structure 34
6.21	El Mirador Stela 2
6.22	Drawing of Lamanai Structure N10-43
6.23	Cave sculpture at Loltun, Yucatan, Mexico
6.24	Map of San Bartolo, Guatemala
6.25	San Bartolo Str. 1 tunnel section
6.26	Map of Cerros, Belize
6.27	Cerros Str. 5C-2nd
6.28	Late Preclassic texts; Kichpanha, & Pomona flare
6.29	Uaxactun E-VII & E-VII-sub
6.30	Uaxactun E-VII-sub masks
6.31	Uaxactun H Group mask
6.32	Mirador Group platforms at Dzibilchaltun
6.33	Structure 450 at Komchen, Yucatan, Mexico
6.34	Structure 500 at Komchen, Yucatan, Mexico
6.35	Caldera of Ilopango, El Salvador
6.36	Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, Mexico
6.37	Early Classic Teotihuacan-style pottery
Chapter 7 Expansion of Maya States in the Early Classic
7.1	Map of Tikal, Guatemala 
7.2	Aerial view of Tikal 
7.3	Tikal North Acropolis trench
7.4	Tikal North Acropolis section
7.5	Tikal North Acropolis Structure 5D-22
7.6	Tikal Stela 29
7.7	Tikal Stela 39
7.8	Tikal Stela 26
7.9	Tikal Central Acropolis plan
7.10	Stela 9 at Uaxactun, Guatemala
7.11	Uaxactun Group E
7.12	Uaxactun Stela 5
7.13	Uaxactun Str. B-XIII mural
7.14	Map of Rio Azul, Guatemala
7.15	Rio Azul Tomb 1 murals
7.16	Tikal Stela 4
7.17	Tikal Stela 31
7.18	Tikal Burial 48
7.19	Map of Copan, Honduras
7.20	Stratigraphic section of the Copan Acropolis
7.21	Copan Altar Q
7.22	Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway
7.23	Copan Hunal Structure
7.24	Copan Motmot Marker
7.25	Copan Hunal Tomb
7.26	Copan Hunal Tomb Vessels
7.27	Copan Hunal Tomb Shell mosaic
7.28	Copan Margarita Tomb
7.29	Copan SubJaguar Tomb
7.30	Zoomorph P at Quirigua, Guatemala
7.31	Quirigua Monument 26
7.32	Map of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico
7.33	Map of Caracol, Belize
7.34	Caracol Altar 21
7.35	Caracol Caana Complex
7.36	Tikal Stela 9
7.37	Tikal Stela 23
7.38	Tikal Stela 17
7.39	Aerial view of Becan, Campeche, Mexico
Chapter 8 Apogee in the Late Classic
8.1	Map of Dos Pilas
8.2	Naranjo Stela 24 and Stela 22
8.3	Tikal Stela 30 and Altar 14
8.4	Tikal Temple I lintel
8.5	Tikal Str 5D-57 stucco of Jasaw Chan K'awiil and capture
8.6	Tikal Stela 16
8.7	Tikal Temple I section of Burial 116
8.8	Tikal Temple I
8.9	Tikal Temple I tomb of Jasaw Chan K'awiil
8.10	Tikal Temple IV lintels
8.11	Tikal Stela 20
8.12	Aguateca, Guatemala, view from escarpment
8.13	Dos Pilas, Guatemala, before and after its downfall
8.14	Map of Aguateca
8.15	Aguateca Str. M7-22 (storage room in situ)
8.16	Aguateca Str. M8-4 plan of in situ materials
8.17	Aguateca Str. M8-4 mask in situ; flute & headband
8.18	Punta de Chimino, Guatemala	
8.19	Calakmul Stela 51
8.20	Caracol Stela 17
8.21	Tikal Twin Pyramid Group 4E-4
8.22	Tikal Stela 22 and Altar 10
8.23	Tikal Temple III lintel
8.24	Stelae from Piedras Negras, Guatemala
8.25	Piedras Negras Wall Panel 3
8.26	Piedras Negras throne
8.27	Map of Yaxchilan, Chiapas, Mexico
8.28	Yaxchilan Lintels 24, 25, & 26
8.29	Yaxchilan Stela 11
8.30	Yaxchilan Lintels 1, 2, & 3
8.31	Yaxchilan Lintel 8
8.32	Map of Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico
8.33	Bonampak Structure 1
8.34	Aerial view of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico
8.35	Map of Palenque
8.36	Palenque Palace stucco panels
8.37	Palenque Temple of the Inscriptions
8.38	Palenque Tomb of Pakal
8.39	Palenque Tomb of Pakal sarcophagus
8.40	Palenque Tomb of Pakal sarcophagus lid
8.41	Palenque Temple of the Sun
8.42	Palenque Temple of the Cross interior shrine
8.43	Palenque Temple of the Cross tablet
8.44	Palenque Palace Tablet
8.45	View of Tonina, Chiapas, Mexico
8.46	Tonina Stela 12
8.47	Tonina Monument 122
8.48	Copan Stela P
8.49	Copan Structure 10L-22
8.50	Copan Stela H and Stela A
8.51	Copan Ball Court
8.52	Quirigua Great Plaza
8.53	Quirigua Stela E
8.54	Copan Structure 10L-22A
8.55	Copan Structure 10L-18
8.56	Copan Altar L
8.57	Altun Ha, Belize Structure B-4
8.58	Altun Ha jade head of K'inich Ajaw
Chapter 9 Transformations in the Terminal Classic
9.1	Xunantunich, Belize; view of Str. A-6
9.2	Seibal Round Structure
9.3	Seibal Stela 19
9.4	Seibal Structure A-3
9.5	Seibal Stela 10
9.6	View of Str. 1, Xpuhil, Campeche, Mexico
9.7	View of Str. II, Chicanna, Campeche, Mexico
9.8	Palace at Edzna, Campeche, Mexico
9.9	Palace arch, Labna, Yucatan, Mexico
9.10	Map of Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico
9.11	Uxmal Stela 14
9.12	Aerial view of Uxmal
9.13	Uxmal Governor's Palace
9.14	Uxmal Nunnery Quadrangle
9.15	Uxmal Adivino
9.16	Kabah, Yucatan, Mexico, Palace of Masks
9.17	Kabah Doorjamb
9.18	Kabah causeway arch
9.19	Map of Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico
9.20	Sayil excavation of domestic structure
9.21	Map of Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico
9.22	Dzibilchaltun Central Group
9.23	Dzibilchaltun Temple of the Seven Dolls
9.24	Coba, Yucatan, Mexico, aerial view
9.25	Coba Nohoch Mul
9.26	Coba sacbe
9.27	Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico, Str. 1
9.28	Aerial view of Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico
9.29	Map of Chichen Itza
9.30	Chichen Itza Las Monjas group
9.31	Chichen Itza Caracol
9.32	Chichen Itza plan of the Caracol
9.33	Chichen Itza El Castillo
9.34	Chichen Itza Red Jaguar Throne
9.35	Chichen Itza Great Ball Court & Temple of Jaguars
9.36	Chichen Itza Temple of the Jaguars mural
9.37	Chichen Itza Tzompantli
9.38	Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors
9.39	Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors mural
9.40	Chichen Itza turquoise mosaic
9.41	Chichen Itza El Mercado
9.42	Chichen Itza Sacred Cenote
9.43	Gold work from Chichen Itza
9.44	Motifs from gold disks from Chichen Itza
9.45	Isla Cerritos aerial view
9.46	Bilbao, Guatemala Monument 3
Chapter 10 Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic
10.1	Map of Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico
10.2	Map of Central Mayapan
10.3	Mayapan Castillo
10.4	Mayapan Round Temple
10.5	Mayapan-style effigy incensario
10.6	Map of Island of Cozumel
10.7	Tulum view from the north
10.8	Tulum Structure 16 mural
10.9	Tulum El Castillo (after Catherwood)
10.10	Tulum El Castillo and Structure 5
10.11	Tulum Structure 5 mural
10.12	Tulum view of Structure 45
10.13	Mural from Santa Rita Corozal, Belize
10.14	Zaculeu, Guatemala, view of site
10.15	Map of Utatlan, Guatemala
10.16	Utatlan Temple of Awilix
10.17	Structure 3 at Iximche, Guatemala
10.18	Mixcu Viejo, Guatemala, view of site
Chapter 11 The Economy
11.1	Sowing maize from the Madrid Codex
11.2	Ceren, preserved Late Classic maize field
11.3	Map of agricultural terraces at Caracol, Belize
11.4	Edzna aerial view of canal system
11.5	Pulltrouser Swamp, Belize, view of relic raised fields
11.6	Pulltrouser Swamp excavations
11.7	Pulltrouser Swamp aerial view of relic raised fields
11.8	Rio Candelaria aerial view of relic raised fields
11.9	Dzemul aerial view of Xtampul salt pans
Chapter 12 Organization of Maya Society
12.1	Ancient Maya clothing: loincloths from Classic monuments
12.2	Ancient Maya clothing: sandals from Classic monuments
12.3	Modern Maya huipils
12.4	Late Classic burial practice: Uaxactun Structure A-1
12.5	Maya House Mound at Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico
12.6	Ancient Maya residential group east of Xpuhil
12.7	Map of Cerén, El Salvador
12.8	Cerén, Reconstruction of Household 1
12.9	Schematic plans of Maya settlement units
12.10	Map of Caracol Causeway System
Chapter 13 Ideology
13.1	Scenes of human sacrifice
13.2	Ritual burning of copal by the Lacandon Maya
13.3	Maya deities governing the world from the codices
13.4	Maya deities depicted in Postclassic codices
13.5	Maya deities depicted in Classic sources
13.6	Scepters and other regalia
13.7	Classic eccentric chipped flint from Copan
13.8	Tikal incised bone from tomb of Jasaw Chan K'awiil
13.9	Bloodletting rituals from the Madrid Codex
13.10	Sacrificial knife from Chichen Itza
13.11	Graffiti from Tikal Temple II
Color Plates 
1(a)	Tikal Jade Vessels
1(b)	Tikal Jade mosaic mask
1(c)	Tikal jade jaguar
2(a)	Copan Ante jade figurine Copan
2(b)	Matching jade plaques
2(c)	Catherwood print of Governor's Palace at Uxmal
3(a)	Dresden Codex page
3(b)	Cival stucco mask
4(a)	San Bartolo photo of Tamale woman attendant
4(b)	San Bartolo Mural: Maize God with attendants
5(a)	San Bartolo Mural: Inauguration Scene
5(b)	Copan Yehnal Structure Mask
6(a) 	Copan Margarita stucco façade
6(b) 	Copan Margarita Tomb vessel
7(a)	Copan Rosalila replica
7(b)	Copan SubJaguar Tomb vases
8(a) 	Tikal carved bone (portrait of Jasaw Chan K'awiil) 
8(b) 	Tikal Polychrome vessel from (Bu. 196) 
8(c)	Palenque Palace
9(a)	Palenque Polychrome censer 
9(b)	Jaina Figurine 
9(c)	Nebaj Vase
10 & 11	Bonampak Str. 1 Room 1 Murals 
12 & 13	Bonampak Str. 1 Room 2 Murals 
14 & 15	Bonampak Str. 1 Room 3 Murals 
16(a)	Palace at Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico
16(b)	Chichen Itza mural in the Temple of the Warriors
Boxes
Chapter 1: The Setting of Maya Civilization
1.1	Origin of Mayan Languages
1.2	The Original Maya Homeland
1.3	Cacao
1.4	Stone Tools
1.5	Jade
1.6	Feathers
1.7	Eccentric Flints
1.8	Textiles 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Mayas.
Mayas -- Antiquities.
Mexico -- Antiquities.
Central America -- Antiquities.