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CONTENTS Foreward PART ONE Ergonomics, Design and Anthropometry 1. Introduction 1.1 What is ergonomics? 1.1.1 What criteria define a successful match? 1.1.2 What if these criteria prove incompatible? 1.2 Anthropometrics 1.3 Human proportion: an historical perspective 1.4 Ergonomics and design 1.5 The user-centred approach 2. Principles and Practice of Anthropometrics 2.1 The statistical description of human variability 2.1.1 Frequency distribution of a dimension within a population 2.1.2 Calculating percentile values for a body dimension 2.1.3 Effects of deviation from a normal distribution 2.2 Design limits - accommodation provided by a design decision 2.3 Design constraints and criteria 2.3.1 Clearance 2.3.2 Reach 2.3.3 Posture 2.3.4 Strength 2.4 Defining design requirements to satisfy the four cardinal constraints 2.5 Methods for analysis of design problems 2.5.1 Fitting trials 2.5.2 Analytical application of the method of limits 2.5.3 Body link diagram 2.5.4 Workspace simulation and digital human models 2.6 Using anthropometric data 2.6.1 Sources of anthropometric data 2.6.2 Defining the target user population 2.6.3 Accuracy of anthropometric data 2.6.4 Clothing corrections 2.6.5 Standard anthropometric postures 2.6.6 Body proportions 2.7 Body dimensions 3. Human Diversity 3.1 Sex differences 3.1.1 Variation in body proportions 3.1.2 Variation in strength 3.2 Ethnic differences 3.3 Growth and development 3.4 The secular trend 3.5 Social class and occupation 3.6 Ageing PART TWO Application of Anthropometry in Design 4. Workspace Design 4.1 Clearance 4.1.1 Whole body access 4.1.2 Circulation space 4.1.3 Safety clearances 4.1.4 Personal space 4.2 Reach - the workspace envelope 4.2.1 Zones of convenient reach 4.2.2 The normal working area 4.3 Joint ranges of movement 4.4 Posture 4.4.1 Postural loading 4.4.2 Guidelines for work postures 4.5 Vision and the posture of the head and neck 4.6 Working height 4.7 Posture and strength 4.8 Issues for barrier-free workspace design 5. Sitting and Seating 5.1 Fundamentals of seating 5.2 The spine in standing and sitting 5.3 Forward tilting seating and 'sit/stand' seats 5.4 Anthropometric aspects of seat design 5.4.1 Seat height (H) 5.4.2 Seat depth (D) 5.4.3 Seat width 5.4.4 Backrest dimensions 5.4.5 Backrest angle or 'rake' (a) 5.4.6 Seat angle or 'tilt' (ß) 5.4.7 Armrests 5.4.8 Leg room 5.4.9 Seat surface 5.4.10 Seats for more than one 5.5 Evaluating a seat 5.6 Dynamic seating 5.7 The easy chair and its relatives 6. Hands and Handles 6.1 Anthropometry of the hand 6.2 Hand dominance (handedness) 6.3 Anatomical terminology 6.4 Hand strength 6.5 Fundamentals of handle design 6.6 Biomechanics of tool design 6.6.1 Gripping and squeezing 6.6.2 Gripping and turning 6.6.3 Pushing, pulling, pressing and lifting 6.7 The neutral position of the wrist and handle orientation 6.8 Work tasks using hand-held tools 6.8.1 Posture and workstation design 6.8.2 Risk of musculoskeletal injury 7. Ergonomics in the Office 7.1 The office desk 7.2 The office chair 7.2.1 Seat height 7.2.2 The backrest 7.2.3 Armrests 7.2.4 The usability of adjustment controls 7.3 Visual demands of screen-based work 7.3.1 Viewing distance 7.3.2 Display screen height 7.3.3 Document holder 7.3.4 The unskilled keyboard user 7.3.5 Multiple display screens 7.4 The portable (laptop or notebook) computer 7.5 Computers in schools 7.6 Input devices 7.6.1 The keyboard 7.6.2 The mouse 7.6.3 Other input devices 7.7 What makes a 'good posture' in screen-based work 7.8 The design of screen-based working tasks 8. Ergonomics in the Home 8.1 The kitchen 8.2 The bathroom 8.2.1 The bathtub 8.2.2 The handbasin 8.2.3 The toilet (or water closet) 8.3 The bedroom 8.4 The staircase 9. Health and Safety at Work 9.1 Accidents and human error 9.1.1 The catastrophic failure of complex systems 9.1.2 Everyday accidents 9.2 Musculoskeletal disorders 9.3 Back injury at work 9.4 Lifting and handling 9.4.1 Workspace layout 9.4.2 The load 9.5 Work-related upper limb disorders 9.5.1 On the varieties of RSI/WRULD 9.5.2 Over-use injuries to process workers 9.5.3 Keyboard injuries 9.5.4 Assessment of risk factors for WRULDs PART THREE The Bodyspace Tables - Anthropometric Database 10. Anthropometric Data 10.1 Compilation of the anthropometric database 10.2 Populations included in the database 10.3 British adults (Tables 10.1 - 10.6) 10.4 Adult populations of other countries (Tables 10.7 - 10.16) 10.5 Infants (Tables 10.17 - 10.21) 10.6 Children and youths (tables 10.22 - 10.38) 10.7 The anthropometric tables Appendix Mathematical Synopsis of Anthropometrics A1. The normal distribution A2. Samples, populations and errors A3. The coefficient of variation A4. Some indices used in anthropometrics A5. Combining distributions from two or more samples A6. The bivariate distribution combining data for two dimensions A7. Multivariate analysis A8. Estimating unknown distributions from data available for similar populations or from data available for related dimensions A8.1 Estimating the parameters of the unknown distribution by correlation and regression parameters of data from a similar population A8.2 Sum and difference dimensions A8.3 Empirical estimation of the parameters of the unknown distribution by the method of ratio scaling from data for a similar population A8.4 Empirical estimation of standard deviation when only the mean is known A9. Estimating dimensions for a combination of people or of variables References Index
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