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Contents 1 Basic laws of thermodynamics 1 1.1 First law of thermodynamics 2 1.1.1 Basic definitions 2 1.1.2 Implications of the first law of thermodynamics 4 1.1.3 Ideal gas 6 1.1.4 Thermochemistry 8 1.2 The second law of thermodynamics 12 1.2.1 Thomson and Clausius postulates 12 1.2.2 Reversible and irreversible processes 14 1.2.3 Carnot cycle 15 1.2.4 The Clausius inequality 17 1.2.5 Entropy 19 1.2.6 Implications of the second law of thermodynamics 21 1.3 The third law of thermodynamics 23 1.3.1 Nernst heat theorem 23 1.3.2 Determination of the absolute entropy 24 1.4 Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies 25 1.4.1 Direction of spontaneous processes at constant temperature 25 1.4.2 Dependence of the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies on p, T,and V 26 1.5 Thermodynamics of open systems 30 1.5.1 Chemical potential 30 1.5.2 Conditions for equilibrium 32 2 Phase equilibria I 35 2.1 Gibbs phase rule 35 2.2 Clausius-Clapeyron equation 37 3 Thermodynamic theory of solutions 41 3.1 Thermodynamic description of solutions 41 3.2 Ideal dilute solutions 45 3.2.1 Thermodynamic functions 46 3.2.2 Boiling point 51 3.2.3 Freezing point 53 3.2.4 Solute partitioning 55 3.2.5 Composition of a saturated solution 56 3.3 Ideal solutions 57 3.4 Non-ideal solutions 59 3.4.1 Activity 59 3.4.2 Experimental determination of activity 63 3.5 Regular solutions 64 3.6 Athermal solution model 67 3.7 Ionic solutions 69 4 Phase equilibria II 74 4.1 Phase diagrams of two-component systems 74 4.2 Type I phase diagrams 75 4.3 Type II phase diagrams 79 4.4 Type III phase diagrams 81 4.5 Type IV phase diagrams 83 4.6 Type V phase diagrams 84 4.7 Type VI phase diagrams 84 4.8 Labeling of one-and two-component regions of a phase diagram 85 5 Thermodynamics of chemical reactions 89 5.1 Thermodynamic considerations for chemical reactions 89 5.2 Thermodynamics of reactions of gases 91 5.3 Thermodynamics of reactions of pure condensed substances 94 5.4 Thermodynamics of reactions with solutions 95 6 Interfacial phenomena 98 6.1 Adsorption of gases 99 6.1.1 Langmuir isotherm 99 6.1.2 BET theory for multilayer adsorption 102 6.1.3 Capillary condensation 106 6.2 Gibbs interfacial thermodynamics 108 6.3 Guggenheim and Zhuhovitsky models 114 7 Thermodynamics of stressed systems 117 7.1 Small deformations of solids 117 7.1.1 Strain tensor 117 7.1.2 Stress tensor 120 7.2 Free energy of strained solids 122 7.3 Hooke's law 124 7.3.1 Hooke's law for anisotropic solids 124 7.3.2 Hooke's law for isotropic solids 125 7.4 Relationship between deformation and change of temperature 128 7.5 Equilibrium of stressed solids 130 7.6 Surface stress 131 8 Kinetics of homogeneous chemical reactions 134 8.1 Formal kinetics of homogeneous reactions 134 8.1.1 Chemical reaction rate 134 8.1.2 Determination of the reaction order and the rate constant 137 8.1.3 Kinetics of chemical reactions near equilibrium 140 8.1.4 Dependence of the rate constant on temperature 141 8.2 Kinetics of complex reactions 144 8.2.1 Kinetics of consecutive reactions 144 8.2.2 Kinetics of parallel reactions 146 8.2.3 Kinetics of chain reactions 147 9 Thermodynamics of irreversible processes 152 9.1 Onsager's first postulate 152 9.2 Onsager's second postulate 153 9.3 Thermodynamic forces for the transport of heat and matter 154 9.4 Thermodynamic forces for chemical reactions 156 9.5 Onsager's third postulate-the principle of detailed balance 158 9.6 Redefinition of the thermodynamic force 161 9.7 Procedure for the solution of irreversible thermodynamics problems 163 10 Diffusion 165 10.1 Mathematical description of diffusion 165 10.1.1 Fick's first law 166 10.1.2 Fick's second law 167 10.1.3 Several useful solutions of the one-dimensional diffusion equation 168 10.2 Diffusion as a random walk process 173 10.3 Diffusion in metals 175 10.3.1 Main experimental results 175 10.3.2 Diffusion mechanisms in metals 177 10.4 Diffusion in amorphous metals 180 10.5 Diffusion in polymers 182 10.6 Diffusion in multiphase systems 183 10.7 Thermal diffusion 186 11. Kinetics of heterogeneous processes 189 12. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics of gases 192 12.1 Gibbs statistics 192 12.2 Statistical thermodynamics of an ideal gas 197 12.2.1 Partition function of an ideal gas 197 12.2.2 Effect of translation motion of gas molecules 200 12.2.3 Energy of diatomic molecules 201 12.2.4 Rotational contributions to thermodynamic functions 203 12.2.5 Vibrational contributions to thermodynamic functions 205 12.2.6 Polyatomic molecular gasses 207 12.2.7 Electronic contributions to thermodynamic functions 209 12.2.8 Maxwell distribution 210 12.2.9 Collisions of gas molecules with a surface 212 12.2.10 Collisions of gas molecules 213 12.2.11 Cross-sections 216 12.3 Statistical theory of chemical reactions 218 12.3.1 Calculation of the equilibrium constant from spectroscopic data 218 12.3.2 Theory of active collisions 219 12.3.3 Theory of the activated complex 221 12.3.3.1 Reaction path 222 12.3.3.2 Calculation of the rate constant 223 12.3.3.3 Theory of the activated complex versus the Arrhenius law 227 12.3.3.4 Thermodynamic form of the theory of the activated complex 228 13. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics of condensed matter 230 13.1 Introduction to liquid theory 230 13.1.1 Correlation functions 230 13.1.2 Determination of thermodynamic properties 232 13.1.3 Equation of state of non-crystalline matter 235 13.1.4 Born-Green-Bogoliubov equation 237 13.2 Theory of non-ideal gases 240 13.2.1 Van der Waals equation of state 240 13.2.2 Critical point 242 13.2.3 Principle of corresponding states 244 13.2.4 Fugacity 244 13.3 Statistical thermodynamics of solids 248 13.3.1 Lattice vibrations 248 13.3.2 Low temperature limit 248 13.3.3 High temperature limit 251 13.3.4 Debye's interpolation 251 13.4 Statistical thermodynamics of solutions 254 13.4.1 Ideal dilute solutions 254 13.4.2 Substitutional solutions 255 13.4.2.1 Basic assumptions 256 13.4.2.2 Ideal solutions 257 13.4.2.3 Regular solutions 258 13.4.2.4 Theory of regular solutions: 0th approximation 260 13.4.2.5 Theory of regular solutions: 1st approximation 261 13.4.3 Interstitial solutions 265 13.4.4 Dilute ionic solutions 266 Appendices 274 Appendix I Working with partial derivatives 274 Appendix II Tensors 275 Appendix III Continuity equation 278 Appendix IV Functions erf(z) and F(z) 279 Appendix V Integrals that frequently occur in statistical mechanics 279 Example problem solutions 281

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Thermodynamics -- Textbooks.

Chemical kinetics.