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Chapter 1. BIODIVERSITY. FROM CONCEPT TO CRISIS. The Road to Rio. The conceptual history of biodiversity. Origins Post Rio The world discovers biodiversity Environmental campaigns Media impacts Global threats Biodiversity?s potential Why biodiversity matters Biodiversity through time. The importance of time The history of life How long has life existed on Earth? Biodiversity rising. A snowball?s chance in Hell. Founding dynasties and terminal disasters How many species have there been? Natural extinctions Types of extinction, Background versus mass extinctions Biodisparity Extinctions, rebounds and radiations The current crisis. Miner?s canaries An end to evolution Summary Discussion questions Further reading Chapter 2. THE CREATION OF BIODIVERSITY. Evolution, ecology and the origins of confusion. The origins of ecology and evolutionary science Modern ecology; illegitimate origins and confued childhood The ecology of biodiversity. The search for patterns and processes Primary factors History and age Gradients Area Isolation Ecological templates Productivity Scale-less patterns Habitat heterogeneity Habitat complexity Intimate processes Succession interactions between speices Disturbance Dispersal Ecological rennaisance; emerging general rules. The evolution of biodiversity The multiplication of species Diversification of genes: environmental forces Diversification of genes: genetic systems Selection and maintenance of genetic diversity Speciation Speciation in action. What do all those species do, Part I? Biodiversity and ecosystem function. What do all those species do, Part II? Ecosystem integrity. The imbalance of nature. Summary Discussion questions Further reading Chapter 3. AN INVENTORY OF PLANET EARTH. Types of biodiversity Genetic and subcellular Taxonomic biodiversity Ecoloigcal Wetland classification Domestic biodiversity Measuring biodiversity The numbers of known species Estimating the actual numbers of species Time series Expert opinion Empirical relationships Taxon to taxon, region to region Problems with estimation techniques Scaling up Comparing taxa The fraction of undescribed species Species definitions The workforce The major gaps Ecosystems Taxa Conceptual gaps Global biodiversity patterns Taxonomic biodiversity; global patterns of taxonomic biodiversity Ecological biodiversity Descrining the extent of global ecosystems The importance of global ecosystems. Functional biodiversity Isalnds and hot-spots; the Earth?s extra special places Continental hot-spots Islands More things in Heaven and Earth. Summary Discussion points Further reading Chapter 4. EXTINCTION Current losses of biodiversity Prophets and loss. Estimating curretn extinction rates Confirmed extinctions Predicting extinction rates Haemorrhaging biodiversity. Ecosystem loss rates Defining the endangered The causes of extinction Ecological causes of extinction Ultimate factors Proximate factors Extinction: human pressures and economic failures Human impacts on biodiversity: proximate causes Human impacts on biodiversity: the underlying human pressures Wildlife in wartime. Valuing biodiversity: economics for conservation Methods for costing the value of biodiversity The economics of conservation Genetic resources Taxonomic diversity Ecosystems The total value of the biodiversity services Local economic incentives and conservation The Mount Kupe Project, Cameroon The CAMPFIRE programme, Zimbabwe Conservation?s targets. Summary Discussion questions Further reading Chapter 5. THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY Evolving concepts for biodivesrity conservation Context Methods Approaches The legislative framework International treaties Building treaties International treaties: mechanisms The Convention on Bioloigcal Diversity National legislation Regulation Non-regulation: incentives and agreements International aid Development aid Tropical forest conservation and sustainable use Debt for nature swaps Protected Areas The purpose and role of protected areas Selection, design and management Selection Design Management Protected area problems The extent of global protected areas Ex-situ conservation Captive populations Releases Biodivesrity banks Zoos Botanic gardens The digital zoo Mars calling? Summary Discussion Further reading
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Biological diversity conservation.