Table of contents for Electron-gated ion channels : with amplification by NH3 inversion resonance / Wilson P. Ralston.

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CONTENTS
	Preface	xi
PART I THEORY / ELECTRON-GATED ION CHANNELS
 1	INTRODUCTION	1
	1-1. The electron-gating model	2
	1-2. Electron gating of a sodium channel	5
	1-3. Timing	5
	1-4. Sodium channel current	7
 1-5. Sensitivity	8
 1-6. Amplification and negative conductance	8
 1-7. Model parameters	10
 2	DEVELOPING A MODEL	13
 2-1. A single electron two-site model	13
 2-2. Amplification	15
 2-3. A small force constant	18
 2-4. Calculating frequencies	19
 2-5. Amplification by NH3 inversion resonance	21
 2-6. A voltage dependent amplification factor	26
 2-7. The amplification energy window	30
 2-8. NH3 inversion frequency reduction	34
 3	THE SETCAP MODEL	37
 3-1. A circuit model for two-site electron tunneling	37
 3-2. Defining a capacitance factor	40
 3-3. Displacement capacitance	40
 3-4. Time-constant capacitance??????	41
 3-5. Displacement energy	42
 3-6. Energy well depth	45
 3-7. The SETCAP model for N tunneling sites	47
 4	AMPLIFIED ELECTRON TUNNELING AND THE INVERTED REGION	51
	4-1. Amplification and the Marcus inverted region	51
	4-2. The Q10 temperature factor	57
	4-3. Time constant	60
	4-4. Contact resistance	61
 	4-5. Tunneling resistance	61
 	4-6. Electron tunneling site-selectivity	62
 	4-7. The amplification energy window and the inverted region	62
 5	GATING AND DISTORTION FACTORS	64
 5-1. Sodium channel inactivation gate leakage	65
 5-2. Ion channel gating	69
 	5-3. Inactivation gating and open-gate distortion	72
 	5-4. Sodium channel activation gates and distortion	75
 	5-5. Potassium channel gating and distortion	77
 	5-6. Edge distortion of inactivation gating	81
 	5-7. Multistate gating	83
 6	CHARACTERIZATION AND VALIDATION	85
	6-1. Electron gating model equations	85
 6-2. Finite-range rate constants	90
 6-3. Open-channel probability range and time constant	95
 6-4. Rate curves using voltage-sensitive amplification	96
 7	FLUX GATING IN SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CHANNELS	99
 7-1. Sodium channel flux gating	99
 	7-2. Sodium channel inactivation flux gating	100
 7-3. Potassium channel flux gating	103
 7-4. The influx gating latch-up effect	107
 8	FAR SITES, NEAR SITES AND BACK SITES	111
	8-1. Ion channel mapping	111
	8-2. Far sites for inactivation, calcium signaling and memory	116
 8-3. Near sites on the S4	117
 8-4. Back sites and hyperpolarization	117
 8-5. Gating current	119
 8-6. Charge immobilization	122
 8-7. A calcium channel oscillator model using far sites	123
 9	ELECTRON-GATED K+ CHANNELS	129
 9-1. Activation and inactivation of Kv channels	130
 9-2. Structural constraints for activation gating	133
 9-3. Influx gating latch-up and TEA+ sensitivity	135
 9-4. K/Na selectivity ratio	139
 9-5. C-type inactivation gating	141
 9-6. Coupling between tunnel-track electrons	142
 9-7. Kinetics and inactivation depend on far sites	144
PART II EXPERIMENTAL / MICROWAVE INVESTIGATION
10	MICROWAVE THERMAL FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY	149
	10-1. Microwave spectroscopy for caged proteins	149
	10-2. Microwave spectra for Blue Fluorescent Protein	152
	10-3. Matching frequencies	153
	10-4. Estimating parameters and sensitivity	156
	10-5. Arginine and lysine hot spots	165
	10-6. Calcium oscillators - microwave sensitivity	166
	10-7. The first excited vibrational state	166
	10-8. Mode switching at infrared frequencies	167
	APPENDIX	171
	A. Geometric calculations for an ?-helix	171
	B. Time constant for a tunneling distance r	172
	FINAL COMMENTS	175
	A brief review of the findings	176
	REFERENCES	180
	INDEX	187

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Ion channels.
Ion channels -- Mathematical models.
Tunneling (Physics).