Table of contents for Introduction to biomedical engineering / edited by John D. Enderle, Joseph D. Bronzino, and Susan M. Blanchard.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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1	Biomedical Engineering: An Historical Perspective
1.1	Evolution of the Modern Health Care System
1.2	The Modern Health Care System
1.3	What is Biomedical Engineering?
1.4	Roles Played by Biomedical Engineers
1.5	Professional Status of Biomedical Engineering
1.6	Professional Societies
1.61 American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE)
1.62 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS)
1.63 Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES)
1.7	Exercises
1.8	Suggested Readings
2	Moral and Ethical Issues
2.1	Morality and Ethics: A Definition of Terms
2.2	Two Moral Norms: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
2.3	Redefining Death
2.4	The Terminally Ill Patient and Euthanasia
2.5	Taking Control
2.6	Human Experimentation
2.7	Definition and Purpose of Experimentation
2.8	Informed Consent
2.8.1	Basic Principles
2.8.2	Medical Research Combined with Professional Care
2.8.3	Non-Therapeutic Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects
2.9	Regulation of Medical Device Innovation
2.10	Marketing Medical Devices
2.11	Ethical Issues in Feasibility Studies
2.12	Ethical Issues in Emergency Use
2.13	Ethical Issues in Treatment Use
2.14	The Role of the Biomedical Engineer in the FDA Process
2.15	Exercises
2.16	References/Suggested Readings
3	Anatomy and Physiology
3.1	Introduction
3.2	Cellular Organization
3.2.1	Plasma Membrane
3.2.2	Cytoplasm and Organelles
3.2.3	DNA and Gene Expression
3.3	Tissues
3.4	Major Organ Systems
3.4.1	Cardiovascular System
3.4.2	Respiratory System
3.4.3	Nervous System
3.4.4	Skeletal System
3.4.5	Muscular System
3.5	Homeostasis
Exercises
Suggested Reading
4	Biomechanics
4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Basic Mechanics
4.2.1 Vector Mathematics
4.2.2 Coordinate Transformations 
4.2.3 Static Equilibrium 
4.2.4 Anthropomorphic Mass Moments of Inertia
4.2.5 Equations of Motion 
4.3 Mechanics of Materials 
4.4 Viscoelastic Properties
4.5 Cartilage, Ligament, Tendon and Muscle 
4.5.1 Cartilage 
4.5.2 Ligaments and Tendons
4.5.3 Muscle Mechanics 
4.6 Clinical Gait Analysis 
4.6.1 The Clinical Gait Model 
4.6.2 Kinematic Data Analysis 
4.6.3 Kinetic Data Analysis 
4.6.4 Clinical Gait Interpretation 
4.7 Cardiovascular Dynamics 
4.7.1 Blood Rheology 
4.7.2 Arterial Vessels 
4.7.3 Heart Mechanics 
4.7.4 Cardiovascular Modeling 
Exercises 
Suggested Reading 
5	Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology
5.1	Introduction
5.1.1	History
5.1.2	Sources of Information
5.1.3	Major Activities in Rehabilitation Engineering
5.2	The Human Component
5.3	Principles of Assistive Technology Assessment
5.4	Principles of Rehabilitation Engineering
5.4.1	Key Engineering Principles
5.4.2	Key Ergonomic Principles
5.5	Practice of Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology
5.5.1	Career Opportunities
5.5.2	Rehabilitation Engineering Outlook
Exercises
Suggested Reading
6	Biomaterials
6.1 Materials in Medicine: From Prosthetics to Regeneration
6.2 Biomaterials: Properties, Types and Applications
	6.2.1 	Mechanical Properties and Mechanical Testing
6.2.2	Metals
6.2.3	Ceramics and Glasses
6.2.4	Polymers
6.2.5	Natural Materials
6.2.6	Composites
6.3	Lessons from Nature of Biomaterial Design and Selection
6.3.1	An Overview of Natural Tissue Construction
6.3.2	Cells Build Natural Tissues
6.3.3	The Extracellular Matrix - Nature's Biomaterial Scaffold
6.3.4	Hierarchical Design
6.3.5	Biomineralized Tissue Example
6.4	Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions
6.4.1	Interactions with Blood and Proteins
6.4.2	The Wound Healing Response after Biomaterial Implamentation
6.4.3	Metallic Corrosion
6.4.4	Biomaterial Degradation and Absorption
6.4.5	Immunogenicity
6.5	Guiding Tissue Repair with Bio-inspired Biomaterials
6.5.1	Surface Chemistry Modifications (1-D)
6.5.2	Surface Topography (2-D)
6.5.3	Scaffolds (3-D)
6.6	Safety Testing and Regulation of Biomaterials
6.6.1	Product Characterization
6.6.2	Methods for Testing and Evaluating safety and Biocompatibility
6.6.3	The Regulatory Process
6.7	Application Specific Strategies for the Design and Selection of Biomaterials
6.7.1	Musculoskeletal Repair
6.7.2	Skin Regeneration
6.7.3	Cardiovascular Devices
6.7.4	Drug Delivery
Exercises
Suggested Reading
7	Tissue Engineering
7.1	What is Tissue Engineering?
7.1.1.	The Challenges Facing the Tissue Engineer 
7.1.2.	Cellular Therapies, Grafts, and Extracorporeal Bioartificial Organs
	7.1.3.	Human Cells as Therapeutic
	7.1.4.	Mechanisms Governing Tissues	
	7.1.5.	Clinical Considerations
7.2	Biological Considerations 
7.2.1 	Stem Cells 
7.2.2 	Maturational Lineage Biology
7.2.3 	Models for Stem Cell Proliferation Behavior
7.2.4 	Stem Cell Aging
7.2.5. 	Tissue Dynamics
	7.2.6	Cell Differentiation
	7.2.7	Cellular Communications
7.3 	Physical Considerations	
7.3.1. 	Organization of Tissues into Functional Subunits
7.3.2 	Estimating Tissue Function From 'Spec Sheets'
7.3.3	Mass Transfer in 3D Configurations
7.3.4. 	Microenvironment and Cell Therapy and Bioreactor Design Principles
	7.3.5	Biomaterials
7.4	Scaling-Up
	7.4.1	Fundamental Concept
	7.4.2.	Key Design Challenges
	7.4.3.	Time Scales of Mass Transfer
	7.4.4.	Fluid Flow and Uniformity
7.5	Implementation of Tissue Engineered Products
7.5.1	Delivering Cell Therapies in a Clinical Setting
	7.5.2	Host Incorporation of Extracorporeal Organs
7.6	Future Directions: Functional Tissue Engineering and the "-Omics" Sciences
	7.6.1 Cellular Aspects
7.6.2 Functional Tissue Engineering
	7.6.3 Bioreactors
7.7	Conclusions
Glossary
Exercises
Suggested Reading
8	Bioinstrumentation
8.1	Introduction
8.2	Basic Instrumentation System
8.3	Charge, Current, Voltage, Power and Energy
8.3.1	Charge
8.3.2	Current
8.3.3	Voltage
8.3.4	Power and Energy
8.3.5	Sources
8.4	Resistance
8.4.1	Resistors
8.4.2	Power
8.4.3	Equivalent Resistance
8.4.4	Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistance
8.4.5	Voltage and Current Divider Rules
8.5	Linear Network Analysis
8.6	Linearity and Superposition
8.7	Thévenin's Theorem
8.8	Inductors
8.9	Capacitors
8.10	A General Approach to Solving Circuits Involving Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors
8.10.1	Discontinuities and Initial Conditions in a Circuit
8.11	OperationalAmplifiers
8.11.1	Voltage Characteristics of the Op Amp
8.12	Time-Varying Signals
8.12.1	Phasor
8.12.2	Passive Circuit Elements in the Phasor Domain
8.12.3	Kirchhoff's Laws and Other Techniques in the Phasor Domain
8.13	Active Analog Filters
8.14	Bioinstrumentation Design
8.14.1	Noise
8.14.2	Computers
Exercises
Suggested Reading
9	Biomedical Sensors
9.1	Introduction
9.1.1	Sensor Classifications
9.1.2	Sensor Packaging
9.2	Biopotential Measurements
9.2.1	The Electrolyte/Metal Electrode Interface
9.2.2	ECG Electrodes
9.2.3	EMG Electrodes
9.2.4	EEG Electrodes
9.2.5	Microelectrodes
9.3	Physical Measurements
9.3.1	Displacement Transducers
9.3.2	Air Flow Transducers
9.3.3	Temperature Measurement
9.4	Blood Gases and pH Sensors
9.4.1	Oxygen Measurements
9.4.2	PH Electrodes
9.4.3	Carbon Dioxide Sensors
9.5	Bioanalytical Sensors
9.5.1	Enzyme-Based Biosensors
9.5.2	Microbial Biosensors
9.6	Optical Biosensors
9.6.1	Optical Fibers
9.6.2	Sensing Mechanisms
9.6.3	Indicator-Mediated Sensors
9.6.4	Immunoassay Sensors
9.6.5	Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
Exercises
Suggested Reading
10	Biosignal Processing
10.1	Introduction
10.2	Physiological Origins of Biosignals
10.2.1	Bioelectric Signals
10.2.2	Biomagnetic Signals
10.2.3	Biochemical Signals
10.2.4	Biomechanical Signals
10.2.5	Bioacoustic Signals
10.2.6	Biooptical Signals
10.3	Characteristics of Biosignals
10.4	Signal Acquisition
	10.4.1	Overview of Biosignal Data Acquisition
	10.4.2	Biosensors, Amplifiers, and Analog Filters
10.4.3	A/D Conversion
10.5	Frequency Domain Representation of Biosignals
10.5.1	Periodic Signal Representation: The Trigonometric Fourier Series
10.5.2	Compact Fourier Series
10.5.3	Exponential Fourier Series
10.5.4	Fourier Transform
10.5.5	Properties of the Fourier Transform
10.5.6	Discrete Fourier Transform
10.5.7	The z-Transform
	10.5.8	Properties of the z-Transform
10.6	Linear Systems
	10.6.1	Linear System Properties
	10.6.2	Time Domain Representation of Linear Systems
	10.6.3	Frequency Domain Representation of Linear Systems
10.6.4	Analog Filters
10.6.5	Digital Filters
10.7	Signal Averaging
10.8	Wavelet Transform and Short-Time Fourier Transform
10.9	Artificial Intelligence Techniques
10.9.1	Fuzzy Logic
10.9.2	Artificial Neural Networks
Exercises
Suggested Reading
11	Bioelectric Phenomena
11.1	Introduction
11.2	History
11.2.1	The Evolution of a Discipline - The Galvani-Volta Controversy
11.2.2	Electricity in the 18th Century
11.2.3	Galvani's Experiment
11.2.4	Volta's Interpretatiom
11.2.5	The Final Result
11.3	Neurons
11.3.1	Membrane Potentials
11.3.2	Resting Potentials, Ionic Concentrations and Channels
11.4	Basic Biophysics Tools and Relationships
11.4.1	Basic Laws
11.4.2	Resting Potential of a Membrane Permeable to One Ion
11.4.3	Donnan Equilibrium
11.4.4	Goldman Equation
11.4.5	Ion Pumps
11.5	Equivalent Circuit Model for the Cell Membrane
11.5.1	Electromotive, Resistive, and Current Properties
11.5.2	Capacitive Properties
11.5.3	Changes in Membrane Potential with Distance
11.6	Hodgkin-Huxley Model of the Action Potential
11.6.1	Action Potentials and the Voltage Clamp Experiment
11.6.2	Equations Describing GNa and GK
11.6.3	Equation for the Time Dependence of the Membrane Potential
11.7 	Model of the Whole Neuron
Problems
Suggested Reading
12 	Physiological Modeling and Compartmental Analysis
12.1	Introduction
12.1.1	Deterministic and Stochastic Models
12.1.2	Solutions
12.2	Compartmental Modeling
12.2.1	Transfer of Substances Between Two Compartments Separated by a Thin 
Membrane
12.2.2	Compartmental Modeling Basics
12.2.3	Multicompartmental Models
12.2.4	Modified Compartmental Modeling
12.2.5	Transfer of Solutes Between Physiological Compartments by Fluid Flow
12.2.6	Dye Dilution Model
12.3	An Overview of the Fast Eye Movement System
12.4	Westheimer's Saccadic Eye Movement Model
12.5	The Saccade Controller
12.6	Development of an Oculomotor Muscle Model
12.6.1	Passive Elasticity
12.6.2	Active State Tension Generator
12.6.3	Elasticity
12.6.4	Force-Velocity Relationship
12.7	A Linear Muscle Model
12.7.1	Length-Tension Curve
12.7.2	Force-Velocity Relationship
12.8	A Linear Homeomorphic Saccadic Eye Movement Model
12.9	A Truer Linear Homeomorphic Saccadic Eye Movement Model
12.10	System Identification
12.10.1	Classical System Identification
12.10.2	Identification of a Linear First-Order System
12.10.3	Identification of a Linear Second-Order System
13 	Genomics and Bioinformatics
13.1	Introduction 
13.1.1	The Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein 
13.2	Core Laboratory Technologies
13.2.1	Gene Sequencing
13.2.2	Whole Genome Sequencing
13.2.3	Gene Expression
13.2.4	Polymorphisms
13.3	Core Bioinformatics Technologies
13.3.1	Genomics Databases
13.3.2	Sequence Alignment
13.3.3	Database Searching
13.3.4	Hidden Markov Models
13.3.5	Gene Prediction
13.3.6	Functional Annotation
13.3.7	Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes
13.3.8	Clustering Genes with Shared Expression Patterms
Exercises
Suggested Reading
14	Computational Biology and Complexity
14.1	Computational Biology
14.1.1	Computational Modeling of Cellular Processes
14.1.2	Modeling Control Mechanisms within the Cell
14.1.3	Modeling Metabolic Pathways within the Cell
14.2	The Modeling Process
14.2.1	Methods of Modeling
14.2.2	Equations of Modeling
14.3	Bionetworks
14.4	Introduction to Complexity Theory
14.4.1	Complexity in Metabolic and Control Networks
Exercises
Suggested Reading
15	Radiation Imaging
15.1	Introduction
15.2	Emission Imaging Systems
15.2.1	Basic Concepts
15.2.2	Elementary Particles
15.2.3	Atomic Structure and Emissions
15.2.4	Radioactive Decay
15.2.5	Measurement of Radiation: Units
15.3	Instrumentation and Imaging Devices
15.3.1	Scintillation Detectors
15.3.2	The Gamma Camera 	
15.3.3	Positron Imaging
15.4	Radiographic Imaging Systems
15.4.1	Basic Concepts
15.4.2	CT Technology
16	Medical Imaging
16.1	Introduction
16.2	 Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging
16.2.1 	Origins of Ultrasound Imaging
16.2.2 	Acoustic Wave Propagation, Reflection and Refraction
16.2.3 	Transducer Basics
16.2.4 	Scattering 
16.2.5 	Absorption
16.2.6 	Diffraction
16.2.7 	Ultrasound Imaging Systems
16.2.8 	Imaging and Other Modes
16.3	Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
16.3.1	Introduction
16.3.2	Magnetic Fields and Charges
16.3.3	Spin States
16.3.4	Precession
16.3.5	Setup for Imaging
16.3.6 	MR Imaging
16.3.7 	MRI Systems
16.3.8 	MRI Applications
16.4 	Image Comparison
16.4.1 	Ultrasound
16.4.2 	CT Imaging
16.4.3	Magnetic Resonance Imaging
17	Biomedical Optics and Lasers
17.1	Introduction to Essential Optical Principles
17.2	Fundamentals Of Light Propagation In Biological Tissue
17.3	Physical Interaction Of Light And Physical Sensing
17.4	Biochemical Measurement Techniques Using Light
17.5	Fundamentals of Photothermal Therapeutic Effects Of Lasers
17.6	Fiber Optics And Waveguides In Medicine
17.7	Biomedical Optical Imaging

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biomedical engineering.
Biomedical Engineering.