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CONTENTS Introduction I. Malwa Opium: The Problem East India Company's Opium Policy in the Pre-Malwa Era Bengal Opium vs. Malwa Opium Appendix A: Note on Opium Weights II. The Setting Malwa at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century Rulers, Bankers, Merchants, Soldiers The Commercial World of Western India Appendix B: John Malcolm on Malwa Speculators III. From Poppy Fields to Malwa Markets Cultivation of Opium in Malwa Processing and Sale The Wholesale Trade IV. The Politics of Opium and the Malwa Opium Agency (1824-1831) Back to basics? The Company's Opium Trade in Malwa Negotiating Opium V. Smuggled Malwa Opium and Indigenous Business Enterprise VI. Daman to Macao: The Portuguese Connection VII. Violence and Reversal of Policy Violent Undercurrents and Collapse of Monopoly Imperfect Containment: 1831-1843 VIII.The Ascendancy of Bombay Bombay: Opium Capital of Western India Malwa Opium and the Rise of the Indian Capitalist Class Appendices Appendix I. List of merchants/firms engaged in Malwa Opium Trade, 1790-1830 Appendix II. Proforma for Opium Passport Appendix III. List of Prominent Indian merchants/firms engaged in Malwa Opium Trade at Bombay, 1844 LIST OF TABLES 1.1 Quantity of Malwa Opium Sold at Company Sales in Calcutta and Bombay, 1823-26 3.1 Cost of well construction in Malwa, c. 1820 3.2 Weather conditions and agricultural season for poppy in Malwa, rabi 1819/20 to rabi 1827/28 3.3 Expenses of cultivating opium in one bigha 3.4 Cost of cultivating one bigha of land in a year with wheat and poppy, c. 1823 3.5 Area under poppy in Malwa, c. 1820 3.6 Index of opium prices at Ujjain and Kota 1813/14 to 1825/26 3.7 Price current of opium at Malwa wholesale markets, 1821-23 4.1 Comparison of total estimated production of opium by Malwa states c. 1820, and quantities of opium to be purchased under restrictive agreements 7.1 Exports of Malwa Opium to China, from Bombay and Daman 7.2 Cost Price of a Chest of Malwa Opium, Including all Expenses, Consigned from Malwa to China, 1832 7.3 Malwa Opium Chests Imported into Bombay for Re-export under Pass System, 1831-1843 8.1 Ships built at Bombay and Daman, owned by Indian and Indo-Portuguese firms 8.2 Ships owned by prominent opium dealers of Bombay, c. early 19th century ABBREVIATIONS AD Alfândega de Damao, Goa State Archives BCA Bombay Calendar and Almanac BCGD Bombay Calendar and General Directory BCSO Board of Customs Salt and Opium BG Bombay Government BGS Selections from the Records of the Bombay Govt. CIA Central India Agency Records CM Correspondência de Macau, Goa State Archives DR Dangerfield's Report EIR East India Register FD:Misc Foreign Department, Miscellaneous, National Archives of India FDP Foreign Department, Political, National Archives of India GOI Government of India GR Gwalior Residency HD Home Department, National Archives of India JJLB Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Letter Books JMA Jardine Matheson Archives, University Library, Cambridge MR Monçoes do Reino, Goa State Archives MSAM Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai NAI National Archives of India NNSS Sri Nat Nagar Shodh Samsthan, Sitamau OIOC Oriental and India Office Collections, British Library PD Political Department, National Archives PLB Poona Residency, Inward Letter Books, Maharashtra State Archives RD Revenue Department, Maharashtra State Archives SI Survey of India SR Separate Revenue Branch Consultations, National Archives of India XCHR Xavier Centre of Historical Research, Porvorim
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Opium trade -- India -- Malwa (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan).
India -- Economic conditions.