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Table of Contents Preface 8 Introduction I. Methodological Framework 12 a. Scope of the Study 12 b. The Literature on the Kurds 15 c. Fieldwork and Theoretical Setting 19 II. A General Picture 25 a. The ?Rome March? 27 b. Individual and Mass Reactions 30 c. The Abduction of Öcalan 34 d. The Wave of Mass Demonstrations of the Early Nineties 36 e. ?Official? Figures 38 f. Summary 39 Chapter 1. NATIONALISM 44 I. Distilling the ?Mongrelized? Twin Concepts of Modernity 47 a. Nation 49 The Most Discussed Definitions of the Nation 50 What I Shall Mean By ?Nation? 59 b. Nationalism: Regurgitated or Demystified? 64 Departures and Arrivals of National Politics 65 ?Types? of Nationalisms 71 Two Faces of ?Modern Janus? 76 The Only ?Face? of Nationalism 86 II. The Twilight of ?Communist Nationalism? 89 a. The Banal and Naïve ?Realpolitik? towards ?National Question? 90 The Right of Nations to Self-determination 92 Revolutionary Romanticism versus the Fact of Social 96 b. What to Blame for the ?Historical Failure? 100 Conclusions 109 III. Kurds? Nationness and Nationalism in Modern Turkey 110 Chapter 2. THE SEEDS OF TURKEY?S KURDISH QUESTION 117 I. The Last Push for the Last Refuge 118 a. An Aesthetic Expression: The National War of Independence 119 b. Kemal?s Initial Proposal 122 c. Revolution or Reforms and Revisions? 124 d. The Central Aim of the Efforts 128 II. The Vital Concerns of the Republican Turkish Political Elite: A ?National War? Without Nationalism 130 a. The Ottoman Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) 132 b. The Steps Subsequent to the CUP?s Experience 138 III. The Sharp Contrast between the Two Policies 143 a. The Nature of the Battle 143 b. The Seeds of the Question are Planted 146 Chapter 3. ENTER THE PKK 151 I. The Accumulative Period 151 a. The Silent Decades 152 b. The Emergence of the Turkish Left through the Democratic ?Gaps? of the Coup154 c. The Radical Tradition of Youth Movements 157 II. The Emergence of the ?Apocular? Group 159 a. The Army Marches in Again 159 b. The Impact of Particular Events on Öcalan?s Leadership 160 c. Preliminary Steps towards the Group 164 d. The Declaration of the Group and the ?Return to the Source? 167 e. The Meeting in Fis: The Founding Congress of the PKK 171 Chapter 4. THE DISCOURSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PKK 175 I. The Theoretical Development of the Party and its Programme from its Foundation to Öcalan?s Arrest 175 a. Ideological and Programmatic Framework 176 b. Implementation Followed by Evolution 182 c. The Evolution of the Years of Armed Propaganda 183 d. The Years of Building the Guerrilla War 187 e. The Years of Massification and the Collapse of Existing Socialism 200 II. Following Öcalan?s Arrest: The ?Second Manifesto? 214 a. The Legal Defences at Imralli Prison 214 b. The Programme of ?Re-foundation? 229 Concluding Remarks 233 Chapter 5. SOURCES OF MOTIVATIONS 237 I. Tribe and Treason: the ?Twin Heritage? of Kurdishness 237 a. The Constancy of Tribal Existence 238 Arrested Tribality 239 b. Tribe and Kurdish Tribe 250 c. The Appreciation of Treason among the Kurds 256 II. The Nature and Resource Field of the Organization 260 a. A Dormant Resource 261 b. The Basic Organizational Structure 264 c. Party Membership 266 d. Organizational Procedure and the Search for Democratization 269 e. Party Education 278 III. Messianic Charisma: For Whom It Operates 301 a. The Problem of the Concepts 302 b. The Reification and Ramifications of the Power of Charisma: How It Operates 306 c. The Routinization of the ?Apo? Charisma 312 Conclusions 315 Chapter 6. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE PKK 325 I. The Organizational Ascent 326 a. Clarifying the Cardinal Point 326 b. The Rising Decade: From the 1980 Coup D?état to the 1990 Mass Eruptions 330 c. The Apex Years: Settlement of the Impasse 340 d. Hints of the Fall 344 II. The Organizational Vicious Circle and its Shrinkage 348 a. Repetitive Cycle: Consolidation of the Impasse 349 b. The Source of Repetition 355 c. The Wrongs of Repetition 365 d. The Deconstruction of Collective Action 369 e. Öcalan?s Charisma: The ?Party Leadership? 372 f. The Nationalism of the PKK: A Nationalismless Nationalism 380 Concluding Remarks 387 Chapter 7. CONCLUSION 394 a. Summary of Conclusions 394 The Social Base and Class Politics 395 Institutionalization of the ?Bureaucratic Staff? 398 Endeavours towards the Re-acquisition of Great Human Naturalness 399 Coexisting Mutation and Insistent Consistency 401 b. General Conclusion 403 Epilogue 409 Tables 427 Appendix 1 Questionnaire 433 Appendix 2 The Basic Constitutional Schema of the PKK 437 Appendix 3 List of Self-immolations 438 Bibliography 441
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Kurds -- Turkey -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
Partiya Karkerãen Kurdistanãe.
Kurds -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements.