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CONTENTS List of plates List of figures List of tables Acknowledgements 1 INTRODUCTION: TOURISM MATTERS! Tourism, Recreation, Leisure and Mobility The Issue of Scale: Empiricism, Paradigms and Transformations The Development of the Geography of Tourism and Recreation The Status of the Geography of Tourism and Recreation Knowledge Action: The Development of an Applied Geography of Tourism and Recreation Culture Insight: The Geography of Tourism and Recreation Outside the Anglo-American Tradition Transforming the Geography of Tourism and Recreation Questions Reading 2 THE DEMAND FOR RECREATION AND TOURISM Geographers and Demand: Historical Perspectives Recreational Demand Barriers to Recreation Seasonality Financial Resources and Access to Recreational Opportunity Gender and Social Constraints The Geography of Fear in Recreation and Leisure Spaces: Gender-based Barriers to Participation Case Study: The Geography of Fear and Recreational Participation: Implications for Social Exclusion The Geography of Fear and Urban Park Use in Leicester Summary Points Social Exclusion: Conditioning Leisure Participation Resources and Fashions Walking as a leisure pursuit: A function of resources and fashion Case Study: Myles Dunphy and the Australian Bushwalking Movement Measuring Recreational Demand Problems and Methods of Measuring Recreational Demand Time Budget Survey Techniques The UK 2000 Time Use Survey National Evaluations of Recreational Demand: International Perspectives United Kingdom United States Poland The Regional Demand for Leisure and Recreation in London The Spatial Analysis of Demand at the Micro Level: Site Surveys Tourism Demand What is Tourism Demand? Tourist Motivation MaslowÆs Hierarchy Model and Tourist Motivation The Measurement of Tourism Demand: Tourism Statistics Defining Tourism Technical Definitions of Tourism Domestic Tourism Statistics International Tourism Statistics Methodological Issues Problems of Accuracy Patterns of Tourism: International Perspectives Global Patterns of Tourism Patterns of Domestic Tourism The New Zealand Domestic Tourism Survey Conclusions Questions Reading 3 THE SUPPLY OF RECREATION AND TOURISM The Supply Factor in Recreation How Has the Geographer Approached the Analysis of Recreational Supply Issues? Insight: Local Authority Expenditure on Leisure and Recreation Provision û Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Descriptive Research on Location and Travel Explanatory Research on Location and Travel Predictive Research on Location Normative Research on Location Supply and Demand in Recreational Contexts: Spatial Interactions The Green Belt Concept Insight: Country Parks as a Spatial Recreational Tool: Intercepting Urban Recreationalists Seeking the Countryside The Multiple Use of Recreational Resources The Supply of Tourism Insight: The Destination Life Cycle Towards a Critical Geography of Tourism Production Insight: Economic Globalisation International Hotel Chains The Leisure Product The Role of the Public and Private Sector in Tourism Supply Spatial Analytical Approaches to the Supply of Tourism Facilities Tourist Facilities Insight: Towards Geographical Analyses of Hospitality: Research Agendas Conclusion Questions Reading 4 THE IMPACTS OF TOURISM AND RECREATION Impacts û Recreation Resource Management Carrying Capacity Insight: The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum The Limits of Acceptable Change Insight: The Tourism Optimisation Management Model (TOMM) Economic Analysis Insight: The Economic Impact of Events The Analysis of TourismÆs Social Impacts Insight: Trafficking, Sex Tourism and Slavery Physical Environmental Impacts Conclusion Questions Reading 5 URBAN RECREATION AND TOURISM Geographical Approaches to Urban Recreation Insight: Stanley Park, Vancouver The Evolution of Urban Recreation in Britain Urban Recreation: A Socio-geographic Perspective The 1800s The 1840s The 1880s The 1920s The 1960s and Beyond Case Study: The Evolution of Parks and Open Space in Victorian Leicester Park Development in Victorian Leicester Post-Victoria Park Development Summary Points Methods of Analysing Urban Recreation Urban Recreational Planning Open Space Planning: Spatial Principles Case Study: The Management, Planning and Provision of Urban Parks in the 1990s. The Example of Newham, East London Urban Park and Open Space Provision in London The London Borough of Newham Summary Points Urban Tourism Understanding the Neglect of Urban Tourism by Researchers Approaches to Urban Tourism: Geographical Analysis The Tourist Experience of Urban Tourism Insight: Tourism in Capital Cities The Urban Tourism Market: Data Sources Urban Tourism: Behavioural Issues Tourist Perception and Cognition of the Urban Environment Tourism Cognitive Mapping Insight: The Value of Urban Heritage Resources Service Quality Issues in Urban Tourism The Significance of Urban Tourism Conclusion Questions Reading 6 RURAL RECREATION AND TOURISM In Pursuit of the Concept of æRuralÆ Conceptualising the Rural RecreationûTourism Dichotomy The GeographerÆs Contribution to Theoretical Debate in Rural Contexts Towards a Concept of Rural Tourism What Makes Rural Tourism Distinctive? Rural Recreation and Tourism in Historical Perspective The GeographerÆs Approach to Rural Recreation and Tourism Studies of Demand The Supply of Rural Recreation The Impact of Rural Recreation Insight: Second Homes in the Countryside Rural Tourism: Spatial Analytical Approaches The Impact of Rural Tourism The Economic Impact The Environmental Effects of Rural Tourism Insight: Wine, Food and Tourism Recreation, Tourism and Sustainability Conclusion Questions Reading 7 TOURISM AND RECREATION IN THE PLEASURE PERIPHERY: WILDERNESS AND NATIONAL PARKS The Changing Meaning of Wilderness in Western Society Insight: What is the effect of World Heritage listing? The Environmental History of National Parks and Wilderness Areas The Values of Wilderness Insight: National Parks and Indigenous Peoples Identifying Wilderness Case Study: Wilderness Inventory in Australia Wilderness Inventories From Identification to Preservation Summary Points Tourist and Recreational Demand for Wilderness, National Parks and Natural Areas Supplying the Wilderness and Outdoor Recreation Experience Insight: Peripheral Areas, Wilderness and Global Environmental Change Conclusion Questions Reading 8 COASTAL AND MARINE RECREATION AND TOURISM The Coastline as a Recreation and Tourist Resource: Its Discovery and Recognition as a Leisure Resource The GeographerÆs Contribution to the Analysis of Coastal Recreation and Tourism The Historical Analysis of Recreation and Tourism in the Coastal Zone Insight: The Promotion of the Seaside Resort: Place-Promotion Strategies Models of Coastal Recreation and Tourism Tourist and Recreational Travel to the Coast Tourist and Recreational Behaviour: Use and Activity Patterns in Coastal Environments Environmental Perspectives on Coastal Recreation and Tourism Integrated Coastal Zone Management Insight: Cruise Tourism Conclusion Questions Reading 9 TOURISM AND RECREATION PLANNING AND POLICY Recreation Planning Policy The Evolution of Leisure and Recreation Planning Recreation Planning: The Concern with Space and Place Tourism Planning and Policy What is Tourism Planning? Approaches to Tourism Planning Co-operative and Integrated Control Systems Insight: The Changing Role of Government and Sustainability Development of Industry Co-ordination Mechanisms Raising Consumer Awareness Raising Producer Awareness Insight: The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) Strategic Planning to Supersede Conventional Approaches Insight: Singapore: Tourism 21 Tourism Policy Conclusion Questions Reading 10 THE FUTURE Geography û The Discipline: Direction and Progress Revisiting Applied Geography Contributions The Role of GIS and Tourism: A Tool for Applied Geographic Research The Role of the Geographer in the New Millennium: Whither Tourism and Recreation? Insight: The Future û The Ageing Population Transformations? Questions Reading References Index
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