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Table of Contents Foreword i Introduction to J. R. R. Tolkien's and Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings Trilogies 1 Chapter 1. Literary and Cinematic Heroes 7 The Need for a New Definition of Hero 8 Literary Definitions of Hero 13 Lord Raglan's Classic Literary Heroes 13 Northrop Frye's Hierarchy of Heroes 17 Joseph Campbell's Heroes on a Quest 19 Additional Ways to Identify Heroes 20 Peter Jackson's Vision of Heroes 23 Camera Angles, Shots, and the Final Edit 23 Lighting 25 The Addition of Music 26 The Structure of the Story 30 Modern Heroes in a Classic Tale 32 Creating a Modern Definition of Hero 37 Unsung Heroes in The Lord of the Rings 39 Notes 40 Chapter 2. Merry as a Knowledgeable Hero 47 Merry as a Literary Hero 49 Merry as a Cinematic Hero 63 The Hero's Journey 65 Physical Departures in Jackson's Trilogy 65 Emotional and Psychological Departures throughout Jackson's Trilogy 70 Initiations throughout the Trilogy 78 The Return Home 82 Differences between Book and Film Merry 83 Comic Relief 85 Age Differences 87 Personality Changes as a Result of War 88 Lesser Importance of the Hobbits 91 Merry and a Modern Definition of Hero 93 Notes 98 Chapter 3. Pippin as an Impulsive, Youthful Hero 112 Pippin as a Literary Hero 117 Tolkien's More Heroic Pippin 118 Pre-Fellowship Pippin 119 Growing Pains During the Quest 122 Wartime Heroism 125 Post-Quest Heroics 126 Pippin as a Cinematic Hero 127 Fool of a Took 128 Pippin's Impulsive Nature 135 Four Heroic Deeds 145 The Strength of Pippin 148 The Structure of Pippin's Development in Book and Film 153 Pippin and a Modern Definition of Hero 158 Notes 163 Chapter 4. Éowyn as an Action Hero 177 Éowyn as a Literary Hero 181 Éowyn as a Cinematic Hero 186 Differences between Book and Film Éowyn 195 Éowyn's Love Nature 196 The Houses of Healing 201 Female Stereotypes 202 Loss, Feminism, Dernhelm, and Éowyn 204 Éowyn and a Modern Definition of Hero 209 Notes 214 Chapter 5. Galadriel and Arwen as Inspirational Heroes 224 Galadriel as a Literary Hero in The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings 225 Arwen's History in Tolkien's Work 228 The Link Between Arwen and Luthien 232 Similarities between Arwen and Luthien 235 Differences between Arwen and Luthien 239 Galadriel and Arwen as Cinematic Heroes 240 Inspirational Gifts 248 Galadriel's Gifts 248 Arwen's Gifts 252 Portrayals of the Female Elves in Book and Film 254 The Lack of a Back Story 255 Arwen's Expanded, But Inconsistent Role 259 Galadriel and Arwen as Heroes for a Modern Age 263 Notes 267 Chapter 6. Legolas and Gimli as Intercultural Heroes 278 Legolas and Gimli as Literary Heroes 283 Mediation as the First Step toward Friendship 284 Value Cultural Differences 289 Ability to Let Go of Past Grievances 293 Cinematic Interpretations of Legolas and Gimli 295 The Importance of Multiculturalism in Modern Heroism 300 The Necessity of Facing Change 302 Legolas and Gimli and a Modern Definition of Hero 307 Notes 313 Chapter 7. The Changing Social Definitions of Heroes 322 Otherness and the Recognition of Heroic Qualities 326 Film and the Mass Marketing of Tolkien 333 The Fine Line Between Fiction and Reality 339 The Lasting Influence of the Trilogies 341 Notes 349 Bibliography 354 Online Resources for Tolkien Studies 371 Index 377
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. Lord of the rings.
Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973 -- Film and video adaptations.
Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973 -- Characters -- Heroes.
Fantasy fiction, English -- History and criticism.
Lord of the Rings films -- History and criticism.
Middle Earth (Imaginary place).
Heroes in motion pictures.
Heroes in literature.