Table of contents for Earth building : methods and materials : repair and conservation / Laurence Keefe.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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 Contents
 
Part One. Earth Construction: Methods and Materials
Introduction: Earth as a 'Green' Building Material		
Some terms used in the environmental assessment of
building materials and construction methods			1
The performance of earth based materials			5 	
Chapter One. Earth Building in Britain - International 
Context and Historical Background				
British earth building in an international context:
A brief history								8
The earth building revival						10
Earth buildings in Britain - types and distribution			12		 
Earth walling types							14
 Wet mix laid in situ (cob and mudwall)			15
 Mud and stud							17
 Clay lump							18
 Rammed earth							19
The distribution of earth buildings in Britain			20
 Ireland								20
 Wales								22
 North West England/South West Scotland			23
 North and East Scotland					24
 Lincolnshire							25
 East Midlands							26
 East Anglia							27
 Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire				28
 South and South West England				29
Summary								31	
Chapter Two. The Raw Material: Soils for Use in Building		
Earth as a construction material					34
Classification of Soils							36
Soil classification in detail: identification, analysis and 
testing									39
Identification of soil type					 40
 Particle size distribution						41
 Sedimentation analysis						43
 The clay fraction							44
 Soil consistency							45
 Soil expansiveness						47
 Compressive strength						48
 Soil Density and porosity					51
Clays and aggregates, including chalk				52
Stone and gravel						52
 Sand								53
 Silt									54
 Clay								54
 Chalk								57	
Chapter Three. Earth Construction 1: Preparation and Mixing		
Constructing mass earth and earth block walls			61
First, find your soil...							61		
Soil stabilization							63
Modifying soils							65
Storage of soils on site						68
Soil preparation and mixing					68
The use of organic fibre reinforcement				70
Wet methods - cob, cob blocks, clay lump and adobe	72
Cob mixing								73
Mixing procedure for adobe, clay lump and cob blocks	76
Fabrication of mud bricks and cob bocks			78
Compaction methods - rammed earth (pisé) and 
compressed soil blocks						80
Rammed earth							80
Compressed soil blocks						82
Foundations and plinths (underpin courses)			82
On-site access and safety						86	
Chapter Four. Earth Construction 2: The Building Process
Cob wall construction						87
Tools and equipment						87
Forming door and window openings				87
Placing the cob							88
A note on shuttered cob					90
Placing the cob (continued) - fixings and structural
Supports								91
Notes concerning shrinkage and settlement in
Mass earth walls							95
Fireplaces and chimney stacks				96
Building with rammed earth					98
Formwork							99
Methods of compaction					105
Building with earth blocks and clay lump				108
Earth based finishes for earth walls				111
Composite earth/lime renders				113
Mixing and application					115
Paint finishes								117	
Chapter Five. Standards and Regulations
Introduction								118
Planning legislation, policies and guidance			119
Building Regulations							122
The Building Regulation Approved Documents			123
Approved Document to support Regulation 
7 - Materials and workmanship				125
Approved Document A - Structure				127
Approved Document B - Fire safety				131
Approved Document C - Site preparation and
 resistance to moisture						134
Approved Document E - Resistance to the 
Passage of sound 						137
Approved Documents L1 and L2 - Conservation
 of fuel and power						138
Technical standards and codes of practice for
earth wall construction						149	
Part Two. The Conservation, Repair and Maintenance of 
Earth Buildings
Introduction
Historical background - public perception of 
earth buildings							152
Why preserve earth buildings: the need for conservation.	155
Statutory protection							156	
Chapter Six. The Principal Causes of Failure in Earth Walls and 
How to Recognise Them
Inherent defects associated with original construction 
materials and methods						159
Walls, plinths and foundations					159
Roofs, carpentry and other building elements		162
Problems arising from later alterations and interventions	166
Alterations to roofs						166
Alterations to walls						168
The use of inappropriate materials and ineffective
repair methods							169
External interventions						169
Internal alterations						174
The need for maintenance					177
Physical damage from external sources				178
Ground settlement (subsidence)				178
Plant and rodent damage					179
Erosion, abrasion and impact damage			180
Dampness in earth walls and associated building
Materials								181
Wall finishes - plasters, renders and paints			184
The measurement of dampness in earth walls,
plasters and renders							186
Hygroscopicity, soluble salts and freeze/thaw
conditions								188
Determination of critical moisture content in earth walls	189				
Chapter Seven. The Diagnostic Survey and Repair of 
Earth Buildings							
A suggested diagnostic survey procedure for earth 
Walled buildings							193
Checklist: Characteristics and features of building and
Site to be recorded							194
1. External environmental conditions				194
 2. Details of original construction				195
 3. Later alterations, repairs or inappropriate
 maintenance						195
4. Condition of building					196
 5. Suggested procedure for dampness surveys		198
 6. Analysis and testing of earth samples			199
The repair of earth buildings
Principals of repair							200
Appropriate repair materials					202
Making buildings safe, specifying repairs and
monitoring dampness 						204
The repair of hollows, cavities, minor surface erosion
and abrasion								207
The repair of structural cracks and fissures			209
The repair of severely eroded areas, rodent and plant
Damage								213
The re-building of walls following major structural
failure or partial collapse						215
Repairing failed masonry plinths, underpinning, 
replacement of failed brick and stone facings,
installation of land drains						221	
Organisations							224
References and Bibliography					226
Index									232

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Earth construction.