Table of contents for Concise rules of APA style.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Introduction: A Pocket Reference for Writers 
1. Concise and Bias-Free Writing
General Guidance
Orderly Presentation of Ideas 
		Smoothness of Expression 
		Economy of Expression
		Precision and Clarity
		Agreement of Subject and Verb
		Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers and Use of Adverbs
		Relative Pronouns and Subordinate Conjunctions
		Parallel Construction
		Linguistic Devices
Reducing Bias in Language
		Guideline 1: Describe at an Appropriate Level of Specificity
		Guideline 2: Be Sensitive to Labels
		Guideline 3: Acknowledge Participation
		Sexual Orientation
		Racial and Ethnic Identity
Organizing Ideas
Organizing a Manuscript With Headings
		Levels of Heading
		Selecting the Levels of Heading
2. Punctuation, Spelling, and Capitalization
		Quotation Marks
		Preferred Spelling
		Words Beginning a Sentence
		Major Words in Titles and Headings
		Proper Nouns and Trade Names
		Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters
		Titles of Tests
		Names of Conditions or Groups in an Experiment
		Names of Factors, Variables, and Effects
3. Italicizing and Abbreviating
		Italicizing Words
		Use of Abbreviations
		Explanation of Abbreviations
		Abbreviations Accepted as Words
		Abbreviations Used Often in APA Journals
		Latin Abbreviations
		Scientific Abbreviations
		Other Abbreviations
		Use of Periods With Abbreviations
		Plurals of Abbreviations
		Abbreviations Beginning a Sentence
4. Numbers, Metrication, and Statistics
Numbers Expressed in Figures
		Numbers Expressed in Words
		Combining Figures and Words to Express Numbers
		Ordinal Numbers
		Decimal Fractions
		Roman Numerals
		Commas in Numbers
		Plurals of Numbers
		Policy on Metrication
		Style for Metric Units
Statistical and Mathematical Copy
		Selecting the Method of Analysis and Retaining Data
		Selecting Effective Presentation
		References for Statistics
		Statistics in Text
		Statistical Symbols
		Spacing, Alignment, and Punctuation
		Equations in Text
		Displayed Equations
5. Tables
Tabular Versus Textual Presentation
	Relation of Tables and Text
	Relation Between Tables
	Table Numbers
	Table Titles
	Body of a Table
	Presenting Data in Specific Types of Tables
	Notes to a Table
	Ruling of Tables
	Size of Tables
	Tables From Another Source
	Table Checklist
6. Figures 
Deciding to Use Figures
	Standards for Figures
	Types of Figures
	Line Art Versus Halftone
	Overall Size and Proportion
	Preparation of Figures
	Creating Graphs
	Using Photographs
	Identifying and Citing Figures
	Figure Legends and Captions
	Submitting Figures
	Figure Checklist
7. Footnotes and Appendixes 
		Footnotes in Text
		Notes to Tables
		Author Note
		Identifying and Citing Appendixes
		Body and Headings
		Tables as Appendixes
		Tests and Questionnaires
8. Quotations, Reference Citations in Text, and Reference List
Quotation of Sources
		Double or Single Quotation Marks
		Changes From the Source Requiring No Explanation
		Changes From the Source Requiring Explanation
		Citation of Sources
		Citations Within Quotations
		Permission to Quote
Reference Citations in Text
Agreement of Text and Reference List
One Work by One Author
		One Work by Multiple Authors
		Groups as Authors
Works With No Author (Including Legal Material) or With an 
 Anonymous Author
		Authors With the Same Surname
		Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses
		Classical Works
		Specific Parts of a Source
		Personal Communications
Citations in Parenthetical Material
Reference List
Construction of an Accurate and Complete Reference List
APA Reference Style
		Order of References in the Reference List
		References Included in a Meta-Analysis
		Introduction to APA Reference Style
		General Forms
		Publication Date
		Title of Article or Chapter
		Title of Work and Publication Information: Periodicals
		Title of Work: Nonperiodicals
		Title of Work: Part of a Nonperiodical (Book Chapters)
		Publication Information: Nonperiodicals
		Retrieval Information: Electronic Sources
9. Reference Examples
Elements and Examples of References in APA Style
	A. Periodicals
	B. Books, Brochures, and Book Chapters
	C. Technical and Research Reports
	D. Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia
	E. Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses
	F. Unpublished Work and Publications of Limited Circulation
	G. Reviews
	H. Audiovisual Media
	I. Electronic Media
		Sources on the Internet
		Periodicals on the Internet
			Internet Articles Based on a Print Source
	Article in an Internet-Only Journal
	Article in an Internet-Only Journal, Retrieved Via File Transfer
	Article in an Internet-Only Newsletter
	Nonperiodical Documents on the Internet
		Multipage Document Created by Private Organization, No Date
		Chapter or Section in an Internet Document
		Stand-Alone Document, No Author Identified, No Date
		Document Available on University Program or Department Web 
	Technical and Research Reports on the Internet
		Report From a University, Available on Private Organization Web 
		U.S. Government Report Available on Government Agency Web
		 Site, No Publication Date Indicated
		Report From a Private Organization, Available on Organization 
		 Web Site
		Abstract of a Technical Report Retrieved From University Web
	Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia on the Internet
		Paper Presented at a Symposium, Abstract Retrieved From 
		 University Web Site
		Paper Presented at a Virtual Conference
	Newsgroups, Online Forums and Discussion Groups, and Electronic 	
		Mailing Lists 
		Message Posted to a Newsgroup
		Message Posted to Online Forum or Discussion Group
		Message Posted to an Electronic Mailing List
	Other Electronic Sources
		Aggregated Databases
			Electronic Copy of a Journal Article, Three to Five 
 Authors, Retrieved From Database
Daily Newspaper Article, Electronic Version Available
 by Search
Electronic Copy of an Abstract Obtained From a Secondary
Electronic Version of U.S. Government Report Available 
 by Search From GPO Access Database (on the Web)
		Computer Programs, Software, and Programming Languages
			Computer Software
		Computer Software and Manual Available on University 
		 Web Site
		Raw Data
			Data File, Available From Government Agency
			Data File, Available From NTIS Web Site
Appendix A. Style Rules Cross-Referenced to the Fifth Edition of the Publication 
Manual of the American Psychological Association
Checklist for Manuscript Submission

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Psychology -- Authorship -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Social sciences -- Authorship -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.