Table of contents for Ritual dynamic structure / Roy E. Gane.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents v
Abbreviations xiii
Preface xvii
Abstract xix
Introduction 1
1. Ritual Theory 3
2. Methodology 7
3. Application to Additional Ritual Traditions 10
1. ôIntrinsic Activityö Perspective 13
1.1. Preliminary Establishment of an Activity Outline 14
1.2. A Ritual as a Dynamic System Carrying Out a Process 18
1.3. Systems Theory Concepts and Methodology 23
1.3.1. Introduction to General Systems Theory 23
1.3.2. ôHuman Activity Systemsö Analysis 26
1.3.2.1. Conceptual Model 27
1.3.2.2. ôRoot Definitionö 30
1.3.2.3. ôSystems Languageö 33
1.4. A Systems Approach to Ritual Activity:
Intrinsic Activity Analysis of the Israelite Burnt Offering 35
1.5. ôRitualnessö and the Criterion of Concern for Rules
Rather than Results 43
1.6. Ritual as ôFormulaic Activityö 45
1.7. Types of Intrinsic Activity Transformations 47
1.7.1. Step-Constituted 47
1.7.2. Physical Position-Constituted (Choreography) 49
1.7.3. Sound-Constituted (Music) 49
vi RITUAL DYNAMIC STRUCTURE
1.7.4. Language-Constituted 49
1.8. Conclusion 50
2. ôCognitive Taskö Perspective 51
2.1. A Modified Theory of Ritual 51
2.1.1. A ôCognitive Taskö Level of Abstraction 51
2.1.2. ôEntity Inaccessibilityö 54
2.1.3. A Tentative Definition of ôRitualö 57
2.2. Some Implications of the Modified Theory of Ritual 64
2.2.1. Religious and Magical Authority 64
2.2.2. ôRitualismö 65
2.2.3. Ritual, Language, and Meaning 66
2.3. Defining Boundaries Between Ritual and Nonritual Activity 68
2.3.1. Determining Whether or Not an Activity Belongs
Within a Ritual System 68
2.3.2. Boundary Definition Problems 70
2.4. Ritual Hierarchy 75
2.5. Cognitive Task Analysis of an Individual Ritual:
the Israelite Burnt Offering 79
2.6. Conclusion 92
3. ôRitual Syntaxö Perspective 95
3.1. ôRitual Syntaxö as Developed by F. Staal 96
3.1.1. A Syntactic Approach to Analysis of Ritual Activity 96
3.1.2. ôRulesö That Account for Syntactic Structures
Found in Ritual 97
3.1.2.1. Recursive ôSelf-Embeddingö Rules 97
3.1.2.2. Recursive Insertion Rules 98
3.1.2.3. Recursive Phrase Structure Rules 99
3.1.2.4. Transformational Rules to Express Modification
of Embedded Units in Certain Contexts 102
3.1.3. Syntactic Relations Between Ritual Units 103
3.1.4. Syntactic Similarity Between Ritual and Music 104
3.2. The Contribution of R. Payne to ôRitual Syntaxö 106
3.3. Application of a ôRitual Syntaxö Approach
to the Israelite Burnt Offering 108
3.3.1. Abstracting Syntactic Structure 108
3.3.2. Syntactic Rules and Features 110
3.3.3. Paradigm Boundaries 112
CONTENTS vii
3.4. Conclusion 113
4. Israelite ôDay of Atonementö 115
4.1. OWNERSHIP TRANSFER RITUAL 118
4.1.1. Lot Ritual 118
4.1.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 118
4.1.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 119
4.1.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 122
4.2. OFFERING RITUALS 122
4.2.1. Accompanying Cereal Offering 122
4.2.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 122
4.2.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 123
4.2.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 124
4.2.2. Regular High Priestly Cereal Offering 124
4.2.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 124
4.2.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 126
4.2.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 127
4.2.3. Accompanying Drink Offering 127
4.2.3.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 127
4.2.3.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 128
4.2.3.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 128
4.2.4. Drink Offering Inside the Tent 129
4.2.4.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 129
4.2.4.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 131
4.2.4.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 132
4.2.5. Incense Ritual 132
4.2.5.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 132
4.2.5.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 133
4.2.5.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 134
4.2.6. Lamp Ritual 134
4.2.6.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 134
4.2.6.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 136
4.2.6.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 136
4.3. OFFERING + REMOVAL RITUAL 137
4.3.1. Calendric Burnt Offering 137
4.3.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 138
4.3.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 138
4.3.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 138
4.4. REMOVAL + OFFERING RITUALS 138
4.4.1. Festival Purification Offering 138
4.4.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 139
4.4.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 143
viii RITUAL DYNAMIC STRUCTURE
4.4.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 154
4.4.2. ôPurification Offering of Purgationsö 154
4.4.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 155
4.4.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 172
4.4.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 184
4.5. REMOVAL RITUALS 186
4.5.1. Priestly Personal Purification Preparatory to Entering
Outer Sanctum or Officiating at Altar 186
4.5.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 186
4.5.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 189
4.5.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 189
4.5.2. High Priestly Personal Purification Preparatory to
Officiating ôPurgations Complexö 190
4.5.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 190
4.5.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 191
4.5.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 192
4.6. REMOVAL + COMMUNICATION RITUAL 192
4.6.1. AzazelÆs Goat (so-called ôScapegoatö) Ritual 192
4.6.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 192
4.6.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 194
4.6.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 197
5. Babylonian New Year Festival, Fifth Day 199
5.1. OFFERING RITUALS 202
5.1.1. Regular Morning Meal for Be4l and Be4let 202
5.1.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 202
5.1.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 203
5.1.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 204
5.1.2. Regular Afternoon Meal for Be4l 204
5.1.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 205
5.1.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 207
5.1.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 208
5.1.3. Afternoon Meal of Nabû 209
5.1.3.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 209
5.1.3.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 209
5.1.3.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 210
5.1.4. Burnt Offering to Divine Luminaries 210
5.1.4.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 210
5.1.4.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 212
5.1.4.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 214
5.2. COMMUNICATION RITUALS 214
5.2.1. Prayer to Be4l 214
CONTENTS ix
5.2.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 216
5.2.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 216
5.2.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 218
5.2.2. Prayer to Be4let 218
5.2.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 219
5.2.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 220
5.2.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 221
5.3. REMOVAL RITUALS 221
5.3.1. Personal Purification of the High Priest 221
5.3.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective Perspective 221
5.3.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective Perspective 222
5.3.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 223
5.3.2. Personal Purification of the King 223
5.3.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 223
5.3.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 223
5.3.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 225
5.3.3. Purification of the Temple 225
5.3.3.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 225
5.3.3.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 226
5.3.3.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 227
5.4. REMOVAL + COMMUNICATION RITUALS 228
5.4.1. Purification of the Ezida Cella of Nabû 228
5.4.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 229
5.4.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 230
5.4.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 234
5.4.2. Second (ôGolden Heavenö) Purification of the
Ezida Cella 234
5.4.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 235
5.4.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 236
5.4.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 238
5.5. ôRITE OF PASSAGEö 238
5.5.1. Reconfirmation of the King 238
5.5.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 240
5.5.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 241
5.5.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 242
6. Hittite Telipinu Festival, Fourth Day 245
6.1. OFFERING RITUALS 247
6.1.1. Meat + Drink Offering 247
6.1.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 249
6.1.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 252
6.1.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 254
x RITUAL DYNAMIC STRUCTURE
6.1.2. Meat + Bread + Drink Offering 254
6.1.2.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 255
6.1.2.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 259
6.1.2.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 260
6.2. REMOVAL + JOURNEY + COMMUNICATION RITUAL 261
6.2.1. Purification of the Sancta 261
6.2.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 264
6.2.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 273
6.2.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 277
6.3. FEAST RITUAL 278
6.3.1. Feast 278
6.3.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective 280
6.3.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective 280
6.3.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 286
7. Ritual Complexes 287
7.1. RITUAL COMPLEXES BELONGING TO THE ISRAELITE
DAY OF ATONEMENT 288
7.1.1. Intrinsic Activity Perspective:
Order in Which Individual Rituals are Performed 288
7.1.1.1. Order in Which Regular Rituals are Performed 288
7.1.1.2. Order in Which Festival (Additional) Offerings
are Performed 295
7.1.1.3. Order in Which Rituals Special to the Day of
Atonement are Performed 296
7.1.2. Cognitive Task Perspective:
Identification of Ritual Complexes 297
7.1.2.1. Logical Relationships Between Individual Rituals 297
7.1.2.2. Decomposition of the ôDay of Atonement Complexö 300
7.1.2.3. Structure of the Purgations Complex 303
7.1.3. Ritual Syntax Perspective 305
7.1.3.1. Hierarchical Structure of the Day of Atonement 305
7.1.3.2. Syntactic Relations in the Day of Atonement Complex
310
7.2. RITUAL COMPLEXES BELONGING TO
THE FIFTH DAY OF THE BABYLONIAN NEW YEAR
FESTIVAL OF SPRING 319
7.2.1. Cognitive Task Perspective:
Identification of Ritual Complexes 319
7.2.2. Ritual Syntax Perspective 323
CONTENTS xi
7.3. RITUAL COMPLEXES BELONGING TO
THE FOURTH DAY OF THE NINTH YEAR TELIPINU
FESTIVAL 324
7.3.1. Cognitive Task Perspective:
Identification of Ritual Complexes 324
7.3.2. Ritual Syntax Perspective 325
CONCLUSION 327
1. Demonstration of Aspects of StaalÆs Ritual Theory
in Ancient Near Eastern Ritual 327
2. A Modified Theory of Ritual 329
3. Application of the Modified Theory of Ritual 331
4. General Comparisons between the Selected Festival Days
in Terms of Ritual Dynamic Structure 335
5. Final Remarks 337
Appendix I: Critique of Hubert and Mauss 339
1. An ôAbstract Schemeö: A Common Dynamic 339
2. Problems with the ôAbstract Schemeö 341
3. Basic Errors Behind the Problems 344
Appendix II: The Ninth Year Telipinu Festival 347
The Text 352
Preparation 352
Day 1 353
Day 2 353
Day 3 355
Day 4 358
Day 5 361
Day 6 362
Inventory 363
Belonging to (An)other Telipinu Festival(s)? 364
BIBLIOGRAPHY 367
Index of Biblical Sources 375
Index of Rabbinic Sources 387
General Index 389

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Ritual.
Judaism -- Liturgy.
Yom Kippur -- Liturgy.
New Year -- Iraq -- Babylonia.
Rites and ceremonies -- Iraq -- Babylonia.
Hittites -- Rites and ceremonies.
Telipinu (Hittite deity).