Table of contents for Urbanization : an introduction to urban geography / Paul L. Knox and Linda McCarthy.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents
Preface
1
Urbanization and Urban Geography
Chapter Preview
The Study of Urban Geography
Space, Territoriality, Distance, and Place
Approaches to Urban Geography
BOX: U.S. Census definitions
Urbanization: Processes and Outcomes
BOX: Globalization and cities
Economic Change
BOX: Long-wave economic fluctuations and urbanization
Demographic Change
Political Change
Cultural Change
Technological Change
Environmental Change
Social Change
The Plan of the Book
Follow Up
Related World Wide Web Sites
2
The Origins and Growth of Cities
Chapter Preview
The Definition of a City
BOX: A summary of Childe's characteristics of urban civilization
Preconditions for Urbanization
Theories of Urban Origins
Agricultural Surplus
Hydrological Factors
Population Pressures
Trading Requirements
Defense Needs
Religious Causes
A More Comprehensive Explanation
Urban Origins
	Mesopotamia
	Egypt
	The Indus Valley
	Northern China
	Mesoamerica
Internal Structure of the Earliest Cities
BOX: Internal structure of the earliest cities
Urban Expansion from the Regions of Urban Origin
BOX: The Silk Road: Long-distance trade and urban expansion between about 500 B.C. and 1500 A.D.
The Roots of European Urban Expansion
Greek Cities
Roman Cities
Dark Ages
Urban Revival in Europe during the Medieval Period
BOX: Hanseatic League cities
Urban Expansion and Consolidation during the Renaissance and Baroque Periods
Urbanization and the Industrial Revolution
BOX: Manchester: Shock City of European industrialization
BOX: Residential segregation in mid-nineteenth century Glasgow, Scotland
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
3
The Foundations of the American Urban System
Chapter Preview
Frontier Urbanization
The Mercantile Epoch (1790-1840)
BOX: Vance's mercantile model
Early Industrial Expansion and Realignment (1840-1875)
BOX: Immigrant housing conditions and the American city, 1840-1875
Some Principles of Urban Growth
Interpreting and Analyzing the Urban Hierarchy and the Central Place System
The rank-size rule
Innovation and urban growth
Central place theory
Beyond consumer hinterlands
The Organization of Industry (1875-1920)
Understanding and Analyzing Uneven Urban Development
Urban-industrial growth as a self-propelling process
Modifying processes
Early Fordism, the Automobile Era, Suburban Infill, and the Great Depression (1920-1945)
A Critical Turn for Urbanization: The Depression and Macroeconomic Management
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
4
Urban Systems in Transition
Chapter Preview
Freeways, Regional Decentralization, and Metropolitan Consolidation (1945-1972)
Economic Crisis and Neo-Fordist Urban Restructuring (1972-1983)
Urban Distress
Neo-Fordist Economic Restructuring and the Emergence of "Informational" Cities (1983-present)
BOX: The digital divide and splintering urbanism in the United States
Globalization, Splintering Urbanism, and Uneven Development
Economic Functions within the Urban Hierarchy
World cities
Regional command and control centers
Specialized producer-service centers
Dependent centers
BOX: Variations in the quality of life within the U.S. urban system
BOX: Contemporary European Urbanization
Demographic and Social Change in the Postwar Urban Systems
The baby boomers
The post-boomers/young adults
The elderly
The new immigrants
Concepts of Urban System Change: Counterurbanization, Deurbanization, and Reurbanization
BOX: The deurbanization scenario in the United States?
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
5
The Foundations of Urban Form and Land Use
Chapter Preview
The Mercantile City (before 1840)
Models of the Mercantile City
The Early Industrial City (1840-1875)
	Urbanization and the Public Interest
	Instruments of Change: Horsecars and Railroads
		Horescars
		Railroads
The Industrial City (1875-1920)
Economic Specialization and the Reorganization of Urban Space
Framing the City: Networked Infrastructures
The Emergence of Zoning Laws
The Suburban Explosion: Streetcar Suburbs
Rapid transit
Mass Transport and Real Estate Development
Urban Structure in the Industrial Era
	Central Business Districts
		Department Stores and Shopping Districts
		Downtown Office Districts
		Warehouse Zones
		City Halls and Civic Pride
		The Spatial Organization of CBDs
	Land Values and Urban Land Use
BOX: The bid-rent theory of urban land use
		Sectors and Zones
		Filtering and Vacancy Chains
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
6
Changing Metropolitan Form
Chapter Preview
Suburban Infill (1920-1945)
	Fordism
	Paving the Way for Suburbanization
		Parkways
		The Decline of Mass Transit
	Patterns of Suburban Growth
		Automobile Suburbs
		Planned Suburbs
		Suburbanization and Federal Policy
		Suburbanization of Commerce and Industry
		New Patterns of Land Use
Freeways and Metropolitan Sprawl (1945-1972)
The Preconditions for Sprawl
The Fordist Suburb
Suburban Production and Consumption Spaces
Central City Land Use
Neo-Fordist Development (1973-Present)
	Splintering Urbanism
	The Polycentric Metropolis
BOX: Boomburbs and "Generica"
BOX: Japanese Cities: Tokyo and the Tokaido Megalopolis
BOX: Australian Edge Cities?
The End of "Suburbia"
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
7
Urbanization in the Less Developed Countries
Chapter Preview
Urbanization Trends and Projections: The Less Developed Countries in Global Context
BOX: Core, semi-periphery, and periphery in the world system
Factors promoting Urban Growth
Theories of Urbanization and Economic Development
1. Modernization Theories: The Developmental Approach
2. Urban Bias and Underdevelopment
BOX: A model of peripheral urbanization
3. New Models for the less developed countries: Opportunities for development
An Historical Perspective on Colonial Urbanization
BOX: Delhi: The evolution of an imperial city
	Indigenous Urbanization at the Eve of the European Encounters
	Mercantile Colonialism
	Industrial Colonialism
BOX: Generalized model of the co-evolution of transportation networks and urban hierarchies in a colonial context
	Late Colonialism
	Early Independence
	Neo-Colonialism
Overurbanization and Megacities
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
8
Urban Form and Land Use in the Less Developed Countries
Chapter Preview
Patterns of Urban Form and Land Use
	Latin American Cities
	African Cities
		1. The indigenous (native) city
		2. The Islamic city
		3. The colonial (administrative) city
		4. The 'European' city
	BOX: South African Cities
5. The dual city
		6. The hybrid city
Islamic Cities
BOX: Contemporary Islamic cities and the imprints of globalization
	South Asian Cities
	Southeast Asian Cities
	East Asian Cities
BOX: Shanghai and the Pudong New Area: The 'Dragon Head' of China's Economy?
BOX: Hong Kong's Extended Metropolitan Region: The Pearl River Delta Region
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
9
Urban Problems and Responses in the Less Developed Countries
Chapter Preview
Urban Problems
	Poverty
	Inadequate Housing
Lack of Urban Services
	BOX: HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African cities
Transportation Problems
	BOX: How rationing can backfire: The 'Day without a Car' regulation in Mexico City
Environmental Degradation
Responses to the Problems of Urbanization
	Sustainable Urban Development
	The 'Globalization Paradox' and Recent Changes in Urban Governance
		1. Decentralization and formal government reforms
		2. Participation of local communities in urban policy-making and implementation
		BOX: Different levels of participation in urban policy-making and implementation
BOX: Urban social movements and the role of women
3. Multi-level governance and public-private partnerships
4. Process-oriented and area-based policies
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
10
The City as Text: Architecture and Urban Design
Chapter Preview
Architecture and the Dynamics of Urban Change
Architecture and Exchange Value
Architecture and the Circulation of Capital
Architecture and Legitimation
	Meaning and Symbolism
	Architecture versus "Mere Building"
The Style of Production/The Production of Style
Arcadian Classicism and the "Middle Landscape"
Public Parks
Commercial Confusion
Beaux Arts and the City Beautiful
The American Way: Skyscrapers
Modernism: Design for Utopia
Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau
The Early Modernists
The Bauhaus and the Modern Movement
Le Corbusier	
An American Response
The International Style and Late Modernism
The Critique of Modernism
The Postmodern Interlude
	Postmodernism and Neo-Fordism
	Packaged Landscapes
	New (Retro) Urbanism
Design for Dystopia
	Fortress L.A.
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
11
The Urban Development Process
Chapter Preview
Property, Location, Rent, and Investment
BOX: Concepts of rent
A Typology of Investment in Land and Property
Property as a Financial Asset
The Structures of Building Provision
City Makers
Landowners
Speculators
Developers
Builders
Consumers
Real estate agents, financiers, and other facilitators
Government agencies
BOX: Brownfield redevelopment
Market Responses of the Development Industry
BOX: Urban development is less and less a local activity
New Products
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
12
The Residential Kaleidoscope
Chapter Preview
Social Interaction and Residential Segregation
Territoriality
The Foundations of Residential Segregation
Social status
Household type
BOX: The social construction of race
Ethnicity
BOX: Social exclusion and migrant workers in West European cities
Lifestyle
BOX: How segregated are urban neighborhoods?
Interpretations of Residential Ecology
The Chicago School: Human Ecology
Criticisms of Human Ecology
BOX: Factorial ecology
BOX: Residential and economic structure in European cities
Urbanization and changing social structures
Recent Changes to the Foundations of Residential Segregation
BOX: The ethnoburb: A new suburban ethnic settlement
New Divisions of Labor, New Household Types, and New Lifestyles
New roles for women
New patterns of household formation
Increased materialism and new lifestyles
BOX: "Inconspicuous Consumption" during the 1990s
The spatial isolation of the vulnerable and disadvantaged
The New Mosaic: Attempting to identify "Lifestyle" Communities
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
13
How Neighborhoods Change
Chapter Preview
Neighborhood Change
Redevelopment and Reinvestment
Neighborhood Lifecycles
BOX: Stability and change: a typology of neighborhoods
Housing Markets
Urbanization and the Tenure Transformation
Housing Affordability
Public Housing
BOX: Public and private housing in European cities
Housing Submarkets
BOX: Neighborhood stability in West European cities
Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change
Rates of Turnover: Movers and Stayers
The Impact of New Arrivals to the City
Intraurban Moves
Reasons for Moving
Understanding Household Behavior: The Decision to Move
Understanding Household Behavior: The Search for Alternative Places to Live
Concepts that Link Mobility with Neighborhood Change
Housing Market Gatekeepers, Bias, and Discrimination
Real Estate Agents as Social Gatekeepers
Mortgage Finance Managers as Social Gatekeepers
Insurance Agents as Social Gatekeepers
Putting It All Together: The Example of Gentrification
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
14
Urbanization, Urban Life, and Urban Spaces
Chapter Preview
Social Life In Cities
Theoretical Interpretations of Urban Life
BOX: "Sex and the City:" Prostitution
The "Moral Order" of City Life
Anomie and Deviant Behavior
Liberating Aspects of Urban Life
Urbanism as a Way of Life
The public and private worlds of city life
BOX: Homosexuality and the city
Changing Metropolitan Form and New Forms of Urbanism
Urban villages
Suburban communality, "habitus," and postmodern lifestyles
Community and Territory
Cognition, perception, and mental maps of the city
Appraisive Images
BOX: Disability and the city
Lifeworlds and the "Structuration" of Social Life
Time-Space Routines
BOX: Structuration: time and space in everyday life
Gendered Spaces: Women, Home, and Community
The Creation of Women's Spaces
Changing Roles, Changing Spaces
BOX: Domestic discrimination by design: Architecture and gender differences
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
15
Problems of Urbanization
Chapter Preview
Problem? What Problem?
From Haunts of Vice to Gang Wastelands-and Back
Problems of the Early Industrial City
Problems of the Industrial City
Problems of the Fordist Era
Problems of the Neo-Fordist Era
Slums and Poverty Areas
The Cycle of Poverty
BOX: Poverty, stress, and civil disorder
Poverty Areas
Dual Cities?
Criminal Violence
BOX: A profile of drug indicators: Washington D.C.
Spatial Patterns
BOX: Crime and corruption in the cities of the Russian Federation
The Effects of Crime on Urbanization and Urban Life
BOX: Terrorism and cities
Homelessness
The Causes of Homelessness
Infrastructure and Environmental Problems
Water Supply Problems
Air Pollution
BOX: Lower Manhattan air quality following the collapse of the Twin Towers
BOX: High-speed rail in an integrating Europe
Infrastructure Crisis
BOX: London's traffic congestion charge
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
16
The Politics of Change: Urbanization and Urban Governance
Chapter Preview
BOX: Urban governance
Laissez-faire: Government and Politics in the Mercantile City (1790-1840)
Municipal Socialism and the Rise of Machine Politics (1840-1875)
Boosterism and the Politics of Reform (1875-1920)
The Progressive Era
Annexation
Metropolitan Fragmentation and the Formation of Progrowth Coalitions (1920-1945)
The Consequences of Metropolitan Fragmentation
The Urban Legacies of the New Deal
Cities as Growth Machines and Service Providers (1945-1973)
Growth Machines and Urban Renewal
Backlash: Grassroots Activism and Protest
BOX: Milwaukee demolishes the "freeway to nowhere"
Black power and black politics
Reform: The Struggle for Social Justice and Spatial Equity
Reapportionment
Fragmentation compounded: special districts
Social justice and spatial equity in municipal service delivery
Fiscal Crisis and Entrepreneurial Politics (1973-present)
BOX: Tax Increment Financing (TIF)
Fiscal Crisis
BOX: America's ailing central cities
Fiscal Retrenchment
The Privatized City
Advantages and disadvantages of privatization
Crisis? What Crisis? Civic Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Image
Strategies for urban economic development
BOX: Urban regeneration in London's docklands
The politics of packaging
Architectural convergence and economic volatility
Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives on Governance, Politics, and Urban Change
The Structure of Local Power
The Role of the Local State
Patterns of Local Conflict
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
17
Urban Policy and Planning
Chapter Preview
The Roots of Urban Policy and Planning
BOX: The visible legacy of urban policy and planning in European cities
	Themes and Perspectives
The Beginning: Philanthropy and Reform
Early European Traditions
Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Concept
Patrick Geddes and Scientific Planning
North America: Jacob Riis and the Tenement Commissions
Progressive Era Reforms
	Settlement Houses
	The Park Movement
	The City Beautiful
The City Practical
The New Deal
Fordist Era Policy and Planning
Europe: Planning for Renewal
BOX: Planning the socialist city in Eastern Europe
The United States: Planning for Growth
The Courts and Urban Policy in the United States
	School Desegregation
	Restrictive Covenants
	Civil Rights
	Federal Policy Initiatives
	Evangelical Bureaucrats
Neo-Fordist Policy and Planning
	Neoliberal Approaches to Policy and Planning
		The Property Rights Movement
	Planning as Dealmaking
		Mixed-Use Developments and Cluster Zoning
	Splintering Urbanism and the Artful Fragment: Postmodern Planning
		Place Marketing
BOX: Competitive regionalism
Planning for Healthy and Livable Cities
	Sustainability and Green Urbanism
	Smart Growth
	Metropolitan Governance and Planning
BOX: Metropolitan governance in the Twin Cities
Follow Up
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
18
Urban Futures
Chapter Preview
A Perspective on Future Change
Economic Change
The Globalization of the World Economy
The Next Economic Swings
Demographic Change
Social Change
Cultural Change
Political Change
Future Visions
The Volatility of Urban Systems
Metropolitan Form
Persistent Problems
Key Sources and Suggested Reading
Related World Wide Web Sites
Notes
Glossary
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Urban geography.
Urbanization.