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Contents Preface 1 Urbanization and Urban Geography Chapter Preview The Study of Urban Geography Space, Territoriality, Distance, and Place Approaches to Urban Geography BOX: U.S. Census definitions Urbanization: Processes and Outcomes BOX: Globalization and cities Economic Change BOX: Long-wave economic fluctuations and urbanization Demographic Change Political Change Cultural Change Technological Change Environmental Change Social Change The Plan of the Book Follow Up Related World Wide Web Sites 2 The Origins and Growth of Cities Chapter Preview The Definition of a City BOX: A summary of Childe's characteristics of urban civilization Preconditions for Urbanization Theories of Urban Origins Agricultural Surplus Hydrological Factors Population Pressures Trading Requirements Defense Needs Religious Causes A More Comprehensive Explanation Urban Origins Mesopotamia Egypt The Indus Valley Northern China Mesoamerica Internal Structure of the Earliest Cities BOX: Internal structure of the earliest cities Urban Expansion from the Regions of Urban Origin BOX: The Silk Road: Long-distance trade and urban expansion between about 500 B.C. and 1500 A.D. The Roots of European Urban Expansion Greek Cities Roman Cities Dark Ages Urban Revival in Europe during the Medieval Period BOX: Hanseatic League cities Urban Expansion and Consolidation during the Renaissance and Baroque Periods Urbanization and the Industrial Revolution BOX: Manchester: Shock City of European industrialization BOX: Residential segregation in mid-nineteenth century Glasgow, Scotland Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 3 The Foundations of the American Urban System Chapter Preview Frontier Urbanization The Mercantile Epoch (1790-1840) BOX: Vance's mercantile model Early Industrial Expansion and Realignment (1840-1875) BOX: Immigrant housing conditions and the American city, 1840-1875 Some Principles of Urban Growth Interpreting and Analyzing the Urban Hierarchy and the Central Place System The rank-size rule Innovation and urban growth Central place theory Beyond consumer hinterlands The Organization of Industry (1875-1920) Understanding and Analyzing Uneven Urban Development Urban-industrial growth as a self-propelling process Modifying processes Early Fordism, the Automobile Era, Suburban Infill, and the Great Depression (1920-1945) A Critical Turn for Urbanization: The Depression and Macroeconomic Management Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 4 Urban Systems in Transition Chapter Preview Freeways, Regional Decentralization, and Metropolitan Consolidation (1945-1972) Economic Crisis and Neo-Fordist Urban Restructuring (1972-1983) Urban Distress Neo-Fordist Economic Restructuring and the Emergence of "Informational" Cities (1983-present) BOX: The digital divide and splintering urbanism in the United States Globalization, Splintering Urbanism, and Uneven Development Economic Functions within the Urban Hierarchy World cities Regional command and control centers Specialized producer-service centers Dependent centers BOX: Variations in the quality of life within the U.S. urban system BOX: Contemporary European Urbanization Demographic and Social Change in the Postwar Urban Systems The baby boomers The post-boomers/young adults The elderly The new immigrants Concepts of Urban System Change: Counterurbanization, Deurbanization, and Reurbanization BOX: The deurbanization scenario in the United States? Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 5 The Foundations of Urban Form and Land Use Chapter Preview The Mercantile City (before 1840) Models of the Mercantile City The Early Industrial City (1840-1875) Urbanization and the Public Interest Instruments of Change: Horsecars and Railroads Horescars Railroads The Industrial City (1875-1920) Economic Specialization and the Reorganization of Urban Space Framing the City: Networked Infrastructures The Emergence of Zoning Laws The Suburban Explosion: Streetcar Suburbs Rapid transit Mass Transport and Real Estate Development Urban Structure in the Industrial Era Central Business Districts Department Stores and Shopping Districts Downtown Office Districts Warehouse Zones City Halls and Civic Pride The Spatial Organization of CBDs Land Values and Urban Land Use BOX: The bid-rent theory of urban land use Sectors and Zones Filtering and Vacancy Chains Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 6 Changing Metropolitan Form Chapter Preview Suburban Infill (1920-1945) Fordism Paving the Way for Suburbanization Parkways The Decline of Mass Transit Patterns of Suburban Growth Automobile Suburbs Planned Suburbs Suburbanization and Federal Policy Suburbanization of Commerce and Industry New Patterns of Land Use Freeways and Metropolitan Sprawl (1945-1972) The Preconditions for Sprawl The Fordist Suburb Suburban Production and Consumption Spaces Central City Land Use Neo-Fordist Development (1973-Present) Splintering Urbanism The Polycentric Metropolis BOX: Boomburbs and "Generica" BOX: Japanese Cities: Tokyo and the Tokaido Megalopolis BOX: Australian Edge Cities? The End of "Suburbia" Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 7 Urbanization in the Less Developed Countries Chapter Preview Urbanization Trends and Projections: The Less Developed Countries in Global Context BOX: Core, semi-periphery, and periphery in the world system Factors promoting Urban Growth Theories of Urbanization and Economic Development 1. Modernization Theories: The Developmental Approach 2. Urban Bias and Underdevelopment BOX: A model of peripheral urbanization 3. New Models for the less developed countries: Opportunities for development An Historical Perspective on Colonial Urbanization BOX: Delhi: The evolution of an imperial city Indigenous Urbanization at the Eve of the European Encounters Mercantile Colonialism Industrial Colonialism BOX: Generalized model of the co-evolution of transportation networks and urban hierarchies in a colonial context Late Colonialism Early Independence Neo-Colonialism Overurbanization and Megacities Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 8 Urban Form and Land Use in the Less Developed Countries Chapter Preview Patterns of Urban Form and Land Use Latin American Cities African Cities 1. The indigenous (native) city 2. The Islamic city 3. The colonial (administrative) city 4. The 'European' city BOX: South African Cities 5. The dual city 6. The hybrid city Islamic Cities BOX: Contemporary Islamic cities and the imprints of globalization South Asian Cities Southeast Asian Cities East Asian Cities BOX: Shanghai and the Pudong New Area: The 'Dragon Head' of China's Economy? BOX: Hong Kong's Extended Metropolitan Region: The Pearl River Delta Region Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 9 Urban Problems and Responses in the Less Developed Countries Chapter Preview Urban Problems Poverty Inadequate Housing Lack of Urban Services BOX: HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African cities Transportation Problems BOX: How rationing can backfire: The 'Day without a Car' regulation in Mexico City Environmental Degradation Responses to the Problems of Urbanization Sustainable Urban Development The 'Globalization Paradox' and Recent Changes in Urban Governance 1. Decentralization and formal government reforms 2. Participation of local communities in urban policy-making and implementation BOX: Different levels of participation in urban policy-making and implementation BOX: Urban social movements and the role of women 3. Multi-level governance and public-private partnerships 4. Process-oriented and area-based policies Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 10 The City as Text: Architecture and Urban Design Chapter Preview Architecture and the Dynamics of Urban Change Architecture and Exchange Value Architecture and the Circulation of Capital Architecture and Legitimation Meaning and Symbolism Architecture versus "Mere Building" The Style of Production/The Production of Style Arcadian Classicism and the "Middle Landscape" Public Parks Commercial Confusion Beaux Arts and the City Beautiful The American Way: Skyscrapers Modernism: Design for Utopia Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau The Early Modernists The Bauhaus and the Modern Movement Le Corbusier An American Response The International Style and Late Modernism The Critique of Modernism The Postmodern Interlude Postmodernism and Neo-Fordism Packaged Landscapes New (Retro) Urbanism Design for Dystopia Fortress L.A. Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 11 The Urban Development Process Chapter Preview Property, Location, Rent, and Investment BOX: Concepts of rent A Typology of Investment in Land and Property Property as a Financial Asset The Structures of Building Provision City Makers Landowners Speculators Developers Builders Consumers Real estate agents, financiers, and other facilitators Government agencies BOX: Brownfield redevelopment Market Responses of the Development Industry BOX: Urban development is less and less a local activity New Products Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 12 The Residential Kaleidoscope Chapter Preview Social Interaction and Residential Segregation Territoriality The Foundations of Residential Segregation Social status Household type BOX: The social construction of race Ethnicity BOX: Social exclusion and migrant workers in West European cities Lifestyle BOX: How segregated are urban neighborhoods? Interpretations of Residential Ecology The Chicago School: Human Ecology Criticisms of Human Ecology BOX: Factorial ecology BOX: Residential and economic structure in European cities Urbanization and changing social structures Recent Changes to the Foundations of Residential Segregation BOX: The ethnoburb: A new suburban ethnic settlement New Divisions of Labor, New Household Types, and New Lifestyles New roles for women New patterns of household formation Increased materialism and new lifestyles BOX: "Inconspicuous Consumption" during the 1990s The spatial isolation of the vulnerable and disadvantaged The New Mosaic: Attempting to identify "Lifestyle" Communities Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 13 How Neighborhoods Change Chapter Preview Neighborhood Change Redevelopment and Reinvestment Neighborhood Lifecycles BOX: Stability and change: a typology of neighborhoods Housing Markets Urbanization and the Tenure Transformation Housing Affordability Public Housing BOX: Public and private housing in European cities Housing Submarkets BOX: Neighborhood stability in West European cities Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change Rates of Turnover: Movers and Stayers The Impact of New Arrivals to the City Intraurban Moves Reasons for Moving Understanding Household Behavior: The Decision to Move Understanding Household Behavior: The Search for Alternative Places to Live Concepts that Link Mobility with Neighborhood Change Housing Market Gatekeepers, Bias, and Discrimination Real Estate Agents as Social Gatekeepers Mortgage Finance Managers as Social Gatekeepers Insurance Agents as Social Gatekeepers Putting It All Together: The Example of Gentrification Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 14 Urbanization, Urban Life, and Urban Spaces Chapter Preview Social Life In Cities Theoretical Interpretations of Urban Life BOX: "Sex and the City:" Prostitution The "Moral Order" of City Life Anomie and Deviant Behavior Liberating Aspects of Urban Life Urbanism as a Way of Life The public and private worlds of city life BOX: Homosexuality and the city Changing Metropolitan Form and New Forms of Urbanism Urban villages Suburban communality, "habitus," and postmodern lifestyles Community and Territory Cognition, perception, and mental maps of the city Appraisive Images BOX: Disability and the city Lifeworlds and the "Structuration" of Social Life Time-Space Routines BOX: Structuration: time and space in everyday life Gendered Spaces: Women, Home, and Community The Creation of Women's Spaces Changing Roles, Changing Spaces BOX: Domestic discrimination by design: Architecture and gender differences Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 15 Problems of Urbanization Chapter Preview Problem? What Problem? From Haunts of Vice to Gang Wastelands-and Back Problems of the Early Industrial City Problems of the Industrial City Problems of the Fordist Era Problems of the Neo-Fordist Era Slums and Poverty Areas The Cycle of Poverty BOX: Poverty, stress, and civil disorder Poverty Areas Dual Cities? Criminal Violence BOX: A profile of drug indicators: Washington D.C. Spatial Patterns BOX: Crime and corruption in the cities of the Russian Federation The Effects of Crime on Urbanization and Urban Life BOX: Terrorism and cities Homelessness The Causes of Homelessness Infrastructure and Environmental Problems Water Supply Problems Air Pollution BOX: Lower Manhattan air quality following the collapse of the Twin Towers BOX: High-speed rail in an integrating Europe Infrastructure Crisis BOX: London's traffic congestion charge Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 16 The Politics of Change: Urbanization and Urban Governance Chapter Preview BOX: Urban governance Laissez-faire: Government and Politics in the Mercantile City (1790-1840) Municipal Socialism and the Rise of Machine Politics (1840-1875) Boosterism and the Politics of Reform (1875-1920) The Progressive Era Annexation Metropolitan Fragmentation and the Formation of Progrowth Coalitions (1920-1945) The Consequences of Metropolitan Fragmentation The Urban Legacies of the New Deal Cities as Growth Machines and Service Providers (1945-1973) Growth Machines and Urban Renewal Backlash: Grassroots Activism and Protest BOX: Milwaukee demolishes the "freeway to nowhere" Black power and black politics Reform: The Struggle for Social Justice and Spatial Equity Reapportionment Fragmentation compounded: special districts Social justice and spatial equity in municipal service delivery Fiscal Crisis and Entrepreneurial Politics (1973-present) BOX: Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Fiscal Crisis BOX: America's ailing central cities Fiscal Retrenchment The Privatized City Advantages and disadvantages of privatization Crisis? What Crisis? Civic Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Image Strategies for urban economic development BOX: Urban regeneration in London's docklands The politics of packaging Architectural convergence and economic volatility Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives on Governance, Politics, and Urban Change The Structure of Local Power The Role of the Local State Patterns of Local Conflict Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 17 Urban Policy and Planning Chapter Preview The Roots of Urban Policy and Planning BOX: The visible legacy of urban policy and planning in European cities Themes and Perspectives The Beginning: Philanthropy and Reform Early European Traditions Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Concept Patrick Geddes and Scientific Planning North America: Jacob Riis and the Tenement Commissions Progressive Era Reforms Settlement Houses The Park Movement The City Beautiful The City Practical The New Deal Fordist Era Policy and Planning Europe: Planning for Renewal BOX: Planning the socialist city in Eastern Europe The United States: Planning for Growth The Courts and Urban Policy in the United States School Desegregation Restrictive Covenants Civil Rights Federal Policy Initiatives Evangelical Bureaucrats Neo-Fordist Policy and Planning Neoliberal Approaches to Policy and Planning The Property Rights Movement Planning as Dealmaking Mixed-Use Developments and Cluster Zoning Splintering Urbanism and the Artful Fragment: Postmodern Planning Place Marketing BOX: Competitive regionalism Planning for Healthy and Livable Cities Sustainability and Green Urbanism Smart Growth Metropolitan Governance and Planning BOX: Metropolitan governance in the Twin Cities Follow Up Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites 18 Urban Futures Chapter Preview A Perspective on Future Change Economic Change The Globalization of the World Economy The Next Economic Swings Demographic Change Social Change Cultural Change Political Change Future Visions The Volatility of Urban Systems Metropolitan Form Persistent Problems Key Sources and Suggested Reading Related World Wide Web Sites Notes Glossary Index
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