Table of contents for Astronomy : journey to the cosmic frontier / John D. Fix.

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Part 1 The Journey Begins
Journey's Start, 3
Patterns in the Sky, 17
Ancient Astronomy, 37
Later Greek Astronomy, 45
Aristarchus, 45
Eratosthenes, 48
Hipparchus, 49
Ptolemy, 50
Chinese and Mesoamerican Astronomy, 52
Chinese Astronomy, 52
Mesoamerican Astronomy, 53
chapter 4
Renaissance Astronomy, 57
Astronomy After Ptolemy, 58
Islamic Astronomy, 58
The Rebirth of Astronomy in Europe, 58
Copernicus, 60
The Heliocentric Model, 61
Tycho Brahe-The Great Observer, 65
Kepler and Planetary Orbits, 68
Kepler's First Law, 68
Kepler's Second Law, 68
Kepler's Third Law, 70
Galileo and the Telescope, 70
The Observations, 71
The Dialogue, 71
chapter 5
Gravity and Motion, 79
Force and Motion Before Newton, 80
Galileo's Experiments, 80
Descartes and Inertial Motion, 80
Planetary Motion Before Newton, 82
Kepler's Explanation, 82
Robert Hooke, 82
Isaac Newton, 83
The Laws of Motion, 83
Gravity, 85
Newton's Analysis, 86
Foreword, xv
Preface, xvii
Guided Tour, xxii
Part 1 The Journey Begins
chapter 1
Journey's Start, 3
Evening, 4
The Moving Sky, 4
The Terrestrial Coordinate System, 5
The Celestial Sphere, 7
Angles, 8
The Horizon System, 9
2 A.M., 11
chapter 2
Patterns in the Sky, 17
The Daily Motion of the Sky, 18
The Apparent Motion of the Sun, 21
The Seasons, 23
Time, 26
The Phases of the Moon, 28
The Motion of the Moon, 30
The Motions of the Planets, 31
chapter 3
Ancient Astronomy, 37
Mesopotamian Astronomy, 38
Egyptian Astronomy, 40
Early Greek Astronomy, 40
The Astronomers of Miletus, 40
Pythagoras and His Students, 42
Eudoxus, 42
Aristotle, 43
The Apple and the Moon, 87
The Law of Gravitation, 87
Elliptical Orbits, 88
Force at a Distance, 91
Orbital Energy and Speed, 91
Orbital Speed, 91
Escape Velocity, 92
The Four Kinds of Trajectories, 93
Tides, 93
Differences in Gravity, 94
Solid Earth Tides, 95
Ocean Tides, 95
chapter 6
Light and Telescopes, 101
Waves, 102
Electromagnetic Waves, 102
The Spectrum, 103
The Doppler Effect, 104
Photons, 105
Reflection and Refraction, 107
Reflection, 107
Refraction, 108
Dispersion, 108
Optical Telescopes, 109
Refractors, 109
Reflectors, 110
Forming an Image, 111
Detectors, 112
Notable Optical Telescopes, 115
Optical Observatories, 117
Modern Observatories, 119
Space Observatories, 120
Optical Observations, 121
Infrared and Ultraviolet Observations, 121
X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Observations, 122
Radio Telescopes, 123
Radio Interferometry, 123
Part 2 Journey Through the Solar System
chapter 7
Overview of the Solar System, 131
Solar System Inventory, 132
The Abundance of the Elements, 132
Gases, 133
Atoms in Motion, 133
Density and Pressure, 135
Radiation and Matter, 137
Blackbody Radiation, 137
Thermal Equilibrium, 140
Temperatures in the Solar System, 140
Nuclear Reactions and Radioactivity, 142
Nuclei and Nuclear Particles, 142
Nuclear Reactions, 142
Radioactivity, 144
Internal Heat in Planets, 145
Radioactive Heating, 145
Accretional Heating, 145
Flow of Heat, 146
Planetology, 147
chapter 8
The Earth, 153
Rotation and Revolution, 154
Aberration, 154
The Foucault Pendulum, 155
"Centrifugal Force," 155
Coriolis Effect, 156
Surface, 157
The Age of the Earth and Its Rocks, 158
Minerals and Rocks, 159
Oceans and Continents, 160
Interior, 160
Probing the Interior, 160
Internal Structure, 163
Plate Tectonics, 164
Atmosphere, 168
Composition, 168
Thermal Structure, 168
Human Changes, 170
Magnetosphere, 171
Van Allen Belts, 172
Structure of Magnetosphere, 172
Evolution of the Earth, 173
Development of the Core, 173
Oceans, 174
Atmosphere, 174
chapter 9
The Moon, 181
Revolution and Rotation, 182
The Month, 182
Synchronous Rotation, 182
The Orbit and Size of the Moon, 183
Eclipses, 184
Eclipses as Omens, 186
The Viking and Pathfinder Landers, 248
The Viking Landers, 248
Pathfinder, 249
The Atmosphere of Mars, 251
The Interior and Evolution of Mars, 254
Water on Mars, 256
Life on Mars, 258
The Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets, 259
chapter 12
Jupiter and Saturn, 265
Jupiter and Saturn, 267
Basic Properties, 267
Atmospheres, 270
Interiors, 277
The Internal Energy of Jupiter and Saturn, 278
Magnetospheres, 279
Rings, 279
chapter 13
The Outer Planets, 291
Discoveries, 292
Uranus, 292
Neptune, 292
Pluto, 293
Uranus and Neptune, 294
Basic Properties, 294
Atmospheres, 295
Internal Structure, 297
Magnetic Fields and Magnetospheres, 299
Rings, 300
Pluto, 304
Basic Properties, 304
Charon, 305
Surface and Atmosphere, 306
The History of Pluto, 306
The View from Pluto, 307
Planet X, 308
Searches, 308
Gravitational Detection, 308
chapter 14
Satellites, 313
Kinds of Satellites, 314
Eclipses and Shadows, 186
Predicting Eclipses, 189
Tides, 191
Tides and the Earth's Rotation, 191
Tides and the Moon's Orbit, 192
The Moon's Surface, 193
Observations from the Earth, 193
Exploration of the Moon, 193
Lunar Craters, 194
Volcanic Features, 196
Lunar Samples, 196
Chemical Composition, 196
Ages of Lunar Samples, 197
Ages and Cratering, 197
The Moon's Atmosphere, 198
Density, 198
Gain and Loss of Gases, 199
The Moon's Interior, 199
Mass, 199
The Density of the Moon, 199
Lunar Seismology and Internal Structure, 200
The Origin of the Moon, 200
Fission, Accretion, Capture, 200
The Giant Impact Theory, 201
chapter 10
Mercury and Venus, 207
Mercury, 208
Mercury's Orbit, 208
Surface, 210
Mercury's Interior, 213
Venus, 215
Rotation and Revolution, 216
Venus's Hostile Atmosphere, 216
Surface, 219
Interior, 226
Evolution of Venus, 226
chapter 11
Mars, 233
The Exploration of Mars, 235
The Surface of Mars, 236
The Polar Regions, 246
Regular Satellites, 314
Collision Fragments, 314
Captured Asteroids, 314
Other Satellites, 314
General Properties of Satellites, 314
Density and Composition, 314
Internal Activity, 315
The Satellites of Mars, 316
The Galilean Satellites, 318
Io, 319
Europa, 321
Ganymede, 323
Callisto, 324
The Icy Moons of Saturn, 325
Rhea and Mimas, 326
Dione and Tethys, 327
Iapetus, 328
Enceladus, 328
Titan, 329
Origin of Titan's Atmosphere, 329
Atmospheric Structure, 330
At the Surface of Titan, 330
Satellites of Uranus, 331
Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, and Ariel, 331
Miranda, 332
Satellites of Neptune, 334
Triton, 334
chapter 15
Solar System Debris, 341
Meteors, 342
The Meteor Phenomenon, 342
Sizes of Meteoroids, 343
Meteor Showers, 343
Micrometeorites, 344
Meteorites, 345
How Often Do They Fall?, 346
Kinds of Meteorites, 346
Ages of Meteorites, 348
Parent Bodies of Meteorites, 348
Asteroids, 349
Discovery of Asteroids, 349
Orbits of Asteroids, 350
Classes of Asteroids, 353
Asteroids and Meteorites, 354
Comets, 354
Anatomy of a Comet, 355
Comet Orbits, 357
What Happens to Comets?, 360
Where Did Comets Form?, 362
Collisions with Earth, 363
How Often Do Collisions Occur?, 363
Record of Impacts, 363
Consequences of the Impact, 363
Has This Ever Happened?, 364
Part 3 Journey to the Stars
chapter 16
Basic Properties of Stars, 371
Star Names, 372
The Distances of Stars, 372
Pretelescopic Estimates, 372
Later Estimates, 372
Parallax, 372
The Motions of the Stars, 374
Proper Motions, 374
The Motion of the Sun, 374
The Brightnesses of Stars, 375
Stellar Magnitudes, 375
Absolute Magnitude, 377
Luminosity Functions, 378
Stellar Spectra, 378
Atoms and Spectral Lines, 379
Spectral Classification, 382
The Role of Temperature, 382
Luminosity Class, 384
Chemical Abundances, 384
The Doppler Effect and Stellar Spectra, 385
H-R Diagrams, 386
Stellar Masses, 388
Masses of Binary Stars, 388
The Range of Stellar Masses, 388
The Mass-Luminosity Relation, 389
chapter 17
The Sun, 395
The Internal Structure of the Sun, 396
The Sun's Energy, 397
Some Wrong Answers, 397
Nuclear Reactions, 397
Flow of Energy to the Surface, 399
The Outer Layers of the Sun, 402
The Photosphere, 403
The Chromosphere, 408
The Corona, 409
The Solar Wind, 412
The Vogt-Russell Theorem, 443
Models of Stars, 443
Evolutionary Tracks and Star Clusters, 443
Changing Appearance in the H-R Diagram, 444
H-R Diagrams of Star Clusters, 444
Main Sequence Stars, 446
The Variety of Main Sequence Stars, 446
Main Sequence Lifetime, 448
Evolution on the Main Sequence, 449
After the Main Sequence, 450
Red Giant Stars, 451
Core Helium Burning, 452
The Asymptotic Giant Branch, 455
Very Massive Stars, 458
The Formation of Heavy Elements
in Stars, 459
chapter 20
White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes, 465
White Dwarf Stars, 466
White Dwarfs and Electron Degeneracy, 466
Evolution of White Dwarf Stars, 467
What Is the Origin of White Dwarf Stars?, 468
Neutron Stars, 469
Supernovae, 469
Supernova Remnants, 473
Properties of Neutron Stars, 474
Pulsars, 476
Black Holes, 479
Spacetime, 479
The Formation of a Black Hole, 483
Detecting Black Holes, 485
chapter 21
Binary Star Systems, 491
The Kinds of Binary Stars, 492
Detecting Binary Stars, 492
Multiple Star Systems, 497
The Formation of Binary Systems, 498
Wide Binaries, 498
Close Binaries, 498
The Sunspot Cycle, 414
A Model of the Sunspot Cycle, 415
Solar Mysteries, 417
chapter 18
The Formation of Stars and Planets, 421
Some Important Clues, 422
Clues from Stars, 422
Clues from the Solar System, 422
Star Formation, 422
Giant Molecular Clouds, 422
Cores and Star Formation, 423
Protostars, 425
The Evolution of a Protostar, 425
Rotation and Disks, 426
Young Stars, 427
H-R Diagrams for Young Stars, 427
Winds and Disks, 428
Planetary Systems, 431
The Solar Nebula, 431
chapter 19
The Evolution of Stars, 439
Why Do Stars Evolve?, 440
Energy Generation, 440
Opacity, 442
Equation of State, 442
Evolution of Close Binaries, 499
Evidence for Interaction: The Algol Paradox, 499
Equipotentials, 499
Binaries with Compact Objects, 506
Accretion Disks, 507
Binaries with White Dwarfs, 507
Binaries with Neutron Stars or
Black Holes, 509
Part 4 Journey to the Cosmic Frontier
chapter 22
The Milky Way, 517
Interstellar Matter, 519
Interstellar Gas, 519
Interstellar Dust, 522
The Shape and Size of the Galaxy, 528
Star Counting, 528
The Modern View of the Galaxy, 529
The Rotation of the Milky Way, 532
The Orbit of the Sun, 532
The Rotation Curve of the Galaxy, 532
The Spiral Structure of the Galaxy, 535
Observations of Spiral Structure, 535
Why Is There Spiral Structure?, 536
The Center of the Galaxy, 539
Crowded Stars, 540
The History of the Galaxy, 541
Stellar Populations, 541
Galactic Evolution, 542
chapter 23
Galaxies, 549
The Discovery of Galaxies, 550
Island Universes, 550
Hubble Proves Nebulae Are Galaxies, 551
The Kinds of Galaxies, 552
Elliptical Galaxies, 552
Spiral Galaxies, 553
Irregular Galaxies, 555
Why Are There Different Kinds of Galaxies?, 556
The Rotation of Galaxies, 559
The Cosmic Distance Scale, 561
Primary Distance Indicators, 561
Secondary Distance Indicators, 562
Tertiary Distance Indicators, 562
Hubble's Law, 563
chapter 24
Quasars and Other Active Galaxies, 569
Quasars, 571
The Meaning of Quasar Redshifts, 571
Properties of Quasars, 572
The Active Galaxy Zoo, 576
Seyfert Galaxies, 577
Radio Galaxies, 578
Blazars, 580
IRAS Galaxies, 581
Massive Black Holes and Active Galaxies, 582
Massive Black Holes, 582
Accretion Disks, 583
The Host Galaxy, 586
Evolution of Quasars, 587
Evidence for Evolution, 587
Where Are the Dead Quasars?, 590
Quasars as Probes of the Universe, 590
Absorption Lines, 590
Gravitational Lenses, 591
Gamma Ray Bursts, 592
chapter 25
Galaxy Clusters and the Structure of the Universe, 597
Clusters of Galaxies, 598
Classifying Clusters, 598
Galaxies in Clusters, 604
Other Matter in Clusters, 607
Superclusters and Voids, 609
The Local Supercluster, 609
Other Superclusters, 609
Voids, 609
Why Are There Voids and Sheets?, 611
The Great Attractor, 611
chapter 26
Cosmology, 615
Hubble's Law Revisited, 616
The Expansion Age of the Universe, 616
Cosmological Models, 617
Curvature of Space, 617
Testing Curvature, 620
Three-Dimensional Universes, 621
Distant Supernovae, 624
The Big Bang, 625
When Did the Big Bang Occur?, 626
What Happened?, 626
The Cosmic Background Radiation, 630
Inflation, 632
Problems with the Standard Big Bang, 632
How Inflation Solves the Problems, 633
Why Inflation?, 634
The Fate of the Universe, 635
The Choices, 635
Contraction and Beyond, 635
Continued Expansion, 636
Part 5 The Journey in Search of Life
chapter 27
Life in the Universe, 641
Life, 642
What Is Life?, 642
Life on Earth, 642
Other Possibilities, 642
The Origin and Evolution of Life
on Earth, 643
Life Elsewhere in the Solar System, 644
Life in Other Planetary Systems, 645
Finding Other Planetary Systems, 645
Habitable Planets, 649
Intelligent Life, 650
Interstellar Communication, 651
Travel, 651
Radio Communication, 652
Contents xiii
Appendixes, A-1
1 Mathematical and Physical
Constants, A-1
2 Astronomical Constants, A-1
3 Conversion Factors, A-1
4 Periodic Table of the Elements A-2
5 Orbital Properties of the Planets, A-3
6 Physical Properties of the Planets, A-3
7 Properties of the Satellites of the Planets, A-3
8 Orbital Properties of Selected Asteroids, A-7
9 Orbital Properties of Selected Comets, A-7
10 Properties of Selected Meteor Showers, A-8
11 The Constellations, A-8
12 Stars Nearer Than Four Parsecs, A-10
13 The Brightest Stars, A-11
14 Known and Suspected Members of the Local Group of Galaxies, A-12
15 The Brightest Galaxies Beyond the Local Group, A-13
16 Properties of Selected Clusters of Galaxies, A-13
17 Logarithmic Graphs, A-14
18 Answers to Odd-Numbered
Questions, A-15
Glossary, G-1
References, R-1
Credits, C-1
Index, I-1

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Astronomy -- Textbooks.