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Chapter 1: PREREQUISITES FOR STABILITY, TRIM AND HULL STRENGTH CALCULATIONS The Paradigm of "Actual" vs. "Assumed" Loading Conditions The Study of "Stability, Trim and Hull Strength" vs. "Navigation"-- (An Analogy) Reading the Vessel's Draft Marks They are not just for Navigation. The location of the draft marks "Apparent Draft" vs. "True Draft" Reading Draft Marks Draft Readings and Water Density Brass Loadline Hydrometers vs. Glass Draft Survey Hydrometers Calculating the Correction to Displacement for Density Determining the Mean Draft Some Basic Calculations with the Forward and After Draft Readings Using the Midship Draft Marks Determining the Quarter Mean Draft Corrected for Deflection Calculating Air Drafts The Vessel as Its Own Best Loading Computer An example of using determining Actual vs. Assumed Displacement Protocols in Dealing with Actual Loading Conditions The Capacity Plan Assumptions the Naval Architect or Ship Builder made that you need to know about. Questions PART I. TRANSVERSE STABILITY Chapter 2: What Is Stability? Types of Initial Stability Positive Stability Neutral Stability Negative Stability Six Motions of a Vessel Centers of Gravity and Buoyancy The Couple Righting Moment is the True Measure of a Vessel's Stability Righting Arm as an Indicator of Stability Initial Stability Transverse Metacenter Stable, Neutral, and Unstable Equilibrium Metacentric Height Metacentric Radius Summary Questions Chapter 3: Calculation of the Ship's Vertical Center of Gravity, KG Notation Used in this Chapter What is the Center of Gravity? How is the Center of Gravity located on your vessel? The Light Ship KG and Weight Definition of a Moment Using Theory of Moments to Find KG Calculating GG' (Shift of G) GG' Formula Calculating GG' with Suspended Weight Finding KG When Loading or Discharging Containers and Container Ships: Bays, Tiers and Rows Finding the Vertical Center of Gravity, KG, for the Vessel Required Accuracy of KG Checking Your Calculations for Accuracy: The Total Weight of the Vessel equals its Displacement and corresponding Draft! Revisiting Chapter 1: The Paradigm of "Actual" vs. "Assumed" Loading Conditions Questions Problems Chapter 4: Determining Height of KM Introduction Notation Used in this Chapter Notation Used in previous Chapters KM for the vessel is readily available to the ship's officer. What is KM? Calculating KB Calculating BM Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia for a Rectangular Shape Approximating Moment of Inertia for a Ship's Waterplane Approximating BM for Curved Waterplanes Analysis of Vertical Movement of KM Effect of Vertical Movement of M, on Beam to Draft Ratio Summation of KM Vertical Movement Movement of M with Transverse Inclination Ballasting the Vessel in a Light Draft Condition Questions Problems Chapter 5:Calculating GM What is a Good GM? Stability versus Cargo Stowage Relation of GM to Rolling Period Rolling Period Formula in English Units of Feet Rolling Period Formula in Metric Units of Meters The Roll Test Conducting a Roll Test Rolling Test GM versus Calculated GM The Natural Rolling Period vs. Apparent Rolling Period Your Vessel's Rolling Period at Sea Rolling Period for Different Types of Vessels A CASE STUDY: GM, Roll Angle and Rolling Period Recommended Values of GM for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes A Review of Log Exports from the United States West Coast Overview Vessel Studied Assumed Loaded Condition Calculating Required Restraining Forces for Various Maximum Roll Angles and Rolling Periods Estimating the Vessel's Unrestricted Rolling in Waves Comparison of Vessel's Behavior in Waves and the Total Required Restraining Force Conclusion Proportionate Loss of Stability Effect of Negative GM on Vessels Practical Methods of Calculating GM The Standard Long Form Method Practical Problem Questions Problems Chapter 6: The Inclining Experiment Why Needed on Ships of Similar Design What It Is? Required Gear and Data Performing the Inclining Experiment Derivation of Inclining Experiment Formula Precautions to Take During Experiment An Example of the Inclining Experiment Legal Requirements Practical Applications Transverse Center of Gravity, TCG, and Transverse Heeling Moments The Moment to Heel 1o Questions Problems Chapter 7: Stability at Large Angles of Inclination Effect of GM Cross Curves of Stability vs. Stability Curves Constructing Cross Curves of Stability Drawing the Statical Stability Curve Using GM to Obtain an Accurate Start Correcting for a Vertical Shift of G Correcting for a Change in Displacement Correcting for a Transverse Shift of G Analyzing a Statical Stability Curve Summary Analysis The Effect of Hull form on Righting Arms List in Relation to Statical Stability Curves Angle of Flooding Stability Criteria and Statical Stability Curve Rahola's Intact Stability Criteria also known as IMO Resolution A.167 U. S. Navy Criteria IMO Resolution A562 Stability Requirements in Wind and Waves Questions Problems Chapter 8: Free Surface Free Surface Principles Effect of Surface Dimensions Effect of Specific Gravity Effect of Amount of Liquid in Tank Effect of Weight and Vertical Position of Liquids Free Surface Corrections EXAMPLES in English Units EXAMPLES in Metric Units Free Surface Constants EXAMPLES in English Units EXAMPLES in Metric Units Presentation of Free Surface Data and Method of Calculation Cross-Connection Valve for Deep Tanks Cross-Connection Valve for Fuel Tanks on Small Displacement Vessels Effect on Overall Stability SUDDEN CAPSIZE SYNDROME: a practical exercise and review Understanding Free Surface Effect NUMERICAL EXAMPLE Solution Summary Questions Problems PART II. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY Chapter 9: Trim Definitions Trimming Moments MT1 MTC Change of Trim Caused by Shifted Weight Change of Trim caused by Loaded or Discharged Weights Calculating Exact Distribution of Trim Change Calculating MT1 and MTC Effect of Trim on Draft Readings Trim and Its Effect on Displacement Corrections to Displacement due to Trim in the Metric System Corrections to Displacement due to Trim in the English System Correcting Calculated Displacement for Observed Water Density Correcting Calculated Drafts for Water Density A Change in Water Density Can Also Change Your Vessel's Trim Trim Effects Passing from Salt to Fresh Water Effects of Trim on Transverse Stability Change of Trim Due to Large Weights LCG Method of Trim Calculation Working the LCG Method Backward to find the Vessel's Actual LCG Illustrative Trim Problems Summary Questions Thought Problems Problems Using Deadweight Scale Problems Using Deadweight Scale PART III. HULL STRENGTH Chapter 10: Longitudinal Hull Strength The Ship as a Structure Strength of the Structure Strength of Materials Preliminary Stress Definitions Why is steel the major material used in building ships? Properties of Metals Stresses on a Loaded Beam What Causes the Deflection of the Beam? What Limits the Deflection of a Beam? What Is the Strength Equation? Longitudinal Strength of Ships Beam Theory of Ship's Strength The Application of Beam Theory to the Vessel A Still Water, (protected harbor), Condition A Severe Sea Condition Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Important Characteristics of Shear and Bending Moment Curves Shear and Bending Moment Curves for a Ship in Waves Summary of Longitudinal Strength Calculations The Midship Section Plan Structural Tests on Ships Applied Longitudinal Hull Strength Aboard Ship Recommendations To Avoid Overloading of Bulk Carrier Structures Influence of an error in loading Conditions to be Satisfied for Correct Loading Loading manual Maximum draft Maximum allowable weights in each individual hold Maximum level of water in some holds Maximum Allowable Still Water Bending Moments (ASWBM) and Maximum Allowable Still Water Shear Forces (ASWSF) Loading conditions for which the ship has been approved Minimum draft in way of a hold being loaded with cargo Port limitations Loading Instrument Precautions to Avoid Inadvertent Loading Preparation of the sequence of loading pour by pour General precautions to follow the complete loading sequence Trimming Block loading Unloading Damage by the unloading tools Change of ballast at sea Conclusion The Loading Plan Questions PART IV APPLICATI0NS Chapter 11: Shipboard Computers and the Approved Stability Booklet Evolution of the Loading Computer Ralston Stability and Trim Indicator Trimogage Stabilogauge Deck, Holds and Deep Tanks and Double Bottom Tanks Need for New Loading Computers Lodicator Loadoscope Mk 2 1985 to 1995: Personal Computers Going to Sea A WORD OF CAUTION! 1995 to 2000: The Age of the Internet and Cellular Telephones 2000 and the future: Wireless Internet Advantages of Loading Computers The Approved Trim and Stability Booklet Summary Chapter 12: The Ship in the Damaged Condition The Damaged Condition Damaged Condition Due to Collision High Energy Collisions Moderate Energy Collisions Low Energy Collisions Effect of Flooding on Transverse Stability Lost Buoyancy Method Added Weight Method Remedial Measures to Improve Transverse Stability Dangerous Effect of Flooded Wing Compartments Added Weight Method Using the Statical Stability Curve Summary: Damage on Transverse Stability Effect of Grounding on Stability Effect of Flooding on Reserve Buoyancy What Is Reserve Buoyancy? Floodable Length Curves What Is the Factor of Subdivision? Compartment Standard How the Ship's Officer Uses Floodable Length Curves? Effect of Permeability on Floodable Length Example Approximating Permeability of a Space Longitudinal Hull Strength and the Damaged Condition How Fast Will a Ship Sink? Questions Chapter 13: Practical Stability and Trim Considerations I. Practical Considerations Factors Affecting the Rolling of Ships Transverse Sliding Force Forces due to Angular Acceleration Effect of GM Effect of Draft and Displacement Effect of Mass Moment of Inertia Effect of Synchronized Rolling Anti-rolling Devices and Their Effect Bilge Keels Anti-rolling Tanks Anti-rolling Fins Gyroscopic Stabilizers What is a Good GM? Purpose of Ballasting Ensuring Safety with a Small GM II. How to Plan to Load a Ship to Obtain Desired or Required GM and Trim Outline of the Method Practical Example of the Method III. How to Load a Ship to Obtain Desired or Required GM and Trim Loading a Log Ship Four Things that Keep the Logs on Deck A Good GM The System of Lashing Avoiding Overloading the Logs Stowed on Deck Good Seamanship Loading the Vessel Practical Example of a Draft Check near the Completion of Loading Chapter 14: Stability Requirements for Vessels Loading Bulk Grain What Is the National Cargo Bureau? Services Performed by NCB Educational Services Provided by NCB Background Information Concerning Bulk Grain Definitions Concerning Bulk Grain Cargo Assumptions Concerning Bulk Grain Cargo Heeling Moments Produced by a Grain Shift Volumetric Heeling Moments and the Metric System Calculations of Volumetric Heeling Moments Allowance for a Vertical Shift of Grain Stability Regulations for Loading Bulk Grain Determining Maximum Allowable Heeling Moment Table of Allowable Heeling Moments Interpolation and Allowable Heeling Moment Tables Specially Suitable Ships Dispensation from Trimming the Ends Important Assumptions for "Existing Specially Suitable Ships" under Section V(B) Stability Criteria for Section V(B) Specially Suitable Ships Proving Compliance with Section V(B). Tables of Required GM. Tank Vessels Carrying Bulk Grain Comparison of Regulations Grain Stability Booklets Document of Authorization Certificate of Readiness NCB Grain Stability Calculation Form Front Page Second Page, Part I Third Page, Part II Departure Condition Intermediate Condition Arrival Condition Fourth Page, Part III Top Section Center Section Constructing and Measuring a Statical Stability Diagram Bottom Section Units, Trim and Drafts At the Completion of Loading Preloading Planning Calculations Bulk Carriers and Panama Canal Draft Calculations Certificate of Loading and U.S. Coast Guard Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular No. 5-94. Chapter 15: Marine Disasters The Fire and Capsizing of the Normandie The Grounding and Capsizing of Patti-B SS Silver Dove-Cargo Shift and Sinking SS Sea Witch and SS Esso Brussels-A Moderate Energy Collision Loss of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald Loss of the SS Yellowstone--Insufficient Reserve Buoyancy Additional U.S. Coast Guard Casualty Reports on the Internet Commercial Fishing Continues to Rank At or Near the Top of the Most Hazardous Occupations in the United States. Sources Chapter 16: U.S Coast Guard Questions on Stability, Trim and Longitudinal Hull Strength Merchant Mariner Information Center New & Revised Exam Questions Deck Exam Questions Materials Allowed in the Exam Room Calculators Typical Examination Processes Assessment Guidelines: MASTER, ANY GROSS REGISTERED TONS, OCEANS Multiple Choice Questions with Answers General Deck Questions (Book 2) Safety Questions (Book 4) Tabular Questions with Answers General Deck Tabular Questions (Book 2) Safety Tabular Questions (Book 4) Safety Questions (Book 4): That Require Materials Allowed in the Exam Room Getting Ready to Sit for Your USCG License Appendix A: Merchant Marine Deck Examination Reference Material Stability Data Reference Book Appendix B: M/V HUDSON--Stability Letter Appendix C: M/V SURVEYOR--Stability Letter Appendix D: Useful Stability and Trim Formulas Appendix E: Conversion Factors and Useful Information for Stability and Trim Calculations Appendix F: Instructions for Draft Survey Hydrometer
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Stability of ships.
Trim of ships (Equilibrium).